“And hit the head with a hilt ...” Battle of cuirassiers on battle canvases


"The fight of the cuirassier with the dragoon." Painter Peter Möhlener. (Prado Museum, Madrid) It is believed that in relation to the composition of his battle canvases, he was inferior to his teacher Peter Sniers, who depicted battles in the form of whole panoramas, while Möhlener took separate episodes from them. However, for historians, his paintings are very interesting, as they give a clear idea of ​​exactly how these very fighting episodes took place during the Thirty Years War. On this canvas we see a cuirassier chained in “three-armor armor”, point-blank firing a pistol at the head of a dragoon who was unable to use his wheeled musket and who tried to defend himself with a sword. But unsuccessfully ... In the background it is also clearly visible how other cuirassiers jump on the attack with pistols in their hands


To drink from the sadness of Anjou, or what?
Or look into the regiment from longing?
Is it a battle in the field,
Mud hooves famously knead!

No, peace is not salvation for me.
The spirit is decrepit and withered mustache.
On a horse! And rather to the battle!
I am essentially a cuirassier!
Yuri Bondarenko. Cuirassier


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. It is hardly worth wondering how often riders with pistols in their hands flicker on the canvases of the Flemish painters, from which they shoot at each other point-blank from various positions. After all, what was that time then? First, the Flemings took part in the war between Spain and the Netherlands, which France and England also intervened, and later Flanders joined the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), and then 11 years helped Spain fight France. As a result of all this, hostilities sometimes unfolded almost right before the artists’s eyes, and Flemish battle painting was half a century ahead of Dutch. Moreover, if the Flemings mainly wrote battles on land, the Dutch - at sea. It is interesting that even then the war was seen by Flemish artists as a tragedy, and the great Rubens somehow said something about Flanders: "Flanders was a place of military operations and a theater where tragedy is played out." But it is natural that, no matter how artists hate the horrors of war, they depicted them in different ways, introducing their vision into their visualization, their reflection of real events.

Peter Möhlener (1602-1654), for example, often painted paintings that were called: “Cavalry Attack” and in them showed different twists and turns of battles between riders-latniks of the first half of the XNUMXth century and each other. And on one of them we see a rather interesting scene of a duel between two horsemen, not armored men, but armed with wheeled pistols, one of which is trying to defend himself with a broken sword, and the other is to hit him on the head with the handle of his pistol and at the same time grabs his scarf with his hand.


Here is the picture. It is called "Cavalry Attack", and it was written in 1649 (Prado Museum, Spain)

What is so interesting about her? And the fact that yes, indeed, cavalry pistols due to their long length and heavy grip were used by riders as a shock weapons. But the fact that they made a spherical "apple" specially for this purpose, which served as a pommel for the mace, does not receive confirmation on the paintings. That is - yes, they hit me on the head in the heat of battle with pistols. But on the same canvases it is seen that the tops of the pistol grip have a very different shape. And that this is far from always a ball. But when this top is indeed spherical in shape, as in the samples that have been preserved to this day, it turns out that inside these “balls” are usually empty, that is, light, and usually serve as pencil cases for spare flints or pieces of pyrite.

In support of this, you can also bring the picture “Attack of the cavalry”, signed by Palamedes Stevarts and dated 1631. On it we already see two wheeled pistols - one on the ground, the other in the hand of one of the combatants, but ... not one of them has a “ball” at the end of the handle. Just the handles at the end for the convenience of holding them expand, which was typical for pistols of that time, and it was this expansion that the cavalrymen used as a shock part, and so the shape of the handle could be very different. The spherical shape was by no means a principle!


"Attack of the cavalry." Painter Palamedes Stevarts. European Painting Auction, 2013 London-New York


Another “Cavalry battle” by artist Peter Möhlener, 1644. (Prado Museum, Madrid). By the way, this artist wrote a lot of paintings and the plot is about the same for everyone: two riders, holding pistols sideways, shoot at each other, directly in the face, or one waves a sword, and the other shoots at him, or one swings at the other with a gun . However, the plot of this picture can be said to include everything. Here they hit with heads with guns and shoot at point blank range, so that bullets pierce cuirasses, and shoot at riders who have lost horses - in a word, all types of equestrian homicide were presented. And on the earth are his attributes: pistols, hats, helmets, and dying horsemen, and their horses


But this “Cavalry Attack” (Christie’s Auction 2013, London) of the same artist, written by him between 1625 and 1654, shows us the cavalry, which is supported by the musketeers hiding in the forest on their left

It is believed that the first Flemish battle painter was Sebastian Wranks (1573-1647), who was the first in the art of Northern Europe to turn battle scenes into a separate genre. However, why be surprised, because he was an officer of the civilian police of Antwerp and saw all this around him. And the fact that about half of Vranks's famous works are military scenes is quite logical. And by the way, it was him who studied the same Peter Möhlener and many other famous Flemish painters like Peter Paul Rubens, Jacob Jordaens, Hendrick van Balen, and Jan Brueghel the Elder (son of Peter Brueghel the Elder) often helped and often co-authored him individual paintings. He also raised several students, the best among whom were Frans Sneijders.

