The scientific version of this article was published in the edition of the Academy of Military Sciences "Bulletin of the Academy of Military Sciences" No. 2 and 2013.
Part of the 2 Gunner may hit the head piece.
The first part of the article shows that the armies of the whole world teach their soldiers to take up a firing position “high enough to observe all targets, but remain as low as possible.” Therefore, in firing duels, the submachine gunner with the Kalashnikov practically never sees breast targets. Only head figures No. 5 or No. 5 from our “Shooting Course” :
And it is precisely in such - head - targets that our submachine gunner shoots with a direct shot for the chest figure.
Consider what this leads to.
The head figure has a height of just 0,3. Therefore, the average trajectory of "4" at distances from 150 to 300 meters passes above the upper edge of the head figure, as can be seen from the "Table of firing at ground targets from rifle weapons 5,45 and 7,62 mm gauges ”(hereinafter referred to as GRAU Tables) [5, table 11, sight line“ 4 ”]. At sight "P" (440) the trajectory is even higher, and the excess is even greater.
For a head figure, the direct shot range is between the “3” sight, the height of the trajectory of which is 0,2 [5, table 1] and the sight of “4”, the height of the trajectory of which is 0,4 [5, table 1]. Therefore, a direct shot at the head of the figure must be made with an "3".
Based on the above considerations, we will compare four ways to choose the most effective method of shooting at the head: direct shots with the “P”, “4” and “3” sights, as well as a shot with a target corresponding to the target range - an “exact” sight.
To assess the effectiveness of each method of shooting, the author calculated the probability of hitting at different ranges for the best shooters. The calculation was made according to the methodology described in the monograph “Efficiency of firing from automatic weapons” [2, formulas 3.3.4, 4.2.4, 4.6.1], the mean deviation of dispersion is taken from the GRAU Tables [5, table 27], the dimensions of the head figure are from the Shooting Course  , trajectories exceeding the aiming line - from the GRAU Tables [5, 11 table] depending on the sight and distance for which the calculation is made.
Moreover, since the full data on the excess of the trajectory above the aiming line are not presented for the “P” sight, for this sight, the calculation was performed only at three ranges:
• 100m, where the excess of the trajectory above the aiming line is taken to be 0,29m = exceeding the sight “4” + (exceeding the sight “5” - exceeding the sight “4”) / 100м * 40м = 0,24м + (0,37мmm XNXXмm XMNMXm * 0,24м * 100м = 40м + (XNUMXмм XNXXмм XMNMМм * XNUMXм)
• 250м, where approximately the top of the “P” trajectory is located, therefore, the excess there is equal to the height of the chest target = 0,5м;
• 440, where dispersion characteristics are applied for the 450 range.
From the result of the calculation it appears that the probability of hitting the first (single) shots is noticeably lower than the probability of hitting bursts on the 3 shot. That is, firing bursts saves the main resource - time to hit the target, so further analysis of the effectiveness of our methods of firing will be carried out only in queues at the 3 shot.
The 12 picture fully confirms the basic postulate: “The degree of combining the midpoint of hits (STP) with the center of the target determines the accuracy of shooting” [2, section 3.5.]. In our case, the probability of hitting is inversely proportional to the deviation of the average trajectory from the center of the target: the greater the deviation, the less likely the hitting. Thus, at the 250 range, the probability of hitting 4 in the highest trajectory “P” is less than that of the “3” trajectory (0,77 / 0,19) closest to the center of the target. At the 300 range, the STP of the “exact” sight coincides with the center of the target, and the STP of the “3” sight is located on the lower edge of the target, because the probability of hitting the “exact” target is greater there.
Calculate the average number of turns on 3 cartridge, necessary for the defeat of the head figure according to the formula:
N = 1 / P1,
where N is the average number of turns on the 3 cartridge,
P1 - the probabilities of hitting a cartridge with different sights with the 3 burst, indicated in Figure 12.
The results are rounded to the tenths:
So, the best and closest in terms of the probability of hitting and the number of required queues are at the exact shot and the direct shot with the 3 sight. But an accurate shot with a mechanical sight when you change the distance to the target takes time to rearrange the sight.
Therefore, with the mechanical sight, the most effective up to the 300 range should be considered a direct shot with the “3” sight.
In fact, at ranges 150 ÷ 300, one machine gunner using a direct shot with an “3” sight, according to the number of head targets hit during the same time (number of queues), is equivalent to 4 ÷ 5 machine gunners using the “P” sight ( 5,3 / 1,3) or 2 ÷ 3 to machine gunners using the “4” sight (2,3 / 1,1).
With the “P” sight, the 3 burst chuck’s target number 5 located at 250 range is so small (0,19) that such a target can only be hit with 5 ÷ -6 bursts. And with each extra turn, our submachine gun unmasks itself and is substituted for counter-fire. The enemy leading the fire duel with our submachine gun in a more efficient way simply leaves no time for the production of these 5 ÷ 6 queues on him. That's where the ratio of losses is not in favor of "Kalashnikov" in real combat.
