Military Review

French aviation elegance. Part 2


Despite attempts to simplify and reduce the cost of the Mirage 5 strike, it remained too expensive, complex, and vulnerable to use as a massive low-altitude strike aircraft designed to render aviation support of ground forces.

In 1964, the headquarters of the French Air Force formulated tactical and technical requirements for a cheap and simple in design supersonic aircraft designed to perform tactical support missions.
Taking into account the economic feasibility of the government of France and the UK signed an agreement 17 May 1965, the joint construction of the aircraft, which would meet the requirements of both countries.

The development of the airframe design was entrusted to Breguet Aviation and British Aircraft, and the creation of the engine to Rolls-Royce and Tyurbomek. Due to operational requirements and safety considerations, a twin-engine scheme was adopted using engines of the joint Anglo-French production of the Adur type.
During the construction of the aircraft, the cooperating firms formed the association SEPECAT. After 18 months from the date of signing the agreement, construction began on the first prototype.

French Air Force needed more double "Jaguars" than single. It is for this reason that the first E-series French Jaguar was the Sparka E, which first flew into the air on November 2 1971 of the year, while the first A-series fighter-bomber performed the first flight of only 20 on April 1972 of the year.

The plane with a normal take-off weight of 11000 kg, accelerated from the ground to 1350 km / h, at an altitude of: 1593 km / h. Combat radius on the profile “big-small-big” height with PTB: 1315 km, without PTB: 815 km.

The Jaguar A is a French single-seat modification of a fighter-bomber. Starting with the 18 built aircraft, it is equipped with refueling rods, which allow refueling at altitudes up to 12 000 m with a fuel transfer rate of 700-1000 l / min. Duration of refueling 3-5 min. Compared with the British "Jaguar" is more simple equipment and DEFA 553 guns with 150 ammunition shells.
"Jaguar" E-double modification for the French Air Force. Starting with the 27-series serial in the forward part of the fuselage, instead of the LDPE, a refueling bar was installed, which later appeared on some earlier “Sparki” squadrons of the ES11 for flights to “overseas” territories. Total French Air Force received 40 two-seater "Jaguar E".

Soon on the Jaguar E were tested new warning devices and EW, as well as laser rangefinders, target indicators Marconi Avionics LRMTS. First, the characteristic flat EW container appeared on the keel, then under the shortened LDPE - a wedge-shaped LRMTS window. In this form, the plane went into the series. By 1980, the Adour Mk.102 engines were replaced by the Mk.104, run-in on export aircraft. The Jaguar A fighters-bomber in the French Air Force delivered 160 units, the latter delivered 14 December 1981 of the year.

French aviation elegance. Part 2

All modifications, with the exception of the Jaguar B, have stationary weapons in the form of two guns (caliber 30 mm) with a supply of 150 projectiles. on each. French planes are equipped with DEFA cannons, British - with Aiden cannons (modification B is equipped with one cannon). The plane has five locks for external hangers (two under the wing consoles and one under the fuselage) with a total capacity of 4500 kg. Bombs, NURS SNEB containers or Mazhik air-to-air missiles made by Matra can be suspended on under-wing locks (carrying capacity of 1000 kg and 500 kg). The ventral lock (1000 kg) is adapted for hanging bombs and air-to-ground guided missiles (tactical nuclear weapons).

Jaguar Indian Air Force

Export deliveries of the Jaguars were carried out in Ecuador, Oman and Nigeria. In India, licensed production was organized, mass production proceeded slowly and continued until the 1992 year (built under a license of more than 100 aircraft). A distinctive feature of the Indian Jaguars has become the adaptability to work with Durendal concrete bombs.

For the first time, the French Jaguars were used in hostilities at the end of 1977 - the beginning of 1978 of the year, during Operation Manatee, directed against the fighters of the Liberation Front of the North-West Africa “Polissario” settled in Senegal. Several combat missions "Jaguars" performed on objects located in the territory of Mauritania, in the former Spanish Sahara. The rebels were well armed. Three "Jaguars" were shot down by air defense.

