"Ural Tornado-U". Photo: autoreview.ru
A difficult decade
Trucks of the Ural family were originally designed for the needs of the military, as has been repeatedly mentioned in previous parts, and this greatly complicated the survival of the plant after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The main competitor, KamAZ, could offer customers a wider product line, including, inter alia, long-haul tractors, which Miass couldn’t work out with. In addition, the specifics of the work almost exclusively for defense needs left a mark on the engineering level of the plant - many solutions were not suitable for civilian needs. For example, in the 5323s, on the four-axle giants “Ural-20-90”, cabins from Naberezhnye Chelny were used for the Russian army. This cabin was already outdated and, if the model entered the civilian market, one could not have dreamed of big sales. Therefore, a giant 8x8 “Ural-5323-22” appeared with a cabin from the Italian IVECO. However, this did little to help the Miass plant - the output fell from Soviet 30 thousand cars a year to 5,4 thousand. As a result, in 1998, external management was introduced at UralAZ, which, oddly enough, saves the plant: in a couple years factory workers increase output.
"Ural" with the air defense system "Shell-C1". Photo: pvo.guns.ru
All this time, the Ministry of Defense bought trucks in relatively small quantities and there was no particular incentive to further modernize the military line. Nevertheless, the work went on. The entire Ural-4320 family received its own name, Motovoz, which actually means a small shunting locomotive. It was not known whether the decision on such a name was caused by considerations of secrecy, but it turned out sonorous and original. KamAZ simultaneously with the Ural "Motovozov" existed and still exists a similar line of "Mustang". "Ural-Motovoz" were two-, three- and four-axle and were equipped mainly with various diesels of the Yaroslavl Motor Plant. The truck line has been actively exported to Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. And at the end of 1994, the Ural-5323.4 almost became a mobile base for the world-famous Pantsir-C1 missile and artillery complex. The car was equipped with a KamAZ-7406 diesel engine with a capacity of 260 liters. from. For a long time it was believed that the Ural truck was supposed to carry an air defense system, but in the end the plant in Naberezhnye Chelny won, and now the KAMAZ machine has become the first association on Pantsir-C1. But large "Urals" were nevertheless supplied to the troops, in particular, links to the PMP pontoon fleet were mounted on model 53236. Currently, “Ural” has been suspended, it has completed the acquisition of pontoon parks with its equipment - a niche has been given to KamAZ.
Ural-5323. Photo: wikipedia.org
"Ural-4320", put on rails using the UKH system (universal combined stroke). In this hypostasis, the car best meets the name “Motovoz”. Photo: mpark.pro
Definitely in the hands of manufacturers from Miass and Naberezhnye Chelny was the loss of Ukrainian KrAZ products for the Russian army. The niche of heavy trucks began to be occupied by domestic four-axle models. Why was it not possible to create a three-axle four-wheel drive model with a carrying capacity of more than 90 tons in the 7s? After all, it is clear that 8x8 cars are much more expensive and more difficult, although they win in cross-country ability. The thing is the lack of suitable bridges for such heavy machines. No, of course, they were, for example, such units were offered by the Hungarian Raba, but for military reasons this did not suit the military. So I had to increase the load capacity with additional bridges. It turned out pretty well: Ural-5323 takes on 10 tons at once, and the youngest triaxial 4320-31 on hard surface - four tons less. The problem of the lack of “heavy” domestic bridges at UralAZ was partially solved only in recent years.
The problem of Ural and KamAZ over the past five to six years has been the possible sanctions of the West in connection with the defense products of factories. And if they are not particularly scary for military equipment, then civilian products without foreign engines, gearboxes and other little things can not do. In this, by the way, there is nothing to worry about - there are no large automakers left in the world who are completely relying on components of their own production. KAMAZ PJSC solved this problem gracefully when they launched the entire military line of equipment under the subsidiary brand of Remdiesel JSC, or RD. Now there is no concept of a new army KamAZ Mustang-M - only Remdiesel. The official website also does not mention the army products of the plant in Naberezhnye Chelny. Until recently, UralAZ was part of the GAZ Group, whose boss, Oleg Deripaska, in 2018 fell under the sanction of the US Ministry of Finance. And he didn’t need any additional problems with the United States in connection with an asset working for the interests of the Russian Ministry of Defense. Therefore, Deripaska made a deal for the sale of Ural Automobile Plant with the United Engineering Group (OMG) of Dmitry Strezhnev.