Moreover, such a low efficiency of fire with “P” and “4” sights is for the best shooters, that is, it is impossible to improve this efficiency with any training of shooters. Medium shooters have worse performance.
The low effectiveness of shooting with “P” and “4” sights on the head figure has long been established in practice and is de facto recognized. Back in the shooting course of 1985 of the year [4, Chapter Five, Shooting exercises from a machine gun, a carbine, a sniper rifle, a light machine gun and a Kalashnikov machine gun], there were no exercises where machine gunners fired at a head target - it’s useless, with a direct shot with sights "4" and "P" still do not fall.
But recognizing the low effectiveness of this method of firing from AK, for some reason we did not find an alternative, but simply gave the range to 150 ÷ 300 to the enemy. For which we pay the catastrophic ratio of losses in the battles against M-16.
Modern American ACOG riflescopes (Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight) on M-16, M-4 and other small arms make it possible to quickly set an “accurate” sight (find the right crosshair), and therefore have the maximum chance for a discrete sight. Moreover, due to the multiplicity of the optical sight, target detection is faster, and aiming errors become less.
Shooting with an ACOG sight is shooting with an “accurate” sight, the most effective method of shooting discussed above. Therefore, replacing a direct shot with “P” or “4” sights with a direct shot with an “3” sight, we will only get closer to the effectiveness of M-16 shooting with ACOG, but will not reach it. Our gunner urgently needs a better ACOG sight.
To check the calculations performed in this article, we also calculate the number of cartridges needed to hit a target with different sights and is comparable to similar data from the GRAU Tables [5, table 52]. The calculation will be done using the same formula that was applied by GRAU [5, section 6.9.]:
N = 3 / P1,
where N is the number of rounds
3 - the number of shots in the queue (three)
P1 is the chances for the 3 to hit a cartridge with various sights, as shown in Figure 12.
According to the meaning of the indicator, the results are rounded to the nearest larger integer. We get:
Number of cartridges needed to hit a target
Scope \ Range, m.
The following numbers of rounds are required in the tables of the Grau [5, table 52], which are required to defeat the head piece when firing bursts at an 3 shot:
Extract from table 52 GRAU
The number of cartridges lying with emphasis
As you can see, the number of rounds from the 52 GRAU table (Figure 15) completely coincides with the number of calculations for this article (Figure 14) for the “accurate” sight; and in no way coincides with the "4" or "P" sights. Therefore:
1) the calculations in this article are performed correctly, so the results coincide with the data of the GRAU;
2) when troops use the 52 GRAU table to calculate the required quantity of ammunition, and shoot in accordance with the AK-74 Manual with “4” or “P” sights [1, Art.155], there is always not enough ammunition;
3) if you shoot with the “3” sight, you can base the required amount of ammo on the 52 GRAU table.
Final conclusions and proposals
It is necessary to teach our machine gunners to conduct a fire duel not with pectoral, but with head goals.
An error is the recommendation to shoot AK-74 at ranges up to 400 with a direct shot with an “4” or “P” sight. This recommendation leads, in firing duels, to a catastrophic loss ratio not in favor of the Kalashnikov.
With AK-74 with a standard sector sight to the range of 300, it is necessary to shoot with the “3” sight: aiming at low targets at the lower edge of the target, and at growth targets - at the center. This method will ensure the defeat of any target, including the head, one or two turns. Only such a tactic (shot - hit) will allow to win in a fire duel and in battle in general.
At ranges from 300 to 600, it is advisable to shoot only at growth (running) targets with the “6” sight while aiming at the lower edge of the target.
It is necessary to make appropriate changes as soon as possible in the AK-74 Manual [1, Art.155] and in the Course of Shooting with Small Arms.
It is necessary to develop for the Kalashnikov assault rifle only such optical sights, in which the aiming marks start at least with "3" (300м). The AK-74 must not be equipped with optical sights that have no target marks less than “4” (400); such sights doom our machine gunner to defeat in a fire duel.
 “The 5,45-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle (AK74, AX74, AK74H, AX74H) and 5,45-mm Kalashnikov machine gun (RPK74, RPXXNNXX, RPK74H, RPXXXUM, RPX74H, PCXX74, RPXXNNXX, RPX1982H, PCXXXNUMX, RPXXNNXX, AKXNUMXH, RPXXNUMX, RPXXNNXX, RPKXNUMXH, RPXXXNUMX, AKXNUMXH) XNUMX
 "The effectiveness of firing from automatic weapons", Shereshevsky, MS, Gontarev, AN, Minaev, Yu.V., Moscow, Central Research Institute of Information, 1979,
 M5.56A16 and M1A16 rifles Manual for planning and executing training on 2-mm, FM 23-9, 3 JULY 1989, Distributing: Active Army, USAR, and ARNG.
 “The rate of shooting from small arms (COP-85)” of the USSR Ministry of Defense, commissioned by the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces of 22 in May 1985, No. 30, Military Publishing House, Moscow, 1987.
 “Shooting tables at ground targets from small arms of caliber 5,45 and 7,62 mm” MO USSR, TS / GRAU No. 61, Military Publishing House MO USSR, Moscow, 1977
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