In the same year, 1978 was used in Chad. Paris assisted its recent colony. During Operation Takyu, in which Jaguars arrived in Chad, four of them were lost. Operation Takyu was not successful; by 1980, the Prolivian forces controlled most of Chad’s territory. Paris had to withdraw its troops from Chad, although the limited military presence of the French in this African country remained.
Jaguars reappeared over Chad in 1983. For almost a year, the planes flew unhindered patrol flights until, in January 1984, one Jaguar was hit by a successful line-up fired from an 23-mm anti-aircraft gun during the attack of a column of rebel equipment.
In Chad, the French used AS-37 Martel anti-radar missiles with the Jaguars to suppress Libyan radar. So 7 January 1987 of the year during the next raid on Quadi Dum was launched ten AS-37 "Martel" missiles. The raid on Quadi Doum was the latest combat use of the Jaguars in Africa.

The Jaguars reached their peak of glory in 1991, taking part in the Desert Shield and Desert Storm operations. "Jaguars" were used only during the day, mainly in simple weather conditions. The first combat sortie of the French Jaguars took place on 17 on January 1991, on the first day of the war. Twelve aircraft struck the positions of SCAD missiles at the Ahmed Al-Jaber airbase. The planes dropped Beluga containers from 30 meters and fired several AS-30L missiles. Above the target, the planes encountered heavy anti-aircraft artillery fire, with the result that four aircraft were damaged. On one, an anti-aircraft projectile hit the right engine, another plane got a Strela missile from the left engine. The engine caught fire, however, the pilot managed to keep control of the aircraft and made an emergency landing. Another “Jaguar” anti-aircraft shell pierced through the cockpit lantern along with the pilot's helmet inside the lantern. The head of the pilot, surprisingly, did not suffer.

However, with the massive suppression of control, radar and anti-aircraft missile systems of Iraq’s defense, almost no special means were used to prevent active actions of the barreled anti-aircraft artillery, as a result of which the Soviet-made paired and quadruple installations caused serious damage to the aviation of the multinational forces.

Under these conditions, light Jaguars successfully performed anti-aircraft maneuvers and suffered smaller losses. The very same aircraft when receiving combat damage was very tenacious.
Subsequently, to prevent losses, it was decided to abandon low-altitude flights and proceed to strikes using guided bombs.

"Jaguar" has earned the glory of a simple and reliable, unpretentious to the conditions of operation of the aircraft with excellent combat survivability. At the Red Flag joint exercises with the United States, which were very close to the combat situation, the fighters of the “defending” side considered the Jaguar to be the most “difficult to attack” strike aircraft. In France, it was discontinued in 2005.
Later on this issue in the French press expressed regret. According to some experts, "Jaguar" was removed from the weapons too quickly. This aircraft lacked the French contingent in Afghanistan. Instead, it used a more expensive and vulnerable Mirage 2000.

At the beginning of the 1960-x began work on determining the appearance of the aircraft, which was supposed to replace the "Mirage" III.
After a series of experiments with a variable geometry wing, lift-marching and dual-engine engines, the Dassault firm opted for the classic layout of the fighter. The decisive advantage of this scheme over the tailless was the opportunity to develop much higher lift coefficients with a balanced aircraft, which is very important for improving maneuverability and takeoff and landing qualities.

The Mirage F1-01 prototype, equipped with the SNECMA Atar 09KD, 7000 kgf, flew for the first time into the 23 December 1966 g. and run. Duty time in the air has tripled. The combat radius doubled when attacking ground targets.

The first and most mass modification of the F1 Mirage for the French Air Force was an all-weather air defense fighter built in two versions. The first of these, the Mirage, F1C, supplied the customer from March 1973 to April 1977. In production, he was replaced by the "Mirage" F1C-200, the deliveries of which ended in December 1983. The main difference with the later version was the availability of equipment for in-flight refueling.

The basis of the fire control system was monopulse radar "Cyrano" IV with a range of target detection of the type "fighter" to 60 km, and tracking - to 45 km.

The aircraft’s armament consisted of the two French 30-mm Defa cannons that were traditional for French fighters. On the external nodes were placed air-to-air missiles of medium range R.530 with semi-active radar or infrared seeker and melee R.550 "Majik" With IR-seeker. A typical combat load option included two R.530 missiles on the wing nodes and two R.550 on the wingtips. Subsequently, the composition of weapons expanded with new modifications of missiles - "Super" R.530F / D and "Magik" 2. The possibilities of attacking ground targets were initially limited to the use of only unguided means of destruction - the NAR and free-fall bombs. Later, the AS.1 “Martel”, the “Exochet” anti-ship missiles and adjustable bombs entered the F37 Mirage arsenal.