"Tornado-U", in which not all domestic components. But in Miass, they are working on this problem. Photo: autoreview.ru
As a result, a company was formed, which, in addition to the Miass plant, included part of the Yaroslavl Motor Plant and the joint venture RM-Tereks, combining the enterprises of Tver Excavator, Bryansk Arsenal, Chelyabinsk Construction and Road Machines, and Zavolzhsky Plant tracked tractors. " So the GAZ Group was secured against foreign sanctions that could very well have stopped the automobile giant conveyor. And a car factory working for the Russian army was also protected from the wrath of the West. Do not think that such somersaults are possible only in Russia - for several years now, the German MAN has been supplying the Bundeswehr with trucks under the Rheinmetall brand. Fearing the overly liberal world of modern business, the Germans built a joint venture RMMV (Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles), not even in Germany but in Austria, to completely cover up traces of military products. The French renamed their combat Renault Trucks Defense by analogy with the Germans to divert their eyes to Arquus ("Horse").
Ural-4320-0811-31. Photo: mpark.pro
Airfield air conditioning AK 1,0-30-1-1U. Photo: mpark.pro
The van-bus PAF-5350.1-11. Photo: mpark.pro
Repair and locksmith's workshop (armored vehicles) МРС-БТМ.1 Photo: mpark.pro
Some time ago, the impression was made that military products from Miass were gradually being supplanted by KAMAZ vehicle-free vehicles. This could put the defense department in an unenviable position when all wheeled vehicles, from tactical to operational level, depend on one plant. And if again the engine shop burns down, as in the 90s? Moreover, the Urals have a definite advantage over KamAZ at the forefront in the army tactical level. Currently, this situation does not change much: the Ministry of Defense buys Urals even less than in the early 2000s.
The main thing is not to get confused
Now in the Ural production line for military needs there are four families at once: Motovoz, Motovoz-M, Tornado-U and Typhoon-U. Separately, it is worth noting that the armored Ural-63095 Typhoon-U did not get into the Russian army - apparently, the purchases of the Remdiesel "Typhoons-K63968" were considered sufficient. But the more spacious MRAP "Ural-63099" Typhoon "in good volumes (up to 200 cars per year) enters the troops. In many ways, the reason for this was almost complete localization: only the winch and starter remained from the foreign one. Even bulletproof tires adapted to produce at the Chelyabinsk Forge and Press Plant. Among the protected cars, Ural-BB is also easier to buy in Miass, however, only the Russian Guard is the client. Work is currently underway to purchase the Ural-VP option for the Russian military police. In 2018, they tried to raise the Ural-53099 armored vehicle with gradually dying demand from the military in Miass. This is a lightweight biaxial version of the MRAP Ural-63099 Typhoon, but little is known about the army’s fate as a “baby”.
MRAP Ural-53099 Typhoon. Photo: twower.livejournal.com
The classic first-generation Motovozovs will probably leave the stage within the next couple of years - after all, the cabin is already quite outdated and is not really prepared for booking. The largest among the three-axle Motovoz is the Ural-4320-0811-31, on the long frame of which both an ordinary on-board body, and airfield air conditioner AK 1,0-30-1-1U, and staff KUNG MSH-5350.1 with staff the same trailer PSh4M. KUNG in modern reading is K5350.1-11, and its passenger bus version is PAF-5350.1-11. In general, as always in the best traditions of the national school of naming military equipment.
"Motovoz-M" for the Russian Guard. Photo: ria.ru
Ural-VP is a lightweight MRAP for military police. Photo: mpark.pro
The differences between Tornado-U and Motovoz-M are barely noticeable. Meanwhile, these are cars of different class. Photo: twower.livejournal.com
The hardest part is stories with modern “Urals” - not to remember all abbreviations, but to learn to distinguish between each other the equipment of the “Tornado-U” family (do not confuse it with the MRAP of the same name from “Remdiesel”) and “Motovoz-M”. Remember: Ural-63706-0011 Tornado-U trucks are the heaviest cars from Miass, such direct substitutes for Ukrainian KrAZ trucks. Gross weight can reach 32 tons with a load capacity of 12,5 tons. The car is assembled around the “peaceful” and unmanned “Ural-6370”, which means that the bridges at the “Tornado-U” are Hungarian (Chinese, as an option), the engine, although 440-horsepower YaMZ-652, is manufactured under French license and is a Renault dCi 11 diesel with common rail injection. The cabin is frame-panel and is well suited for booking - even crossbar type door locks.
The first of its kind in Russia is the mobile Phlox based on the Urals Motovoz-M with an armored cab. Photo: mpark.pro
Cars "Motovoz-M" are noticeably lighter. In fact, these are elongated classic Urals with a cabin as unified as possible with Tornado-U. The manufacturer, in particular, offers the army to buy the Ural-4320-38011-30 with the Phlox gun - the truck at the time made a lot of noise at the Army 2016 exhibition. This Motovoz-M has a double-row armored cabin, and its design is also different from the rest of the Urals. The usual on-board Ural-4320 Motovoz-M takes 7 tons of cargo with a curb weight of 18,4 tons.
Ural-M. Photo: autoreview.ru
But that's not all! There are also Ural-M vehicles in a promising line - military modifications of the civil Ural NEXT. It is these trucks that should replace the first-generation Motovoz trucks. The main thing is not to get confused.