Wranks' paintings resemble Bruegelian paintings, especially those in which he depicted the life of modern-day Holland. But the battle canvases are again a wonderful illustrative material for the historian. Here, for example, his famous painting “The Battle of Lekkerbetier in Vuhta on February 5, 1600” which is in a private collection. First of all, let's find out what kind of battle it was that caused such an interest in this artist. In fact, it was ... a collective duel, held on February 5, 1600 on the wasteland between the city gallows (such a "living" trifle of the era) and the mill. The Flemings fought with the mercenaries - the French and the Brabants, in the amount of 22 people on each side, with typical weapons of the time. The instigators of the fight were the French aristocrat de Breuil and the Flemish lieutenant Lekkerbetier. Well, his main reason was the contempt of the French marquise for the Flemish nobles. By the way, the full name of the lieutenant was Gerard Abrahams van Hawlingen, and Lekkerbetier was his nickname, which meant both “bastard” and “vile” (in terms of origin). That is, the Flemings did not consider such shameful nicknames as offensive to their warriors, the main thing is that they fight well!


“The Battle of Lekkerbetier in Vuhta on February 5, 1600”


Detail of a close-up picture. All participants have black armor, that is, those riders who were called the “Black Kaftans”, and “Black Armor”, and “Black Devils”, “Black Gangs” and even simply “Curious” - in different countries . Cheap armor painted, expensive ink at high temperature. Their weight was from 12 kg and above (together with a helmet), but there were such super-armor that weighed 30 and even 46 kg

The center of the composition of the Wranks painting was Lekkerbetier and de Bre, dressed in typical armor-like armor, cuirassiers armor. According to storiesLekkerbetier was shot with a pistol at the very beginning of the duel, but despite this the Flemings won a complete victory, killing 19 Frenchmen. The Marquis de Breu fled from the battlefield, but was captured and also killed.

"The Battle of Wimpfen May 6, 1622." Sebastian Wranx. (State Hermitage Museum, Petersburg)

Vranks was a very diverse and versatile artist, as evidenced by his exceptionally multi-figured tightly written by him in collaboration with Jan Brueghel the Younger “Consequences of the Battle”, located in one of the private collections. And why, and who is not here. The captured banner and boots, muskets and hats scattered on the ground, the naked corpses of the dead, groaning wounded, they take off their boots and strip them to the skin, and they pin someone with a blow to the throat and back. There is also a knightly spear lying around (meaning the spearmen are still in use!) And plate “pipes” for hands, cuirasses and an iron shield of the ranger. In the distance they catch a white horse and escort a captive latnik, apparently a noble man, since they did not immediately kill him. In a word, all the attributes of the era, human characters and actions - everything is presented in full view. Visibly, figuratively and very clearly.


Here it is, this canvas: "The consequences of the battle"

Some of his stories are pretty, let's say, amazing. For example, this refers to several canvases devoted to such narrow topics (and therefore not so narrow for that time, is it?), Like attacks on riders, armored men and infantrymen on a convoy, and robbers on peaceful travelers on a high road!

Attack on the Convoy (Prado Museum, Madrid)

On this canvas, again, we see exclusively multifaceted action. On a plain that goes beyond the horizon, again with several gallows in the distance on a hill, a caravan moves along the road, and the front carts obviously tried to stand in a circle, but obviously did not have time, peaceful travelers, taking advantage of the bustle, women and children flee into the forest. The attack on the wagons is carried out in a complex manner: on the left, musketeers fire at him at close range, while pistols and carabinieri are the first to shoot from the side of the road, firing at the back ... spearmen with long knightly spears. Well, and on the hill to the right, the shepherd drives away from the sin a herd of sheep.