The first foreign buyer of fighters "Mirage" F1 became the Republic of South Africa. After South Africa, Mirages F1 was ordered by Spain, which became the largest European operator of such aircraft after France. Later they were shipped to Greece, Libya, Morocco, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait and Ecuador.
With export orders, the number of F1 Mirage units built exceeded 350 units. Repeat the success of "bestseller" "Mirage" III failed. By that time, the 4 generation fighters, which had the best performance, had already appeared.

The planes participated in the war in Western Sahara, the war in Angola, the Ecuadorian-Peruvian conflict, the Chadian-Libyan conflict, the Iran-Iraq war, the Persian Gulf war, the Turkish-Greek conflict, and the civil war in Libya.

The French 4 generation aircraft was the Mirage 2000, which first flew in March 10 1978. It was assumed that the aircraft would combine the speed and acceleration characteristics of the F.1 Mirage interceptor fighter with the ability of the Mirage III aircraft to conduct short, maneuverable air combat. During the development of the fighter, the Dassault company again returned to the well-developed “tailless” scheme, which had proven itself well on the Mirage III fighters. From their predecessors, the Mirage 2000 inherited a large wing area and a glider with significant internal volumes for fuel and airborne equipment. It has been applied electrical control system, the aircraft became unstable along the pitch channel. In addition, the combined use of automatic slats and ailerons gave the wing a variable curvature, which further improved flight performance and controllability at low speeds. The fighter was designed to be as light as possible, in order to ensure that, in using a single SNECMA M53-5 turbofan engine, the thrust-to-weight ratio is equal to 1.

The aircraft is equipped with an ejector seat Martin-Baker F10Q, produced under license by the company Hispano-Suiza and ensuring the rescue of the pilot at zero speed and altitude.

The basis of the onboard electronic equipment of the aircraft is a multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar RD-I, which provides a search for air targets against the background of the underlying surface and in free space.
On the double Mirage 2000D and N versions, instead of it, the 5 Antelope radar is installed, which provides an overview of the earth's surface in the forward hemisphere and the flight of the aircraft in the rounding mode of the terrain. The aircraft is also equipped with TAKAN radionavigation system equipment, radar identification systems, warning of the exposure of the enemy's radar, and electronic countermeasures.

The stationary armament of the aircraft consists of two DEFA 30 caliber mm cannons located in the lower part of the fuselage between the air intakes. On nine locks of external hangers, the aircraft can carry bombs and missiles and a total weight of 5000 kg. A typical 2000C interception load includes two UR Matra "Super" 530D or 530F on internal underwing nodes and two UR Matra 550 "Majik" or "Majik" 2 on external underwing nodes. In a strike configuration, an aircraft can carry up to 18 bombs with a caliber 250 kg or concrete bombs BAR 100; to 16 concrete bombs "Durendal"; one or two BGL bombs caliber 1000 kg with a laser guidance system; five or six Beluga cluster bombs; two laser-guided AS30L UR, anti-radar Matr ARMAT or anti-ship AM39 "Exocet"; four containers with NAR (18x68 mm). The Mirage 2000N is armed with an ASMP rocket with a nuclear warhead of 150 kt.

The first serial fighter-interceptor "Mirage" 2000С made the first flight in November 1982 year, and the first squadron of the French Air Force, equipped with new aircraft, began combat duty in the summer 1984 year. The French Air Force was delivered 121 aircraft "Mirage" 2000С. The total amount of the purchased and ordered Mirage aircraft 2000 (together with two-seater shock modifications) - 547 units.

The further development of the single-seat fighter was the aircraft with the more powerful MNNXX-R53 TRDDF, intended for export deliveries. On the fighters, the RDM radar was installed with a radar-lighting system for air-to-air class-to-medium-range air Super 2D. Aircraft of this type were supplied by the UAE (530 "Mirage" 22EAD), Egypt (2000 "Mirage" 16), India (2000 "Mirage" 42Н) and Peru (2000 "Mirage" 10Р).

In October, the 1990 began flight tests of the multi-purpose Mirage 2000-5 fighter equipped with the new avionics and armament, as well as the more powerful M88-Р20 engine. In 1994, work began on the conversion to the Mirage version of the 2000-5 part of the Mirage 2000C interceptor fighter of the latest release.

