Adolf Hitler speaks at an emergency meeting of the Reichstag on September 1, 1939
"Crusade" of the West against Russia. Hitler perfectly understood the danger of war on two fronts. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1941, the Führer went to such a war, leaving behind a battered but not broken England behind.
Who helped Hitler
Adolf Hitler helped come to power. Without organizational and financial support from the powers that be, the Nazis had no chance of coming to power in Germany. Our liberals blamed the Communists and Stalin. But Soviet Russia had no reason to support Hitler. And there were no resources for this.
Financial injections into the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) came from the United States. The financial capital of America needed a big war, and Hitler acted as the instigator of such a war, and the Reich became a battering ram to destroy the old order in Europe. Hitler was supported by London, the British aristocracy and financial circles. The British were playing their game. They needed a possessed Fuhrer against the growing Russians and in the game against the United States. The British Empire did not want to be a junior partner of the United States. Therefore, London literally crushed the Munich agreement, giving him Czechoslovakia. Prior to this, the British closed their eyes to the Anschluss of Austria. And in 1939, England allowed Hitler to crush Poland, expecting him to go further to the East.
Thus, in this wolf time (it is the same now) everyone tried to use each other in a big game.
Why did Hitler unleash a great war
From the very beginning of the great war in Europe (Germany against Britain and France with their colonial empires that spread across the planet), Germany’s military-economic situation was hopeless. And when the Soviet Union and the USA came out against Germany, then even more so. Why did Hitler climb into the war? With all the shortcomings of the Fuhrer, he was a cut above his generals in matters of military strategy and the economics of war. The Germans were not ready for a major war either in 1939 or later. The generals also knew this, so they were afraid when Hitler renounced the Versailles restrictions, occupied the Rhine demilitarized zone, captured Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. They knew about the Reich’s weakness, and so feared that several high-level military conspiracies arose against the Fuhrer in order to save Germany from a new military catastrophe.
The point was that Hitler knew more than his generals. He did not intend to wage a classic protracted war to deplete all forces and resources, following the example of the First World War. He relied on the fact that he would be given everything he wanted. The Führer knew that the owners of London and Washington wanted to start a big war, a "crusade" to the East. Therefore, the great powers turn a blind eye to the aggression of the Reich in Western, Southern, Northern and Eastern Europe. He will be allowed to create a "Hitler's European Union", to unite the military-economic, human potential of Europe, aimed against the USSR.
Therefore, the Fuhrer did not give a damn about the sober and rational calculations of his generals. He acted with incredible audacity, conducting lightning-fast local operations one after another. From 1936 to March 1939, Hitler, avoiding a war with the great powers of Europe, which he would inevitably lose with a bang, annexed the Rhine region, Austria, the Sudetenland, Czech Republic-Bohemia and Klaipeda Territory to his empire. The German leader also resolved the “Spanish question” in his favor by providing armed assistance to General Franco.
Adolf Hitler welcomes German troops crossing the bridge over the San River (the right tributary of the Vistula) in the Yaroslav region of Poland. First right: Colonel General Walter von Brauchitsch, Commander-in-Chief of the Wehrmacht Ground Forces. September 1939
Lack of readiness for war
At the same time, the Third Reich at that time was weaker than the Second Reich of the 1914 model: the armed forces were in the process of formation and greatly inferior to the forces of France and England (plus allies throughout Europe); Germany was sandwiched between strong opponents from the West, South and East; the fleet was weak; human and material resources were inferior to the huge colonial empires of France and Britain; the Germans did not have oil, metal, and a mass of strategic resources for a big war, not even enough coal. Aluminum is in short supply, the problem with non-ferrous metals, timber, the lack of locomotive fleets, etc. For example, Germany imported up to 75% of good iron ore from outside, from France and Norway. Oil was in short supply. It was necessary to save on everything and to develop the production of synthetic fuel, which did not cover even a third of the needs (it was planned to deploy a full-fledged sector for the production of synthetic fuel only by the mid-40s). Hitler didn’t even have enough soldiers. The Nazis constantly faced the problem of replenishing losses on the Russian front and the need to preserve skilled workers for industry.
That is, from the very beginning, Germany was doomed to the position of a suicide bomber, who could inflict terrible damage to enemies with the first blows, but was doomed to die in a protracted struggle. The war, in terms of material preparedness, was suicide for the Reich. Even in terms of the readiness of the military-industrial complex, the Germans were unprepared for a world war. Their military programs in 1938 were designed to be completed in 1943-1945. And the rearmament of the ground forces, and the Air Force, and the creation of a powerful fleet. By 1945, they planned to complete the modernization of the railways. None of the programs were completed in 1939. And when the war began, and most importantly (!) Became protracted, the Germans began to improvise. And they achieved a lot, but they could not interrupt the basic conditions.