Another funny painting, written in the typical Bruegelian style of Wranks, is called: “A landscape with robbers who ambushed travelers outside the small town” (Sotheby's Auction, London 2008) We see on it that robbery on highways was a trade, in which many people participated, and armed not only with pitchforks, but also with firearms and attackers with such a mass that even armored men could not cope with them. One of them is running, the other is being chopped with an ax, the third is being stabbed with a pitchfork, someone is being beaten with an ordinary flail, and the lady traveler has already wrapped a skirt over her head ... well, how could it be without this - most likely that was

The most interesting thing is that this plot later became very widespread among the paintings of his students and followers. The truth of life, apparently, was just that.

By the way, it was Vranks who began to paint canvases depicting battles on the ground, paying great attention to the topographic accuracy of the depicted scene, and then this style was adopted and developed by another artist of the same era, Peter Snyers (1592-1667). He developed the technique of depicting his teacher, highlighting three planes on the canvas - front, middle and distant. The foreground is always a few basic figures, for example, the commander who oversees the battle. But here we can see the wounded, and alarmists, and deserters, and anyone else - even so. In the central part - the collision itself was depicted, but the last third of the picture is a landscape that turns into a distant calm sky. And although the artist himself did not participate in any of the battles, most of his Snyers paintings were official orders of the high command of the Habsburg army, which would not have happened if they had reproduced the pictures of the named battles inaccurately!

And it is not without reason that the Vienna Military History Museum has a whole “Piccolomini series” of 12 large-format canvases written by him between 1639 and 1651, which illustrates all the highlights of the campaigns of the famous imperial field marshal Ottavio Piccolomini, who fought in Lorraine and France in the last thirty years. war.

In this characteristic manner he wrote many canvases, but one of them is perhaps the most revealing in the sense of studying the tactical constructions of cavalry and infantry from the beginning of the 1605th century. This is the picture “The Battle of Kirholm” that took place in 1673. It is known about her that she was ordered for the Polish-Lithuanian king Sigismund III, through his agent at the Brussels court of Archduke Albert VII. Then it was brought to France and sold at auction in 1820. This work was first mentioned in the inventory of the castle of Sassenage in XNUMX, where it is to this day.

“And hit the head with a hilt ...” Battle of cuirassiers on battle canvases
Here is the picture. You just need to look at it carefully to evaluate the work of the master. By the way, its height is 142 cm, and the length is 231,5 cm


Palamedes Palamedes (1607-1638) - the younger brother of Anthony Palamedes, the author of many "guard", also painted the battles of riders of the Thirty Years War. One of his many paintings on this subject and with a traditional plot - these riders, scorching pistols at each other, was called: “The cavalry does its duty”, 1635. (German Historical Museum, Berlin)

We met (and this is the most important) only with a very insignificant part of the battle canvases depicting the battles of riders of the XNUMXth century, and the battle of the Thirty Years War, but in reality there are many times more. Samples of weapons, armor, ammunition, yellow leather caftans - all this is repeated by different artists in different variations, but the conclusion is the same: that was exactly then and we see something very close to modern photography on these canvases. Well, having glanced at the Dresden Armory, the Vienna Armory of the Hovburg Palace and the arsenal in Graz, you can also see that the painters painted this armor and weapons from nature.

To be continued ...
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  1. Catfish 12 January 2020 06: 45 New
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    “There wasn’t a penny, but suddenly an Altyn,” immediately in the morning Ryzhov and Shpakovsky! Eyes run up, I will collect in a pile.
    Good morning to everyone and good mood! smile
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 08: 12 New
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      And this is because SUNDAY! Good morning to you and Sunday mood too.
      1. Vladimir_2U 13 January 2020 05: 16 New
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        A little strange, the cuirassier horses in the paintings are not armored at all, unlike the riders. Although horse armor was still used then. After all, even a slightly injured horse is already weak, and even completely uncontrollable. Maybe the author is in the know? Article plus.
        1. kalibr 13 January 2020 07: 51 New
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          It was this that the horses of the cuirassiers differed from the horsemen of the ordonance companies! They had armor on horses, and all because they acted with spears and they had to fight in close contact with the infantry. The cuirassiers had weaker horses (cheaper), which La Nu wrote about, and the money for horse armor went to pistols. Now, having fired two shots at close range, the cuirassiers, without coming into direct contact with the pikemen, made such a "clearing" that they could freely cut into the ranks of the rear soldiers and chop them with swords. That is why they did not need horse armor. And they didn’t protect them from musket bullets at all, since they were made of the thinnest metal because of their weight (why, by the way, they liked to mint them!).
          1. Vladimir_2U 13 January 2020 08: 10 New
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            Thanks, specialist response!
            1. kalibr 13 January 2020 08: 18 New
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              If you, Vladimir, are interested in this topic, I could advise you to buy this book from Lambert publishing house from Germany. Everything is there, with links to 170 books of English-speaking historians. Nobody wrote this before me at all. But ... she's pretty expensive. Therefore, I am so ... in order to inform.
  2. Korsar4 12 January 2020 09: 37 New
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    I wonder how often guns were used as batons? And how did the misuse of weapons affect?
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 09: 48 New
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      Well, judging by the pictures quite often. And how did it affect? Arms probably broke ...
      1. vladcub 12 January 2020 16: 53 New
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        To gunsmiths additional earnings.
        1. kalibr 12 January 2020 17: 26 New
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          Of course, only the handles were not repaired, but the whole wooden equipment was changed completely! So the craftsmen worked day and night, such was the demand for their work. Imagine: 7 thousand pistols in 1556 only in France. Each has two pistols, then another ... oh, how many more ... riders, so this is the same. 14 and 14 - this is 28 thousand pistols + production for export!
  3. Talgarets 12 January 2020 12: 13 New
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    At the sight of the picture, the picture “Battle of Kirholm” recalled a series of computer games “Cossacks”
    1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 14: 40 New
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      By the way, yes!!! good
      Although, as for me, the Stronghold was more interesting.
      1. Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 16: 18 New
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        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Stronghold

