"Court stories will not fall upon us, who remained in Russia and honestly fulfilled their duty, but on those who prevented this, forgetting the interests of their Homeland and sneering at foreigners who are obvious enemies of Russia in its past and future. ”
General M. D. Bonch-Bruevich
General M. D. Bonch-Bruevich
Even in the Soviet Union there was a myth that the White movement was monarchical: "The White Army, the Black Baron again prepare the royal throne for us." In the post-Soviet era, this myth was significantly complemented by the fact that whites began to be considered carriers of Russian state patriotism.
They say that whites saved Russia, and the “bloody reds” killed her. Although in reality whites were ordinary mercenaries of Russian pro-Western capital and global capital. The Russian pro-Western, liberal-bourgeois elite of society (the February lists), overthrowing the tsar and destroying the autocracy, dreamed of making “sweet Europe” of Russia, turning it into a peripheral part of European civilization. However, it did not work out. The Westernizers did not know Russia and the Russian people at all. A Russian unrest began, aggravated by the destructive, stupid actions of the pro-Western Provisional Government.
Fevralista-Westerners quickly remained at the broken trough and lost power, which the Bolsheviks took in the center, and on the outskirts of the nationalists and Cossacks. But they did not want to accept and live quietly in Paris or Venice. In addition, there was an external order: the owners of the West wanted to destroy the Russian civilization and the Russian superethnos, their main conceptual and geopolitical adversary, once and for all. Therefore, hastily began the creation of nationalist and white governments and armies that transferred the already ongoing Civil War (the peasant war began immediately after February, like the criminal revolution) to a new, more serious level. As a result, whites appeared as mercenaries of the masters of the West.
The mythical picture of the guarantors and cornets, who began to defend the Motherland with their chests, “for the faith, the king and the Fatherland” and in the moment free from fighting with tears in their eyes, “God Save the Tsar!” No wonder one of the most prominent and talented white generals, Lieutenant-General Ya. A. Slashchov-Krymsky, leaving the White Army and going over to the Reds, wrote an article: "Slogans of Russian patriotism in the service of France." This is all the essence of the White movement is the service of the owners of the West under the cover of the slogan of salvation "united and indivisible Russia". From here comes the complete moral decay of the white elite, who understood or, at the subconscious level, felt her traitorous role in relation to the people.
The White movement, having received material aid and military aid from the West and Japan - in the form of direct intervention (invasion) of the western and eastern invaders, quickly lost even the external forms of the patriotic movement. In this way, The anti-Soviet counter-revolution appeared as a pro-Western force, leading to the loss of the integrity and independence of Russia, the complete destruction of Russian civilization and superethnos. The great Russian scientist D.I. Mendeleev, starting to create “Russian studies”, put a minimum condition in this idea: “survive and continue independent growth” of Russia. This is precisely the minimal, unchanging and fundamental task of Russian statehood. If at the same time Russia becomes a great developed power, then the task of Russian statehood is performed not at the minimum, but at a high level (as under Stalin). The whites fought for power on the ruins of “old Russia” and went under the masters of the West. No patriotism (except in words), one “business” - power and property, the ability to continue to parasitize on the people.
It is clear that the Russian people instantly saw through the vile essence of the White movement. This predetermined the loss of broad popular support and the defeat of the White Army. Even most of the officers of the former imperial army, which received pro-Western liberal upbringing and education in many respects, but remained Russian in their hearts, realized this and supported the Reds, since they really supported restoration of Russian statehood and great Russia. Half of the generals and officers of the General Staff, the color of the imperial army, began to serve in the Red Army. In the Red Army, the Tsarist generals and officers went to serve almost exclusively not for ideological, but for patriotic reasons. The Bolsheviks had a project and a program for the development of Russia as an independent power, and not the periphery of a European (Western) civilization. General M. D. Bonch-Bruyevich later wrote: “Rather, by instinct, than by reason, I was drawn to the Bolsheviks, seeing in them the only force capable of saving Russia from collapse and complete destruction.”
Excellently showed the essence of the views of Russian generals and officers who joined the Red Army, General A. A. Brusilov. The appeal “To all former officers, no matter where they are,” addressed by a large group of former generals of the Russian army led by Brusilov 30 in May 1920, when there was a threatening situation on the Polish front, said: “In this critical historical moment of our national life, we, your old comrades, appeal to your feelings of love and devotion to your homeland and appeal to you with an urgent request to forget all the insults, whoever and wherever they inflicted, and voluntarily go with complete selflessness and hunting to the Red Army and with it’s not a matter of fear for conscience, so that by our honest service, not sparing our lives, to defend dear Russia by all means and not to allow her to be plundered, for in the latter case she may be irretrievably lost, and then our descendants will curse us rightly and correctly blame that, because of the egoistic feelings of the class struggle, we did not use our combat knowledge and experience, we forgot our native Russian people and ruined our mother Russia. ”
Even the anti-Soviet historian M. Nazarov noted in his book “The Mission of the Russian Emigration”: “The orientation of the White movement to the Entente made many people fear that when White won, the foreign forces behind them would subordinate Russia to their interests.” The Red Army was increasingly perceived as a force restoring statehood and sovereignty of Russia.