The Mirage 2000 of various modifications repeatedly participated in international exercises, where they conducted training aerial battles with fighters produced outside of France.

Google Earth Satellite Image: Mirage 2000 at US Navy Jacksonville Air Base

According to the results of these battles, the US military came to the conclusion that without exception, all modifications of the Mirage 2000 did not have superiority over the Navy and US Air Force fighters.

Mirage 2000 French Air Force on Red Flag Exercises, US Nellis Air Force Base, August 2006

At the same time, it was noted that in a number of cases the Mirage pilots had previously been able to detect a conventional enemy fighter using an onboard radar. When conducting close maneuvering combat at low speeds, American fighters could not always perform aerobatics available to the Mirage with a delta wing, built according to the “tailless” scheme.

At the same time, the pilots of the Mirage expressed a desire to have a missile similar in their characteristics to the latest AIM-120 AMRAAM.

As part of the French Air Force participated in the fighting against Iraq in 1991 year. Used in hostilities in Bosnia and aggression against Serbia. The French Mirage 2000 members of the international forces in Afghanistan were based at Kabul airport.

The wreckage of the French "Mirage 2000" lost in Afghanistan

The fighter is in service with the Air Forces of France, Egypt, India, Peru, the United Arab Emirates, Greece, Jordan and Taiwan.

4 July 1986, for the first time, a new fourth-generation multi-purpose fighter, the Rafale (French Flurry), developed by the French company Dassault Aviation, took to the air for the first time.

It was created as part of a rather ambitious project. “One aircraft for all missions” - that was the motto of the Dassault designers when creating “Rafal”, intended to replace six specialized types at once: “Cruzader” and “Super Entandar” - with navy, “Mirage F1”, “Jaguar” and two versions of “Mirage 2000” - in the Air Force. The multifunctionality of the new fighter, the French, first of all, see a means of long-term reduction of defense spending. According to many experts, Rafal will be the last combat aircraft in Europe (after the Swedish Gripen), created entirely in one country.

The Rafal aerodynamic layout is based on Dassault's 40 years of experience in improving the Mirage family of fighters. It is based on the traditional delta wing of a large area, and as a new element, a small front horizontal tail was used. Most likely, the installation of CSP aims to overcome the shortcomings of the Mirage, which are associated with the inability to develop large lift coefficients on the wing due to the lack of feathering that could balance them. MCP, combined with the traditionally low wing load and statically unstable longitudinal layout, is designed to significantly increase the maneuverability of the fighter, although there is no talk of super-maneuverability. In addition, a large wing allows you to lift an unprecedentedly large combat load into the air - 9 t., With an empty aircraft mass around 10 t. The designers of Dassault Aviation succeeded in creating a relatively simple fighter with unregulated air inlets and without air brake flaps, thus simplifying maintenance.

“Rafal” is controlled by a digital electroplating system (EDS), which provides balancing and controllability of a statically unstable aircraft.

On the "Rafale" installed radar RBE2, created jointly by Thomson-CSF and Dassault Electronique. This is the first mass-produced Western fighter radar with a phased array. As stated in the advertising information on the aircraft, in air combat, RBE2 can accompany up to 40 targets, assign priorities to eight of them, and simultaneously attack four.

The MNNXX-88 TRDDF installed on the Rafale production versions is distinguished by its low mass (about 2 kg), compactness (diameter 900 m) and high fuel efficiency. It has a take-off thrust of 0,69 kgf, which increases with boost afterburning to 5100 kgf. It uses a digital control system with which the engine can go from “small gas” mode to maximum afterburner during 7650 s.

The aircraft is installed 30-mm gun Nexter DEFA 791B, ammunition - 125 cartridges.
To accommodate the armament there 14 suspension nodes. The main weapon of the air-to-air class on the Rafale is the Mika rocket. It can hit targets in melee and outside visual range. There are two versions of the rocket: the Mika EM with an active radar guidance system and the Mika IR with a thermal imaging homing vessel. Perhaps the use of promising long-range missiles MBDA Meteor, designed for fighter Eurofighter "Typhoon". In addition to air-to-air weapons, a wide range of guided and unguided munitions to destroy ground and surface targets is included in weapons.

To date, there are the following serial options "Rafal":
Rafale B - Double, ground-based.
Rafale D - Single, ground-based.
Rafale M - Single, carrier-based.
Rafale BM - Double, carrier-based.