        Even more interesting, in my opinion, "Total Var" ... smile
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 17: 50 New
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          Quote: Talgarets
          At the sight of the picture, the picture “Battle of Kirholm” recalled a series of computer games “Cossacks”


          Quote: 3x3zsave
          By the way, yes!!! good
          Although, as for me, the Stronghold was more interesting.


          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Stronghold

          Even more interesting, in my opinion, "Total Var" ... smile


          In! Michael Our man, Total Var - our everything !!!
          The last 15 years, besides him, I use only Pirates of the Caribbean and Tanks! recourse
          Sinful !!!
          1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 18: 20 New
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            Our all is "Warcraft 2" !!!
            Vlad, what about "Behind Enemy Lines"?
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 19: 21 New
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              Yes Anton! Games on the Z-X Spectrum: Elite, Bruce Lee, Next Macheneri, F-15, Star Wars, Valgala, Sevejd .....
              286 - Apache, Prince of Persia, F-16 ...
              Pentium One - Commands Conquer, Var Crafts, Bateltekh, Century of Empire, Galaxy, Red Alert, General, Heroes of Might and Magic, as it has long been !!!
              I remember the herds gathered and watched as one plays Corsair !!! Half of the games have already forgotten the names !!! old age is not joy, youth is not life !!!
              I didn’t play in the enemy’s rear, I remember the Confrontation and the Ural Federal District!
              1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 19: 32 New
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                My 4 thousand peasants will overwhelm your two black dragons! laughing
                I started on the first stump.
              2. Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 19: 48 New
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                Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Half of the games have already forgotten the names

                Vlad, I didn’t know half, not that it was playing them ...
                Prince of Persia, Wolfstein, Dune, Warcraft, Diabolo - these are all my nineties! Also, maybe Jagged Alliance forgot ... Damn, life seems to have passed me by ... laughing
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 20: 07 New
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                  Dune! Dune 2! Dune 3! Krasava Michael !!!
                  At 95 I buy a stump! Guys sellers are laughing. The system unit with SD-Rum was brought in for repair, with a claim - “the tray for a cup of coffee has broken”! He leaves to leave, and when you put a saucer with coffee, he calls back ”!!!
                  1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 20: 21 New
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                    In the 95th, the Ural hackers were so creative that they drank coffee from a saucer! laughing
                    Meanwhile, really creative! I heard this bike around the 2000th.
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 20: 25 New
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                      No, these are advanced secretaries !!! I Buddy personally saw the systematic drenched coffee !!!
                      1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 20: 46 New
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                        Come on! What are you talking about?
                        Own story.
                        2007 year I work in one office "responsible for everything." We decided to install the program (then it was called, now - "attachment") "bank-client". A boy comes from Sberbank (!) And begins to mumble something quietly, turning pale and blushing about the storage medium and takes out a floppy disk! For three hours I rummaged through the zahashniks to find a system unit with such a drive. request
                      2. bubalik 12 January 2020 20: 50 New
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                        I rummaged for three hours in zashnikov