Obviously, the The anti-Russian and anti-state nature of the pro-Western bourgeois-liberal (in the future white) project has matured and manifested itself even before the beginning of the turmoil. Union with the West during the Civil War only finally revealed this essence. It was the pro-Western bourgeois-liberal forces (the February lists) that crushed the Russian autocracy in February, which led to the collapse of the project and the Romanov empire. Westerners dreamed of leading Russia along the western path of development, for them the ideal of state, social and economic structure was England and France. The top of Russia - rotted aristocracy along with the grand dukes, nobility, generals with a part of senior officers, industrialists and bankers, the bourgeoisie and capitalists, the leaders of most political parties and movements, the liberal intelligentsia - dreamed of being part of the "enlightened West". Westerners were for the "market" and "democracy", the full power of the "owners of money," the owners. But their interests did not correspond to the national interests of Russia, the matrix code of the Russian civilization and the people. This radical rift and caused Russian distemper. In Russia, unrest begins when popular (national) interests are violated in the most despicable way, which happened in the 1917 year.
The essence of the pro-Western bourgeois-liberal (white) project, its anti-Russianness and anti-statehood are well reflected in the "Landmarks" and "From the Depth", and the writer V.V. Rozanov, and eyewitnesses of the "damned days" - I. Bunin and M. Prishvin . So, in Bunin's "Cursed Days" on each page we see one passion - the expectation of the arrival of the Germans with their ordnung and gallows. And if not the Germans, then at least some kind of foreigners - if only they would have occupied Russia as soon as possible, drove back into the mines and the rednecks that had raised their heads. “In the newspapers - about the beginning of the German offensive. Everyone says: "Oh, if only!" ... Yesterday B. was visited by decent people - and all in one voice: the Germans, thank God, are moving, took Smolensk and Bologoe ... Rumors about some Polish legions who also supposedly go to save us ... The Germans do not seem to go, as they usually go in war, fighting, conquering, and "just go by rail" - to occupy Petersburg ... After yesterday evening's news that Petersburg was already taken by the Germans , the newspapers were very disappointed ... As if the German corps had entered St. Petersburg. Tomorrow the decree on the denationalization of banks ... Saw V.V. fervently insulted the allies: they enter into negotiations with the Bolsheviks instead of going to occupy Russia ... "
And further: “Rumors and rumors. Petersburg was taken by the Finns ... Hindenburg is not going to Odessa, or to Moscow ... Everything, we are waiting for help from someone, from a miracle, from nature! Now we go daily to Nikolayevsky Boulevard: did not leave, God save, the French battleship, which for some reason is looming on the roadstead and in which it still seems easier. ”
This is shown very strongly in M. Bulgakov’s play The Days of the Turbins, written on the basis of the White Guard novel. The Turbins brothers and their friends are presented to us as carriers of Russian officer honor, like the type of people from whom we should take an example. But if we look at justice, then we see how the “White Guard” - officers and junker men, fire rifles and machine guns at certain “gray people” and serve the Germans and their puppet hetman. What do they protect? Here's what: “Both strikes of lieutenant stacks on faces, and shrapnel quick fire on recalcitrant villages, backs torn by ramrods of hetman serdyuk, and receipts on pieces of paper by the majors and lieutenants of the German army: . Good-natured, contemptuous laughter over those who came with such a receipt to the headquarters of the Germans in the city. "
And the “gray” people who were shot at by white officers, defending the hetman and the Germans, and at the same time dreaming of invading the French and Senegalese in Russia, are Russian soldiers and peasants brought by the old “elite” to the Civil War. And these officers are samples of honor and patriotism? Obviously not. Generals Brusilov and Bonch-Bruyevich, Colonel Shaposhnikov, non-commissioned officers Rokossovsky and Chapaev - these are examples to imitate and educate the younger generation in the spirit of love for the Motherland.
Thus, the whites were ready to rely even on the Germans, like Ataman Krasnov, even on the French, British and Americans - like Denikin and Kolchak. Meanwhile, the red feverishly recreated the Russian (Soviet) statehood and the army to repel the interventionists and their local slaves. At the same time, to build a country where there will be no social parasites, where everyone will be able to get such an education as their intellectual potential will allow them to create powerful science and industry so as not to depend on the West.
The “Supreme Ruler” of Russia, Admiral A.V. Kolchak, whom representatives of the modern liberal public of Russia so loved (apparently, they saw “their own”), was a real “condottier”, a mercenary of the West, supplied by the owners of Great Britain and the USA. He wrote literally about the Russian people as the extreme Russophobe of perestroika: "a wild and distraught (and devoid of similarity) people unable to get out of the psychology of slaves." Under the rule of Kolchak in Siberia, such cruelties were committed against this people that the peasant uprisings in the rear of the white army became almost the main factor for the defeat of the whites. In addition, Kolchak was a prominent February-revolutionary, with his fate crushed the royal throne.
In present-day Russia, A. I. Denikin tried to make a national hero. They note that he did not help Hitler and wished the victory of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War. But it is in its declining years. And during the time of troubles, Denikin de facto served the masters of the West. As noted by the remarkable Russian writer and researcher during the Revolution and the Civil War in Russia, V.V. Kozhinov: “Anton Ivanovich Denikin was in unconditional submission to the West.” Biography A. I. Denikin D. Lekhovich defined the views of the leader of the White movement as liberalism and hopes that "the Cadet party can lead Russia to a constitutional monarchy of the British type", so that "the idea of loyalty to the allies [Entente] acquired the character of a symbol of faith."
You cannot separate the White movement and foreign intervention, as often do anti-Soviet researchers, supporters of whites. They are inextricably linked. Without the intervention of the Western powers and Japan, the Civil War in Russia would not have taken such a scale. The Bolsheviks would have suppressed the centers of resistance of the whites, separatist nationalists, Basmachis and bandit groups much faster and without such big sacrifices. Without Western deliveries of weapons and materials, the whites and national armies would not have been able to expand their activities.