Under the Soviet regime, the Bolsheviks tried to appropriate the “fatherhood” of the February revolution to themselves. The proletariat “acted as the hegemon and the main driving force of the February bourgeois-democratic revolution. He led the national movement against war and tsarism, led the peasantry, soldiers and sailors ... The leader of the proletariat was the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (Bolsheviks) headed by V.I. Lenin ”(The Great October Socialist Revolution. Encyclopedia. M., 1977).
This myth was picked up by the liberal public. They say that the Bolsheviks overthrew the tsar, destroyed the autocracy and destroyed the Russian empire. Currently, this myth is very popular, the liberals regularly demand that Lenin’s “bloody ghoul” be removed from the mausoleum, instead of the “ugly ziggurat” build a church, repent of the whole world for the murder of the royal family, the destruction of the churches and forget the “cursed Soviet past” that hinders the development of modern Russia, etc.
This myth solves two main problems. First, they diverted attention from the Westernizers, the degenerated aristocracy, the liberals and the “burzhuinov” - the fevralists, who in reality destroyed the autocracy and the “White Empire”. Secondly, it allows to complete the desovietization and de-Stalinization of Russia, consolidating the results of the liberal-bourgeois counterrevolution of the 1991-1993. and the redistribution of national wealth in favor of a small group of "new masters".
Thus, “Lenin and the Party” are allegedly to blame for everything. They destroyedhistorical Russia ”and turned Russia off its path, torn from Europe. At the same time, it was hushed up that the entire leadership of the Bolshevik party, an asset of the organization, including Lenin, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, etc., were in exile or in exile and in prisons. The fact that the Bolshevik party opposed the "imperialist war" and was actually defeated. That the Bolsheviks were small and unpopular in comparison with other parties, for example, constitutional democrats (cadets) and socialist revolutionaries (Socialist-Revolutionaries). The fact that Lenin believed that a revolution was impossible during his lifetime, and he learned about the coup in Russia from newspapers, like his other associates. That the liberal-bourgeois Provisional Government granted amnesty and freed many prominent revolutionaries from exile and prisons, enabling the Bolsheviks to begin subversive work against the new government.
The Bolshevik organizations were extremely few, but to the limit they were saturated with secret police agents (Security Department of the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs). Before the revolution, a member of the Central Committee and the editor of Pravda M. Ye. Chernomazov, a member of the Central Committee and a member of the Bolshevik faction in the Fourth State Duma R. V. Malinovsky worked for the secret police. Interestingly, if the salary of the Director of the Police Department was equal to 7000 rubles. per year, the salary of Malinovsky 6000-8400 rub. in year. With the filing of Malinovsky, the secret police arrested Bukharin, Ordzhonikidze, Sverdlov and Stalin. The Council of Workers' Deputies formed after the February Revolution consisted of more than thirty informants of the secret police.
It is obvious that such a large apparatus of secret police agents and provocateurs would have been able in time to warn the government about the preparation of the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks. And revolutionaries are easily defeated. The Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries were in a similar position, although they had more activists and influence in society. However, with all their desire, they also could not produce the February revolution.
The February revolution was organized by the ruling elite of the Russian Empire itself. In this regard, February is unique. The industrial and financial (bourgeoisie), administrative, military and partially political “elite” itself crushed “historical Russia”. High-ranking Westerners, masons of high degrees of initiation, deputies, bankers and industrialists, generals and ministers spoke out against tsarism. All of them wanted to destroy the autocracy, to get full "freedom", that is, full power, without "despotic" restrictions.
In essence, Nicholas II was left all alone, short of a small circle of aged conservatives, dignitaries, female servants — army and police officers. True, most of the officers could have acted for the tsar, obeying the habit and oath, but Nikolai Aleksandrovich himself refused to resist, did not dare to take responsibility and shed blood.
Against the king and his wife were all, including the royal kin and mother-empress. Nicholas II did not allow his relatives to power, tightly controlled their lives, not allowing the slightest criticism of his wife and the "holy elder." Post grand dukes viewed by order of the king. In addition, the whole reign of Nikolai Alexandrovich, from the birth of an heir, lasted a dynastic crisis. The heir was seriously ill. It is obvious that Tsarevich Alexei could not rule in such a stormy and cruel XX century. The royal relatives did not doubt that Alexey would not rule. Then who will take the throne? The marriages of the great princes Mikhail Alexandrovich and Kirill Vladimirovich formally deprived them of the right to the throne. But it was not officially announced. A significant part of society did not understand the intricacies of the royal relationship. Nicholas II was afraid to raise this question. As a result, several great princes mentally tried on Monomakh's cap. In Russia, the tsarist conspiracy is tacitly formed.