                        ,,, bulk you have bins bully
                      3. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 21: 02 New
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                        Duc! I also know how to add and subtract accounts. Well, in case of any cataclysms.
              3. vladcub 13 January 2020 14: 17 New
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                Dontsova mentioned such a moment, but only smirked
            2. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 20: 26 New
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              Yeah, past ... As it is ... About a year and a half I lived in a virtual ...
              1. Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 21: 11 New
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                Quote: 3x3zsave
                A year and a half in the virtual lived

                A friend of mine got hooked on Laneage at one time ... That was tin, I have not seen this. Everything was forgotten, life passed in front of the monitor. In the morning at work (office plankton), in the evening, running home, immediately to the computer and ... that's all. Weekend - I woke up and to the computer, slept four hours a day. Even the language changed when I started talking about my game (and she couldn’t talk about anything else), I stopped understanding it completely: some kind of hepe, howа, buff, slander, tapeshnut ... This is just what I remembered ... And so, probably, about five years old, the family fell apart, the husband left, only after that she began to leave a little. Now a normal person, but about five years old she was like a zombie.
                Another acquaintance got his son like that. For days sitting at the computer. Parents dismissed the army from the army, so he sat for days at home - what kind of study, work, girls - nothing is needed. It would be better to drink, by golly. I, like, make money. I pump the character, then sell it. Father asks, how much do you earn? Well, he says, yesterday he sold the character for two thousand, he pumped it for a month. Two thousand a month! Awesome earnings ... And after all, a person really believed that it was awesome ...
                1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 21: 17 New
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                  Casinos are never lost.
                  Avoiding reality is always in price.
                2. vladcub 13 January 2020 14: 39 New
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                  Mikhail, and after all, the Internet is full of advertising: you’re a millionaire without leaving the table in one evening. And why are the stories: “a hairdresser, a cleaner, I heard about this, on Instagram talks about the secrets of hair, cleaning and joking to earn 20 tons in 10 days and if you multiply 20 by a month, and if 12 months? The question arises: if it is so easy to get rich then why do we have poor and rich? Why work: in a flash we will get rich
              2. Catfish 13 January 2020 03: 39 New
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                Well, all of you in FIG, you don’t understand anything in computer games. STALKER - this is our everything, led by the Chernobyl Zone! good drinks
          2. alsoclean 13 January 2020 00: 07 New
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            Come on ... but I don’t remember about Civilization, this is unforgivable laughing
  • polpot 12 January 2020 13: 43 New
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    Thank you wonderful article with great pictures
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 15: 36 New
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      Quote: polpot
      Thank you wonderful article with great pictures

      Join us!
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 16: 13 New
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    Good afternoon, colleagues.
    A javelin’s spear is scattered around (meaning the spearmen are still in use!)

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, why were you so surprised that during this period there were still horse lancers, especially since their whole detachment is shown on the right. The spear did not leave the cavalry while this cavalry existed at all, we can recall at least our Cossacks in the First World War.
    Another question is why the presented paintings depict mainly cuirassiers-pistols, because the outcome of major battles at that time was still decided during hand-to-hand combat.
    I especially liked and became interested in the painting "The Battle of Kirchholm." We know that during this battle the Poles defeated the Swedish infantry with the help of a well-trained heavy cavalry - the hussar. This is clearly visible in the picture - in the center is a landfill, on the two sides approaching something like the Spanish third on the right - an infantry rack bristling with long spears, on the left - as if from the times of Frederick the Great and his namesake Seidlitz - a dense horse building the stirrup "in two lines, probably these are the very hussars. In the background the Western Dvina - everything is as it should be. Well, the majority of people are moving from left to right - the Poles are fleeing the Swedes.
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 17: 21 New
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      Quote: Trilobite Master
      why were you so surprised that during this period there were still horse lancers

      Because in France, a spear as a weapon was banned back in 1600. And they remained (spears) the inheritance of lightly armed riders, and armored men without exception switched to pistols.
      1. Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 18: 09 New
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        I would venture to object.
        I did not hear about the prohibition of copies in France. I’ll clarify. But, in my opinion, this would be a great stupidity, which hardly anyone would consciously go to.
        Statement that
        Quote: kalibr
        Latniks without exception switched to pistols.

        seems to me more than controversial. Even in the picture you have shown, we see a detachment of equestrian plate spearmen on the right. There are also similar images, for example

        Horse gunners are able to thin out the enemy’s system, but they are not able to overturn and drive him. For this, spearmen are needed; to refuse them is simply not rational. In addition, the pistols that have consumed their charges become easy prey for equestrian spearmen.
        No, Vyacheslav Olegovich, as you wish, but "without exception" is too much. In my opinion, even "half" will be too optimistic. smile
        1. kalibr 12 January 2020 19: 54 New
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          Quote: Trilobite Master
          as you want, but "without exception" is too much.