As of September 2013, the Rafale 121 was produced. In January, 2012 of the year, Rafale won the MRCA tender for the supply of 126 multi-role fighters for the Indian Air Force, which secured a large export order and saved the aircraft from being discontinued. The aircraft participated in the hostilities in Afghanistan and Libya.

The global trends of globalization of the world economy have not spared the French aviation industry. Since the beginning of the 70-ies, a significant part of the program to create new types of aircraft was carried out in the framework of international consortia.
Although all of these consortia worked on the same programs, often there were financial and technical disagreements between the countries from which the contractors participated in these programs.

To prevent this and better co-ordinate in the fight for sales markets, the pan-European aviation and space concern EADS was established in 2000. It includes almost all European aviation consortium as joint-stock companies. Since then, the French aviation industry has largely lost its national framework. Almost all of the leading firms in France are involved
to one degree or another in the pan-European aviation engineering programs.
Despite this, state control over this industry is very large. The French government tightly controls and prevents foreigners from gaining access to the assets and technologies of the national aviation industry.
The basis of the modern aviation industry in France are state-owned or state-controlled firms. The aviation industry has a significant research and experimental base corresponding to modern standards. France is one of the few countries capable of building complex weapons systems, a major exporter of fighters, missiles and helicopters.

Created in France, combat aircraft fully complied with the requirements of their time, possessing good flight data, they bear the imprint of unique French design and elegance.

Based on:Авиационная_промышленность_Франции
Articles from this series:
French aviation elegance. Part 1
French aviation elegance. Part 2
French aviation elegance. Part 3
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  1. Su-9
    Su-9 5 December 2013 08: 19 New
    Good review.
    In my opinion, MirageF1 is the best French jet aircraft in terms of all its qualities.
    A very dangerous rival in aerial combat and a good weapon platform with minimal maintenance requirements.
    Flying against it is very difficult in all modes on comparable platforms both Soviet (MiG-21, MiG-23, Su-15) and Western (F-104, F-4, F-5, Hunter ...).
    In a total war in the 70s, 80s would have the best chance of flying after a month of hostilities.
    But he did not become a bestseller because the Franks squeezed in the third Mirage to everyone who had money; potential buyers did not have enough money for F1.
    1. Bongo
      5 December 2013 09: 51 New
      The Mirage F1 had good acceleration characteristics, which predetermined its use mostly as an interceptor. In terms of the maneuverability of the F-5 and the Hunter, he was apparently inferior.
      1. zyablik.olga
        zyablik.olga 8 December 2013 11: 57 New
        Perhaps the MiG-23 was also worth doing with the wing of unchangeable geometry from which he would have won. It would be cheaper, easier to maintain and repair.
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 5 December 2013 10: 42 New
      Outwardly, I like "Rafali". In addition, their performance characteristics are some of the best among cars in their class.
      1. Bongo
        5 December 2013 10: 46 New
        I agree with you - a very nice aircraft with good flight data (according to the brochures). But personally, I have doubts about the ability of "Raphael" to carry a combat load weighing more than 9 tons.
        1. StolzSS
          StolzSS 5 December 2013 19: 58 New
          Yes, this is a fairy tale))) It carries 9 tons at 30 percent refueling and when taking off from certain airfields. In Bagram, it can only lift 2-3 tons when fully loaded, so it’s such an advertisement hi
  2. La-5
    La-5 5 December 2013 09: 26 New
    Well done French managed to maintain and develop their aviprom in conditions of fierce competition from the USA.
  3. andrey-ivanov
    andrey-ivanov 5 December 2013 09: 29 New
    In the picture of the Jacksonville base, with a high degree of probability, it is not the Mirage 2000 that will be filmed, but the Kfir. In my opinion there is PGO visible, which 2000 does not have. Perhaps I am wrong - the image is small.
    1. Bongo
      5 December 2013 09: 42 New
      No, apparently it's all the same "Mirage", PGO is not visible there. "Kfirs" were rented in the USA in the early 90s. Then they were returned to Israel. And it is too troublesome and costly for the Americans to keep Kfir in working order now.
      For some reason, a picture with a larger image does not load.
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 5 December 2013 20: 34 New
        This is Kfir, not Mirage. Although similar. Kfir has a more elongated nose. Everything is as in the photo. Just from above the PGO merges with the leading edge of the wing. Well, camouflage does not help.
  4. Bongo
    5 December 2013 09: 47 New
    But the plane next to I can not identify.
    1. kotdavin4i
      kotdavin4i 5 December 2013 15: 38 New
      Quote: Bongo
      But the plane next to I can not identify.