Participants in the February coup pursued different, often opposite goals. Some representatives of the house of the Romanovs wanted to limit autocracy, remove Nicholas II, they tried on the crown for themselves. The members of the “general group” also wished to remove Nicholas II from the throne, which, in their opinion, he prevented him from bringing the war to the bitter end. The generals wanted an "iron hand" that would bring order to the rear. According to the generals and senior officers, Russia was threatened with chaos, and a “dictator” was necessary. The actual head of General Headquarters, General M. V. Alekseev, somehow actually demanded that the Tsar appoint a dictator, that is, a person responsible for supplying the army and given extraordinary powers. Nikolai was categorically against limiting his power.
Not surprisingly, the generals wanted the dismissal of Tsar Nicholas. Quartermaster-General M. S. Pustovoitenko spoke openly at the Stavka about the king: “Does he understand something of what is happening in the country? Does he believe at least one gloomy word of Mikhail Vasilyevich (Alekseev)? Isn't he afraid, therefore, of his daily reports, like a freak is afraid of a mirror? We point out to him the complete collapse of the army and the country in the rear with daily facts, without making special emphasis, we prove the correctness of our position, and at this time he thinks about what he heard in five minutes in the yard, and probably sends us to hell ... "
Two months before the February Revolution, Lieutenant-General A. M. Krymov in a private report to the Duma deputies on the situation at the front said: “The mood in the army is such that everyone will be happy to welcome the news of the coup. A coup is inevitable, and they feel it at the front ... There is no time to lose ... "
The military conspirators even had the idea of seizing the tsar's train at the junction between Tsarskoye Selo and Petrograd, with the aim of forcing the tsar to sign a renunciation of the throne. The capture of the train was appointed several times, but all the time was transferred. The last time the operation was moved to 1 March 1917 of the year. The main reason for refusing the operation was the moral factor. The convoy could resist, would have to kill their own. Nicholas could refuse to sign the papers, which led to the scenario of the visit of the Guards officers to the bedroom of Paul I. The then officers lacked this determination. However, the conspirators, generals were ready to support a coup in the capital, and supported him! Nicholas was "tied hand and foot," they said that he had no support in the army and must agree with renunciation.
The bourgeoisie had money, power, but there was no real power. They wanted to destroy the autocracy, which, in their opinion, hindered Russia's economic development. They wanted the redistribution of property, the royal family had to share property. Russian masons and Westerners wanted to build a “sweet Europe” in Russia, they also wanted a “market”, “freedom” and “democracy”. The pro-Western and liberal intelligentsia hated "tsarism", "despotism", etc.
Why did the Western masons perpetrate the February revolution when Russia could have won the war? First, they decided that there would be no better moment. A revolutionary situation has been created, the most reliable and loyal authorities are removed from Petrograd, at the front, the king is cut off from the capital and cannot organize resistance. The second center of power, headed by Alexandra Fyodorovna, who assumed the functions of an autocrat, giving orders to military and civilian authorities, caused irritation of the Duma and society, did not have the corresponding authority.
The personnel of the guard units were sent to the front, and replaced by spare soldiers and officers of wartime, mostly yesterday's students and intellectuals. The battalions of recruits included teams of convalescents who told various horrors about the front line. Neither recruits nor convalescents under any view of the front wanted. The order of Nicholas II to alternately send personnel guards regiments from the front line to Tsarskoe Selo “to rest” was constantly sabotaged for various reasons. For example, in January 1917, the king demanded that the Chief of Staff, General V.N. Gurko urgently send a Guards Cavalry Division to Tsarskoye Selo, and Gurko, under the pretext of lack of space to accommodate the cavalry, sent to the royal residence only a battalion of Guards crew, who differed "moral instability.
Secondly, it is possible to establish a Western-type regime in Russia (a constitutional monarchy or a republic), which will triumph in the war with Germany, taking these laurels from the tsarist regime. And on the basis of this victory, with the support of the allies — Britain, France and the USA — to create in Russia a matrix of a Western-type society. Hope was that "the West will help us."