          Most likely you are right. I’ll write about it ... Truth is always somewhere in between. But 7 thousand French armored men most likely did not have copies!
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 January 2020 20: 28 New
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            I was embarrassed by something else! But what about the French guard lancers? According to lithographs even during the Crimean War, they are armed with peaks !!!
            1. kalibr 12 January 2020 20: 54 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              I was embarrassed by something else! But what about the French guard lancers? According to lithographs even during the Crimean War, they are armed with peaks !!!

              Light is the cavalry. But we are talking about the plate of the beginning of the 17th century.
        2. Kunyli 13 January 2020 15: 17 New
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          seems to me more than controversial. Even in the picture you have shown, we see a detachment of equestrian plate spearmen on the right. There are also similar images, for example

          Contemporaries knew better which weapon was more effective than a sofa expert ..
          Horse gunners are able to thin out the enemy’s system, but they are not able to overturn and drive him. For this, spearmen are needed; to refuse them is simply not rational. In addition, the pistols that have consumed their charges become easy prey for equestrian spearmen.

          In fact, the pistols were able to completely defeat the infantry and cavalry. But Lancers are useless against pikemen, and in an equestrian error, they lose to pistols in all respects. Having broken his lance, the rider becomes completely helpless (although in fact all the Lancers used pistols, and the spear was needed only for the first strike). The same Poles armed with pistols in the 16th century.
    2. Kunyli 13 January 2020 15: 09 New
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      Another question is why the presented paintings depict mainly cuirassiers-pistols, because the outcome of major battles at that time was still decided during hand-to-hand combat.

      Why do you think so? Everything was decided in a shootout. The main losses were also from a gunshot. For example, Gustav Adolf was shot, Ahn De Monomarsy was shot, Prince Conde was shot. You can endlessly list the famous commanders who fell from the bullet. Under Lutzin, they found a huge grave of Swedish soldiers. All have bullet holes. Imperial cuirassiers did their best ...
      I especially liked and became interested in the painting "The Battle of Kirchholm." We know that during this battle the Poles defeated the Swedish infantry with the help of a well-trained heavy cavalry - the hussar.

      And then the Swedish happened later .. The Swedish infantry and the Reytars, smashed the Poles like a Tusik heating pad. And also the uprising of Khmelnyky, which completely destroyed the three crown armies of the Poles.
      1. Trilobite Master 13 January 2020 17: 24 New
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        Where did you get so much pathos from?
        Quote: KunyLi
        sofa expert

        I am sure that you are not a couch expert, but, of course, you know about the wars of the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries. firsthand. I suppose they were a direct participant in the religious wars in France and the Thirty Years War ...
        Quote: KunyLi
        Contemporaries knew better

        So look at the paintings of contemporaries, where the heavily armed equestrian spearmen are often depicted. The peak in the cavalry with firearms did not succeed in completely crowding out until the XNUMXth century.
        Quote: KunyLi
        The same Poles armed with pistols in the 16th century.

        And the grass is green, and the water is wet. Well, armed, so what? Did the spears drop all at once?
        Quote: KunyLi
        Everything was decided in a shootout.

        Oh oh Well then, since you are so sure, you probably will not be bothered to provide data on the ratios of losses on the battlefield from firearms and cold steel.
        Quote: KunyLi
        Gustav Adolf was shot, Ahn De Monomarsy was shot, Prince Conde was shot.

        The first died in an accidental collision and was only wounded from a pistol - they finished him with a cold weapon.
        The second was killed by his back.
        The third, if my memory serves me, was killed, already in captivity, after the battle.
        Quote: KunyLi
        And then Swedish happened then ..

        This you mean the order of Gustav Adolf, which actually prohibits horse-drawn shooting when approaching, probably.
        Quote: KunyLi
        The Swedish infantry and Reiters smashed the Poles like an Acetic warmer.