      AV-8 - Harrier
      1. Bongo
        5 December 2013 16: 41 New
        Here is the AV-8 - Harrier
    2. Su-9
      Su-9 5 December 2013 19: 57 New
      This is Hunter of course. With tanks.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 5 December 2013 22: 13 New
        Three Hunter T.Mk 8 planes were converted into a T.Mk 8M combat trainer designed to familiarize naval pilots with the radar of the Sea Harrier FRS.Mk fighter 1. In the picture, one of these aircraft, which entered the 899th training squadron, was photographed in a joint flight with Sea Harrier and Harrier T.Mk 4N from the same squadron.
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 5 December 2013 22: 22 New
          Hawker Hunter
  5. Argon
    Argon 5 December 2013 12: 54 New
    In general, I agree with the Su-9, but I would not rush to "titles". The Mirage-1 as a whole, being an analogue of our MiG-23 (only in smaller MGH), was created during a period of uncertainty in the views of the warriors on the conditions for using the future fighter, which led to certain "vacillations" in the design (like the 23rd). As a result of the protracted "creation cycle" (and here Mirage-1 shared the fate of the MiG-23), technically quite promising, the platform appeared almost simultaneously with the 4th generation machines, which was As for the maneuverable characteristics, the key here is the choice of concepts, to fly, the "Tiger" is based on a more advanced, transformable, aerodynamic model. To fight, a full-fledged Mirage radar will become a decisive argument, here, as in the saying, "The best technique karate in a Kalashnikov assault rifle "- I would like to draw the reader's attention to the situation with the appearance of the Mirage-2000, the use of EDSU made it possible, to a large extent, to neglect the" Aheles heels "with controllability, and soon stee roll, the car leader is still unsurpassed, had the ability to use medium-range air-to-air missiles and was a third cheaper than the peer / competitor-F-16A (could only use short-range missiles). It was a resounding slap in the face of amers and an excellent alternative (on the aircraft market) for those who did not want to get involved with them. Some confusion caused me to mention the "Raphael" as a 4th generation fighter, well, the French did not have the will and money to abandon an almost finished car (unlike our MiG-1.42; C -37), in addition to a slightly reduced potential in the optimization of EPR, the machine is modern, fully meeting the level of today's "norms" of generation 5, and most importantly, it is already in service, probably the only one of the "fives" that has managed to fight.
    1. mvg
      mvg 5 December 2013 15: 05 New
      moment 1.44 and the Su-37 is not the "fifth" generation, and there is no engine and weapons there
      1. SkiF_RnD
        SkiF_RnD 27 December 2013 22: 59 New
        But the S-37 and MiG 1.44 are fifth-generation cars. Projects are not completed, this is a question for the 90s. But the requirements of the time the machine met. What do you mean no weapons? What does it mean? No engine? According to TTZ, the engine was) oddly enough, the fifth generation engine. And the weapon was medium-range missiles with ARGSN, the deployment of ammunition in the internal compartment. What do you want to say that the experts referring these machines to the 5th generation of fools?
    2. SkiF_RnD
      SkiF_RnD 27 December 2013 22: 56 New
      Why mislead people? The article is written faithfully aircraft 4 generations (4+, to be more precise).

      the machine is modern, fully meeting the level of today's "norms" of generation 5, and most importantly it is already in service, probably the only one of the "fives" that has managed to fight.