Fevralists seized power easily. Nikolay did not resist. All the pillars of autocracy were dismantled and destroyed even before the February coup, all the main persons knew their “roles” in this “staging”. It was not for nothing that the leader of the Bolsheviks, V. Lenin, noted: “This eight-day revolution was, if I may say so metaphorically,“ played out ”exactly after a dozen major and minor rehearsals; The “actors” knew each other, their roles, their places, their situation, up and down, through and through, to any significant shade of political directions and methods of action. ”
A large role in this "operation" was played by the masons. Masonic organizations in Russia had a clear political orientation. Their goal was the overthrow of autocracy. They put into practice the plans of the owners of the West, since the main conceptual and ideological centers of Freemasonry were located in Europe. The Masonic lodges were non-partisan and supra-party organizations, so they played the role of a link between the feudalist conspirators.
For example, in 1912, the “Supreme Council of the Peoples of Russia” was created in the strictest secrecy. His secretaries were A. F. Kerensky, M. N. Tereshchenko, and N. V. Nekrasov. The largest industrialist, banker and landowner Mikhail Tereshchenko in the first composition of the Provisional Government was the Minister of Finance, in the second - the fourth composition of the government was the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The cadet and Duma member Nikolai Nekrasov was first Minister of Communications of the Provisional Government, then Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister. A lawyer and a member of the Duma, Alexander Kerensky was the Minister of Justice, Minister of War and Navy, and the head of the Provisional Government.
According to Mason N. Berberova, the first part of the Provisional Government (March-April 1917) included ten "brothers" and one "layman" (Berberova N. N. People and Lodges. Russian Freemasons of the XXth Century). Freemasons called people “profanes” to them who formally did not enter the lodges. This "profane" in the first Provisional Government was the leader of the Cadets, P. N. Milyukov. According to Berber, the Freemasons formed the future Provisional Government headed by Prince Lvov in the 1915 year. In the last composition of the Provisional Government, in September-October 1917, when War Minister Verkhovsky left, everyone was freemasons except Kartashov. Thus, the masons controlled the Provisional Government.
By the beginning of 1917, the “Masonic group”, as the most organized in Russia, which included representatives of all other elite groups (grand dukes, aristocrats, generals, bankers, industrialists, members of the Duma and leaders of political parties, etc.), came to the conclusion that the military is unable to carry out a coup. Generals can only support him. Therefore, it was decided to organize "spontaneous popular speeches", the benefit of the "soil" was prepared, to push the crowd with the police, the Cossacks, to draw soldiers of rear, spare parts, etc. into the unrest.
Everything went like clockwork. The soldiers began to refuse to shoot at the crowd, opened fire on the police, gendarmes and Cossacks. The military command of the Petrograd region sabotaged the process of eliminating unrest in the initial stage, and then the focus of unrest was out of control. In the wake of chaos, power in Petrograd passed to the Provisional Government. Nicholas II 28 February 1917 left the headquarters in Mogilev and went to Petrograd. And right there, the “railroad version” worked, the general's top team worked out. The tsar's train was detained in Pskov, the tsar de facto became a prisoner of the commander of the Northern front, General N. V. Ruzsky, who was in collusion with the head of the State Duma, M. V. Rodzyanko. Meanwhile, Alekseev, the head of the Stavka, telegraphed the front and fleet commanders. All were unanimous in favor of the king’s abdication.
According to the memoirs of Baron Frederiks, who was present at the abdication of Nicholas II, known in the presentation of the Countess M. E. Kleinmichel, Ruzsky forced the hesitant king to sign a prepared abdication from the throne by brutal violence. Ruzsky held Nicholas II by the hand, with his other hand pressed to the table in front of him a prepared manifesto about renunciation and roughly repeated: “Sign, sign the same. Do not you see that you have nothing else to do. If you do not sign up, I am not responsible for your life. ” Nicholas II looked around confused and depressed during this scene. He had no choice but to renounce.
However, it was easy, almost bloodlessly seizing power, The Februaryists, instead of triumphant victory, caused the catastrophe of the Romanov empire and put Russian civilization on the brink of destruction. They lost. The masters of the West pursued their goals, destroying the Russian autocracy. For many Februaryists it was a terrible shock when "the West did not help."