        Aha, near Kokkenhausen (1601), at Kirchholm, in the battle of Gauja in 1609, in the war of 1618-19, and further, up to Croppenhof in 1621. laughing
        What kind of epochal victories of the Swedes over the Poles do you remember, except, perhaps, the battle of Walgof in 1626, where the Swedes had a double numerical advantage?
        So, “like a hot-water bottle”, rather, the Poles tore the Swedes in field battles for a quarter of a century, and not vice versa. And while Gustav Adolf did not reorganize his cavalry, forcing her to attack the enemy in close combat, leaving pistols only for hand-to-hand combat, the Polish hussars with their wings and spears at the ready of the odds did not leave the Swedes with the word "completely".
        And the last.
        We didn’t drink at the Brudershaft, and we’re unlikely to ever drink it.
        The one-sided transition to "you" when you actually turn to a hitherto unfamiliar person speaks of you as a person with a very low level of communication culture. If you just apologize for being rude, I will consider the incident settled. Otherwise, my communication with you (if it continues in the future) will completely lose its constructive component.
        1. 3x3zsave 13 January 2020 18: 21 New
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          I suppose they were a direct participant in the religious wars in France and the Thirty Years War ...
          Nesto Agasfer?!?!?
          Otherwise
          Michael, ready to be your second! hi
          1. Trilobite Master 13 January 2020 18: 57 New
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            Quote: 3x3zsave
            ready to be your second

            Anton, the presence of a second implies a duel, which is the privilege of the nobility. I do not have to meddle with this peasant origin in this Kalashny row. smile
            In fact, it is quite possible that KunyLi is a decent and adequate person, he simply does not know how to convey emotional messages correctly in the text, because of which I could misunderstand the essence of his comment, see in it what the author did not put into it, it happens. An apology in such cases is entirely appropriate and does not detract from anyone. Well, no, no. For good or for worse, we do not live in the XVI century. under Charles IX, to go out for a walk is not Pre-au-Claire on such an occasion. And not even in the mid-90s of the XNUMXth century, when it was possible for a person to shoot an arrow at “Shout-no-shout”, in the end ... smile
        2. Kunyli 13 January 2020 21: 23 New
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          So look at the paintings of contemporaries, where the heavily armed equestrian spearmen are often depicted. The peak in the cavalry with firearms did not succeed in completely crowding out until the XNUMXth century.

          The spears remained only as support. At the same time, the entire cavalry was armed with a firearm. That already says a lot.
          Oh oh Well then, since you are so sure, you probably will not be bothered to provide data on the ratios of losses on the battlefield from firearms and cold steel.

          Google: The face of war: Trauma analysis of a mass grave from the Battle of Lützen (1632)
          True, there are data on the Swedish infantry, most of which died from bullets. But I think the ratio in cavalry is about the same, given the prevalence of the gunshot.
          Gustav Adolf died in a classic equestrian error. At first he was wounded from a pistol in his hand and fell out of the saddle. He was picked a little with broadswords and shot in the head.
          Ahn De Monomarsi died in about the same way, only a bullet hit the back of the cuirass and crushed the ribs.
          Prince Conde fell out of the saddle, after which he was shot dead by a gendarme galloping past, right in the head.
          And this is just a tiny part of the examples. Here's an example of a key episode of the Battle of Irvi during the Huguenot Wars:
          The “white” royal standard, carried by the young Earl of Rhodes, still fluttered over the right wing of the royal squadron, and the king, surrounded by his faithful Navarra, fought like a simple gendarme with a sword in his hand when Mayenne's squadron launched an attack, having on his left wing 400 Spanish carabans. These Spaniards made a terrible volley at 25 paces; Count of Rhodes, Schomberg and another 100 others (nobles A.E.) fell. However, the king remained unharmed. It is time to throw a reserve into battle.
          Marshal de Biron successfully gathered behind his gendarmerie regiment 300 horsemen brought from Picardy by Mr. d'Jumière (it is possible that d'Jumière came already during the battle of A.E.), 200 horse-drawn Poineuvians (from Poitou A.E.) La Tremuille, Plessis-Morne and Mui, as well as all the fugitives who pulled themselves from the left flank and from the center. Marshal de Biron formed a large squadron, which threw against the flank of the attacking Lists. The blow was decisive. The long peaks of the Walloon gendarmes were broken in previous battles, and the “carabens” did not have time to reload their weapons. And they both had only swords against the pistols of 1500 Biron cavalrymen.
          D'Egmond was shot dead with a pistol at point blank range, this was a signal to escape. The Walloons and the Carabens turned back and crushed Mayenne's squadron.
          This you mean the order of Gustav Adolf, which actually prohibits horse-drawn shooting when approaching, probably.

          He did not forbid anything, especially considering that his army was 90% Germans, who wanted to chew on such orders. For example, under Valk and Gdovoy they fought a battle, as always.
          What kind of epochal victories of the Swedes over the Poles do you remember, except, perhaps, the battle of Walgof in 1626, where the Swedes had a double numerical advantage?