      Modern, no doubt. Modern car 4 generations.
      Requirements for fifth generation aircraft
      1. Cruising supersonic with combat load. (at least in light version)
      2. Stealth. (RL, IR, etc.)
      3. Radar with AFAR.
      4. Super maneuverability.
      5. Placement of weapons in the internal compartments (brought separately, but this radar stealth)
      6. Complete IMS.
      You can go on. But the French "Shkval" does not meet the key requirements for the 5th generation at all. For example, the Russian Su-35S is objectively much closer to the 5th generation (at least its avionics are more perfect, there is a cruising supersonic sound, at least nominally. Supermaneuverability.)
      On what basis can an aircraft of the 4th generation be ranked among the 5th? What's worse "Flu"? Or F \ A-18E?
      The fifth generation aircraft are F-22, F-35, J-20, T-50, Shinshin. In Europe, such machines have not been created and are not expected in the next decade.
      Generation 5 cars do not have to meet all the criteria of their time. Emphasis can be shifted (Raptor does not have super-maneuverability, for example, although it was in the requirements for the project)
      But Rafal does not even develop Mach 2 on the afterburner, doesn’t show his own radar, carries weapons under the wings, does not stand out among other 4+ generation aircraft, its maneuverability is average among analogs.
  6. Zymran
    Zymran 5 December 2013 12: 55 New
    More articles on the topic will be? It would be interesting to read about Super Ethandars.
    1. Bongo
      5 December 2013 12: 56 New
      The third part is on the way.
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 5 December 2013 13: 45 New
        Will wait.
  7. mvg
    mvg 5 December 2013 14: 16 New
    why doubts about the combat load? f-18 is a "super bumblebee" too, with a comparable mass it carries 8.5-9 .. I do not think that "snack" is worse than "pratt and vitney" or "general dynamics", the more the wing area is larger, the lift is higher. and it was not for nothing that they "drew" 14 nodes of suspension, a very beautiful and pleasant airplane, and the BSUO is one of the leading ones. good fellows "frogs", especially since this bird can sit on the deck. potential buyers are repelled by the price and complexity of the aircraft. and so, hypothetically, I would gladly change all the moment-29 at least an ovt, at least a cube for, albeit half as much, the number of "rafals"
  8. lx
    lx 5 December 2013 15: 45 New
    [quote = Bongo] I agree with you - a very nice plane with good flight data (if you believe the brochures). / quote]
    why only by advertising - he’s already flown enough
    [quote = Bongo] But personally I have doubts about the ability of "Raphael" to carry a combat load weighing more than 9 tons. [/ quote]
    why? generally strictly on performance characteristics there after 9 "only" 500 kg. In fact, among the current real configurations, there are no BP and 9 tons. I don't remember exactly, but for example 4.5-5 bombs. So the Su-35 cannot carry 8 tons of bombs. This is just a characteristic of the max. takeoff weight and cumulative load of all suspension points
  9. lx
    lx 5 December 2013 16: 01 New

    Quote: kotdavin4i
    Quote: Bongo
    But the plane next to I can not identify.

    AV-8 - Harrier

    hmm, the sweep angle on the trailing edge of the wing is clearly not the same. Anyway, the area and location of the wings. Rather * some kind of ntandar. The air intakes are just not visible, but this is more likely due to the photo.
    1. Su-9
      Su-9 5 December 2013 19: 58 New
      This is hunter. With tanks.
      Here the youth has gone! wink
  10. lx
    lx 5 December 2013 20: 45 New
    Quote: Su-9
    This is hunter. With tanks.
    Here the youth has gone! wink

    Taki yes - most likely he. good
  11. Su-9
    Su-9 5 December 2013 22: 00 New
    Quote: Bongo
    No, apparently it's all the same "Mirage", PGO is not visible there. "Kfirs" were rented in the USA in the early 90s. Then they were returned to Israel. And it is too troublesome and costly for the Americans to keep Kfir in working order now.
    For some reason, a picture with a larger image does not load.

    Photo Kfira can be from RedFlag. There, Israelis almost always fly.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 5 December 2013 22: 29 New
      .................................................. ..............................
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 6 December 2013 06: 10 New
        2000th handsome of course. There are no words. Is this from a movie of some sort?
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 6 December 2013 10: 20 New
          "Knights of the Sky", the plot and the film are about nothing, but the shooting is amazing.
    2. Bongo
      6 December 2013 12: 23 New
      Kfirov in the Israeli Air Force is no longer there.
    3. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 8 December 2013 11: 59 New
      Fly, but not on Kfirah.
  12. iaf-man
    iaf-man 8 December 2013 03: 26 New
    That's right-Kfirs in Israel have long been sent to retire.
    The photographs show the planes of the civilian company ATAS.
    Like 2 Hunters and 1 Kfir S. 2

    They have both Skyhawks and a couple of Draken and Albatross
  13. iaf-man
    iaf-man 8 December 2013 10: 42 New
    Links for some reason did not appear completely