The entire stock of ammunition planned for Operation Barbarossa (the rout and occupation of Russia) had already been spent by August 1, 1941. Contrary to the myth created by the cinema, where German soldiers are completely armed with machine guns and easily shoot the Red Army with old rifles (or one rifle for three), the Nazis lacked a small automatic weapons. Therefore, often used trophy from Western Europe, or Russian. The German army lacked explosives, aerial bombs, aircraft and aircraft engines, etc.
Hitler started a war without mobilizing the economy and people into a total war. This will happen later, under the influence of defeats on the Russian front. The Reich economy was aimed at small, local wars. For the preparation of the war with Soviet Russia, the preparation was more thorough, but even without a total mobilization, the population almost did not notice it. And soon after the outbreak of war with the USSR, the release of certain types of military equipment was even reduced in anticipation that the war would end soon. The occupation of Europe was not used for total mobilization. Took mostly ready-made, available in the arsenals: French and Czech Tanks, French planes, motor vehicles, small arms, etc. Hitler believed in a “lightning war”, which in the East will be the same as in Western Europe.
Hitler examines the French tank Char B1-bis No. 442, destroyed near the town of Fim. To the right of Hitler is the Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler. June 1940
Thus, Hitler’s hyperstrategy is a belief in a “miracle”, a blitzkrieg, running along a razor’s edge. It's hard to believe, because the Germans are considered very rational. But the fact is that the Führer had quite rational foundations for such a strategy.
This is the answer to the two “strange” years - 1940 and 1941. In particular, the “strange” war of England and France against Germany. The answer to the question of why Hitler did not finish England, although he had every opportunity to do so. So, the Fuhrer could relatively easily capture Gibraltar, closing the Mediterranean to Britain; occupy Egypt and Suez. That is, to sharply worsen the connection of England with Persia and India. To take control of Turkey and Persia, creating a threat to the rule of the British in India. And there you could enter into a direct relationship with the Japanese. To create a real threat of landing an army on the English islands, and force London to go to a separate world. After that, it was already possible to attack the USSR. Or agree with Stalin on the division of the world.
In reality, Hitler made one fatal mistake after another, although he was not crazy. He perfectly understood the danger of war on two fronts. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1941, Hitler went to such a war, leaving behind a battered, but not broken England, its powerful fleet. At the same time, the Germans fought a war in the Mediterranean. As a result, the Reich fought on three fronts!
It is also worth noting that Stalin received warnings about the Reich attack through various channels. The timing was different, but the essence is the same - Germany is attacking Russia. But the Soviet leader stubbornly believed that in 1941 there would be no war. Stalin was also not a fool, according to his own enemies, he was one of the greatest statesmen in stories of humanity. Stalin cannot be blamed for negligence. That is, the Kremlin quite reasonably expected that Hitler would first solve the problem of the second front, England. And only after that we can wait for the war. In addition, the Soviet government had all the data on the economy and armed forces of Germany. The conclusions were clear: the Third Reich is not ready for a long war. The suicidal Blitzkrieg strategy we see now was then obvious stupidity. Hitler was considered a very smart and dangerous enemy.
One explanation - Hitler hoped for peace and even a secret alliance with Britain. In England, a pro-German party was strong, London and Berlin could divide the planet into spheres of influence. The Hitlerite elite was brought up on British ideals, British racism, the ideas of eugenics (improvement, selection of the human race) and social Darwinism. The British were considered part of the German family, the Aryans. The Anglo-Saxon colonial model was the benchmark for the Nazis, when several thousand masters held millions of natives in obedience. Britain was seen in Berlin as the most ideal ally. Hence the pre-war financing of Hitler by England, secret contacts with representatives of the British elite, the secret of the flight of Rudolf Hess (The mystery of the death of Rudolf Hess).
Why Hitler did not seriously fight England
Hitler seriously believed that the British would make peace with him. That in England supporters of an alliance with the Reich will come to power and they will conspire with him. Moreover, it is believed that there was already a conspiracy. Hence Hitler’s iron confidence and calm behind his rear while he is at war with the Russians. Therefore, London classified its archives of World War II.
Berlin and London shared spheres of influence. Britain still had the largest colonial empire, could profit from the fallen France. Germany received “living space” and the resources it needed at the expense of the Russians. At that time, the United States was not afraid of Hitler. On the one hand, part of the financial capital of America supported Hitler and his desire for a great war. On the other hand, the United States has not yet entered the war and might not have entered. Many Americans then sympathized with the Fuhrer, including the Kennedy clan. There was an opportunity to agree. The union of Germany, Italy, Japan and England was supposed to balance the power of the United States.