Russia was falling apart before our eyes. The army did not want to fight. Sailors began to massively kill officers. Not for trying to save royal power. Only because of decades of accumulated hatred of the "gold miners," the landowners. These were already flashes of civil war, and without any Bolsheviks. In the summer of 1917, only individual parts and ships fleet retained relative combat effectiveness. The bulk of the troops and crews did not want to fight and practically did not obey the commanders, both old and appointed by the Provisional Government.
Temporarily, the government could not solve the root agrarian question for Russia. Liberal bourgeois ministers could not give the land to the peasants. They themselves came from landowners, large landowners. And it was not possible to send punitive detachments to the villages, as in 1905-1907, so that order could be brought to order with fire and iron. Parts that would have executed such an order was not. The troops in the mass consisted of peasants, and simply raised the officers who would give such an order to the bayonets. The only way out is to promise that the issue will be resolved when the Constituent Assembly is convened. As a result, in the spring and summer of 1917, peasant Russia flared up. Only in the European part of Russia, 2944 peasant uprisings occurred. The scope of the peasants' speeches was greater than during the uprising of Razin and Pugachev. The real peasant war began, it will continue during the Civil War, and will be one of the reasons for the defeat of the White movement. And the red ones will hardly put out the fire.
At the same time, the separatists will raise their heads. By October 1917, there were already dozens of “armies” and gangs of nationalists and separatists with hundreds of thousands of bayonets and sabers throughout Russia. Separatists will start their war in Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, the Baltic States, Bessarabia, the Caucasus and Turkestan. At the same time, separatism will manifest not only foreigners and non-Orthodox, but Russian Cossacks, "regionalists" in Siberia, etc. It is important that national separatists and Russian separatists claimed not only their "indigenous lands", but also vast areas, where lived other nations. For example, the Poles wanted to restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Finnish nationalists wanted to include Karelia, the Kola Peninsula, the Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions into the “Great Finland”. Not only Poles, but Romanians as well claimed the Odessa region. That is, a bloody and widespread civil and national war became inevitable.
In addition, at the beginning of 1917, external forces did not abandon their plans to seize and dismember Russia. The German-Austrian, Turkish command did not give up plans to strike at the collapsed Russian army and the occupation of the Baltic states, Ukraine, Crimea, the Caucasus, the creation of pro-German Finland and Poland. Russia's “ally” on the Entente had plans to land and capture the Russian North, the Black Sea region, Siberia, and the Far East.
Thus, it was not the Bolsheviks who destroyed the Russian empire, although they afterwards tried to attribute this victory to themselves, but the “elite” of the Romanov empire itself.
Later, the myth of "Lenin - German spy" will be created. In the summer of 1917, the Russian counterintelligence declared Lenin and a number of prominent Bolsheviks German spies. Counterintelligence officers presented Ensign D.S. Ermolenko, who escaped from German captivity, who stated that he had been sent to Russia by officers of the German General Staff for anti-war agitation, and he was told that the same assignment had been given to Lenin and other Bolsheviks. The Provisional Government transmitted information about this to the press and at the same time ordered the arrest of Lenin and other Bolsheviks. Apparently, it was a provocation of Russian counterintelligence.
Later, documents will be discovered on the transfer of large sums by the Germans to the Bolsheviks through two channels - through Parvus and the Swiss socialist Karl Moore. But does it follow from this fact that Lenin was a German agent? The Allies gave huge loans to the Kerensky government, financially and financially supporting the armies of Denikin, Yudenich, Kolchak and Wrangel. It is known that the British sponsored the future Empress Catherine II, the British gold she was able to organize a palace coup, which led to the murder of her husband. In addition, the Bolsheviks from the very beginning opposed the autocracy and the "imperialist war." Unlike other political forces, they spoke directly about this.
It is obvious that Vladimir Lenin was a practical man and took the money, but was not an agent of Germany. He solved the problems of financing the party and the future revolution. And October, the Bolsheviks were able to organize only because February first occurred. Lenin sat in Geneva and was pessimistic that the current generation would not see the proletarian revolution. But wrong. Liberal-bourgeois, Masonic circles organized a revolution, overthrew the emperor and created a "window of opportunity". The Bolsheviks used it. Destroyed the Russian Empire and began a civil war in the country almost without their participation.