          I already said google what is the "Swedish flood" and "Russian flood". There is a whole series of victories.
          And while Gustav Adolf did not reorganize his cavalry, forcing her to attack the enemy in close combat, leaving guns only for hand-to-hand combat, the Polish hussars with their wings and spears did not leave the Swedes at odds with the word "completely".

          Oh chatterbox .. And what do you think is the difference between attack and hand-to-hand combat?)
          No chance was left to the Poles, who were torn to pieces. At the same time, the Russians also fought on several fronts, but for some reason they only won with each company.
  • vladcub 12 January 2020 16: 44 New
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    Thank you very much for your cycle. I called it for myself: "Introduction to the painting of Flanders Holland."
    Q. Oh, and the French and Spaniards did not write such paintings?
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 17: 20 New
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      They wrote, of course, but there you have to look separately. This is a huge layer of culture.
  • vladcub 12 January 2020 16: 52 New
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    In his youth he was at the Hermitage and saw a pistol with a ball on the handle. Then I decided: specifically, so that the hand does not slip, an analog of modern "cheeks". And it turns out to be a pencil case.
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 17: 19 New
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      Well, this also helped without a doubt the grip. But if you look at the handles in general, then ... just ball-pencil cases were a rarity!
  • ukoft 12 January 2020 17: 14 New
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    Thank you for the excellent article, dear author. I really enjoyed this cycle. I hope to continue these articles. I propose to discuss these paintings here or let the author describe in more detail how and what happened in these paintings, etc.
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 17: 17 New
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      Glad you liked the material. I promise that the cycle will continue, in any case, I guarantee 2-3 more articles. But one after another they cannot go. They require hard work. Sometimes such an article takes all day from 8.00:XNUMX a.m. until late at night, and sometimes two days. So watch out ...
    2. Astra wild 12 January 2020 19: 44 New
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      You voiced my thoughts: to continue your cycle and describe the plot in more detail
      1. kalibr 12 January 2020 19: 51 New
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        Quote: Astra wild
        and described the plot in more detail

        The latter is very difficult. Often, art historians do not describe such canvases. The artists themselves do not always write what kind of battle it is. And look into the magnifying glass and guess ...
        1. Astra wild 13 January 2020 15: 31 New
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          I sympathize with you, but at the same time I hope for your performance
          1. kalibr 13 January 2020 19: 03 New
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            Dear Astra! There is another problem ... With age, I became able to write only about what I like. It’s a little bit worth the theme of “getting a bite” and I’m not interested in it anymore. Previously, I could force myself ... Now, no ... I have on the screen a bunch of materials written in half, one third, one title. A bunch of files under them ... But it does not go. And then suddenly ... a rifle of some rare company. This is what our brain does to us. But Anton should be pleased. He wrote that I forgot about the antique and gave me an inner voice - write. And with a single spirit I wrote the conceived material back in the summer (!)! Coming soon. I think you will like it!
  • Astra wild 12 January 2020 19: 40 New
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    When I read, “between the city gallows” I remembered: “Quentin Dorward,” when he was trying to save Brother Khayrudin from death and he was almost hanged.
    And "Landscape with the Robbers" again resembles a book when Quentin Dorward accompanied Countess de Croix. After all, do not appear right with your squad, Quentin was waiting for the participation of the dead latnik
    1. kalibr 12 January 2020 19: 49 New
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      Watch the 1955 movie of Quentin Dorward. You'll like it! Very beautiful!
      1. Astra wild 13 January 2020 15: 32 New
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        I will surely look
  • BAI
    BAI 12 January 2020 21: 32 New
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    Detail of a close-up picture. On all participants, black armor, that is, those same riders who were called “Black Kaftans”, and “Black Armor”, and “Black Devils”, “Black Gangs” and even simply “Curious” - in different countries .

    Opponents differ only in the color of their belts. They still had to be seen.
  • Astra wild 13 January 2020 15: 39 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Yeah, past ... As it is ... About a year and a half I lived in a virtual ...

    I hope that you have already returned to reality, otherwise I’m afraid for your head. In reality, I know the case that a person went nuts on Armagedon
    1. 3x3zsave 13 January 2020 17: 22 New
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      Thank you, Beautiful Stranger! Really, my head is not worth your fears, for: "Easy idiocy makes us invulnerable!". "Mad and Honor!" "Bravery and stupidity!"