In this situation, the war with the USSR did not bother Hitler. First, he was secretly promised a quiet rear that there would be no real “second front” while the Germans were at war with the Russians. Secondly, the Führer overestimated the strength of the Reich and underestimated the Russians (the war between the USSR and Finland seemed to confirm the thesis "about a colossus with feet of clay"). They planned to crush Russia or push the Russians over the Volga, to the Urals during the “lightning war”, before the start of winter. That is, to win the war in a single campaign in 1941. Thirdly, in the Far East, Japan was supposed to hit the Russians, capturing Vladivostok, Primorye and intercepting the Siberian Railway. On this historical Russia came to an end.
Therefore, the Germans did not fight seriously with Britain. Having defeated the French and the British expeditionary forces in May - June 1940, Hitler allowed the British to flee to their islands. The Germans could arrange a meat grinder in Dunkirk, destroy and capture the remnants of the British army. But the British were given the opportunity to escape, even taking some of the weapons. Moreover, Hitler banned Luftwaffe attacks on British naval bases. Although it was the most sensible step if the war were serious. In preparation for the landing in Scandinavia, it was necessary to deliver a strong blow to the enemy fleet. But they didn’t. Obviously, the Führer did not want to spoil relations with London and drown the British favorite brainchild - the Navy.
After Dunkirk, Hitler could organize a strategic landing operation. To land troops in England. Britain at that time was demoralized, the army was defeated. On the islands formed militia units armed with junk, which could not stop the Wehrmacht. The English Channel could be closed by mines, aviation Goering, and land an airborne army. A great moment for the complete defeat of Britain. But Hitler did not. Allowed the British to come to their senses. Instead of solving the problem, the Germans limited themselves to a demonstration - the so-called. battle for england. The Germans fought with England, not bothering themselves. The Reich economy, unlike the English, was not mobilized. Germany's aviation industry has even reduced the production of military vehicles - in the midst of an air attack on England! The British, at the height of the battle, produced an average of 470 vehicles per month, and the Germans - 178. The Germans did not build up fighter cover for their bombers, equipping their fighters with hanging tanks, did not deploy a network of airfields in northern France to attack the enemy.
Also, the born Teuton warriors did not begin to combine their air attack on Britain with the deployment of a large-scale submarine war. Britain had only a few submarines on duty; there was no total sea blockade. Only in the summer of 1941 did the scale of submarine war increase. At the same time, when the German fleet begins a more serious war with the British, the Air Force stops the onslaught.
Thus, it was also a “strange” war. The Germans, in fact, did not seriously fight England. Hitler had every opportunity to bring England to its knees as early as 1940. It was necessary to attack at once from several directions, seriously. Customize submarines and aircraft. Complement air attacks with an underwater blockade, actions of surface raiders, intercept marine communications. Leave the British without oil and food. Attack the naval bases of England, fill up the entrances and exits with mines. To concentrate air strikes on Liverpool is the main seaport through which there was a supply of resources from outside, to bomb aircraft factories, enterprises manufacturing aircraft engines. To paralyze railway traffic by bombing railway bridges and transport junctions. Close the English Channel by minefields and aircraft. Mobilize maritime transport and land an assault. Capture Gibraltar and Suez, Egypt and Palestine, subjugate regimes in Turkey and Persia. Create a threat to India.
Thus, Hitler spared England. They didn’t fight seriously with the British. They were considered as the fraternal Germanic people with whom it was necessary to conclude an alliance. It is very likely that Berlin and London had secret agreements that are kept secret until now. Therefore, the Germans did not destroy the British fleet, naval bases and ports, military industry, and railways. All that made Britain a great power. In fact, the Germans saved the military, naval and economic power of England. Air strikes were demonstrative. Like, stop fooling around. Hitler hoped until the very end for the pro-German government to come to power. This is the mystery of the flight of Hess in May 1941, one of the closest associates of the Fuhrer, to England. And after the mission of Hess, Hitler calmly begins a war with the Soviet Union, hoping that the British would not interfere with him.
Hitler and his entourage inspect the 88th anti-tank gun (8,8-cm-PaK 43) at the training ground while showing new types of weapons. To the left of Hitler is Reich Minister of Arms and Ammunition Albert Speer (in a brown overcoat), to the right (face covered by a muzzle brake) - the head of the Arms Commission (and also the artillery commission) under the Reich Minister Speer Erich Mueller, one of the directors and designers of the Krupp concern