Military Review

Turkish Air Defense

37

Turkey Air Defense System. As of 2018, the number of Turkish Ground Forces exceeded 250. Currently, the Turkish army is in the process of reorganization, the purpose of which is to optimize the organizational and staff structure of the ground forces, increase mobility, strike and firepower of formations and units while phasing out the number of personnel, increase tactical and operational controllability by improving the command and control system and weapons. At the same time, motorized infantry and mechanized divisions are transformed into brigades. As part of the motorized infantry division there were: 150-200 combat tanks, up to 300 wheeled and tracked armored vehicles, up to 200 artillery systems, up to 200 anti-tank weapons, up to 120 anti-aircraft weapons. The mechanized brigade of five battalion composition: about 60 main battle tanks, up to 200 armored vehicles, 60-70 guns and mortars, 40-60 anti-tank and 40 anti-aircraft weapons. When moving to a brigade structure, obsolete equipment and weapons are decommissioned or transferred to storage.


Flak


The Turkish armed forces have over 2800 anti-aircraft machine-gun mounts, small-caliber anti-aircraft guns and anti-aircraft self-propelled guns, among which there are frankly outdated samples. Until now, the M41A1 Duster self-propelled anti-aircraft guns with paired 40-mm machine guns in a half-open tower are in storage. The last batch of Z41 M1A1995 was donated to Turkey from the reserves of the American National Guard in 2015. According to reference data, in 200 there were more than XNUMX units.

The Daxter self-propelled anti-aircraft mount, created on the basis of the M41 Walker Bulldog light tank, was intended to accompany tank units. The tracked vehicle weighing 22,6 tons is covered with bulletproof armor with a thickness of 8-25 mm and is able to reach speeds of up to 70 km / h on the highway.

Turkish Air Defense

ZSU M41A1 Duster

Z41 M1A1950, built in the mid-40s, armed with two 41-mm cannons with cluster loading, are hopelessly outdated. Given the fact that the input of corrections in range, altitude and speed of the target is carried out manually, and in the ammunition there are no shells with a radio fuse, the probability of hitting targets flying at high subsonic speed is very low. Dakster anti-aircraft installations in modern conditions can be relatively effective against helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. As the Turkish ground forces are saturated with modern air defense systems, the Z1 MXNUMXAXNUMX air defense systems will be decommissioned.

Currently, the Turkish Armed Forces are undergoing military tests of the Korkut ZSU, designed by the Turkish company ASELSAN on the basis of the ACV-30 infantry fighting vehicle. The armored body of the machine provides protection in the frontal projection from 14,5 mm armor-piercing bullets. According to FNSS, a combat vehicle is capable of traveling at speeds up to 65 km / h with a range of up to 500 km. Water barriers are overcome by swimming.

The Korkut anti-aircraft self-propelled system includes two types of self-propelled vehicles. Anti-aircraft batteries, which include self-propelled guns equipped with SSA (Silah Sistemi Arac) and KKA control vehicles (Komuta Kontrol Arac), will be required to protect the ground forces on the march and at positions.

Each anti-aircraft battery has four gun ZSU and one control machine with a surveillance radar. The control machine crew is entrusted with monitoring the air situation at a distance of up to 70 km and issuing target designation on the VHF radio network.


KKA control machine

On the roof of the tower of the combat vehicle there is equipment for searching for targets and guidance, with which the self-propelled anti-aircraft self-propelled crew must independently determine the parameters of the target and provide guidance for firing.


ZSU SSA

ZSU SSA is equipped with two automatic guns Oerlikon KDC-02 caliber 35 mm, which are produced in Turkey under a Swiss license. Paired 35 mm anti-aircraft guns have a total rate of fire of 1100 rounds / min. Ammunition includes shots of several types with shells for various purposes. High-explosive incendiary-tracer shell weighing 535 g contains 93 g of explosives. High-explosive armor-piercing shell weighing 550 g is equipped with 22 g of explosive. At an initial speed of 1100-1175 m / s, 35 mm shells can hit targets at ranges up to 4 km.

According to the contract concluded in 2016, the ground forces should receive 2024 Korkut SSA machines and 40 Korkut KKA by 13. The first production complexes entered the combat units in 2018. Annually, the industry will supply 5-7 ZSU and 2-3 control cars.

Today in Turkey, in storage and in the army there are up to 600 Bofors L60 / L 70 anti-aircraft guns of 40 mm caliber. During the Second World War, the 40-mm Bofors L60 was one of the best types of anti-aircraft weapons.


Anti-aircraft gun Bofors L60 with calculation

A further development of the Bofors L60 system was the Bofors L70 anti-aircraft installation, which uses a more powerful 40 × 364R ammunition with a projectile weighing 870 g, which allowed to increase the initial speed to 1030 m / s. In addition, the gun carriage and recoil mechanism were redone.


Anti-aircraft gun Bofors L70

Some 40mm anti-aircraft batteries were given radar fire control capabilities. Currently, 40-mm anti-aircraft guns are considered obsolete and should be removed from service in the near future.

To replace 40-mm anti-aircraft guns in the 1970s, 35-mm towed twin Oerlikon GDF-001 towed anti-aircraft guns came into service. To date, the Turkish Air Defense units have 250 Oerlikon GDF-001 / GDF-003 artillery mounts. The production of 35 mm machine guns in Turkey began in 1987.


35 mm Oerlikon GDF-001 twin anti-aircraft mount

Initially, Super Fledermaus radars were used to control the fire of the Oerlikon GDF-001 anti-aircraft battery with a detection range of low altitude targets of 15 km. In the 1990s, Skyguard radars with a detection range of 003 km were used for the Oerlikon GDF-40.


Radar Skyguard

In the 21st century, the 35 mm anti-aircraft guns available in Turkey went through a modernization program to the level of GDF-005. The battery, consisting of four 35-mm pairs, is controlled by the operator from one station via cable lines. At each installation, an individual power generator appeared, which increases the combat stability of the battery as a whole. The ready-to-use ammunition supply for the Oerlikon GDF-001 is 84 rounds. In the modification of the Oerlikon GDF-003, the capacity of the charging boxes has been increased to 124 shots.


The digital fire control system uses radar and a laser range finder to determine target parameters. In terms of rate of fire and ballistic characteristics, the towed anti-aircraft gun is similar to the 35 mm Oerlikon KDC-02 assault rifles used in the Korkut self-propelled system.

Since the 1950s, the Turkish army has used 12,7 mm Browning M2 machine guns and 12,7 mm four-wheel mounts with an electric M45 Maxson Mount to control low-flying air targets in the Turkish army.


12,7mm Quad MCP Maxson Mount

Although 160 quadruple 12,7 mm rigs are still in storage, it became clear already in the late 1960s that they were ineffective against jet combat aircraft. The military liked the fire density provided by the Z45 M12,7 Maxson Mount. But the installation itself is quite complex and heavy, and the 99 × XNUMX mm cartridge did not provide an acceptable range for firing at air targets.

In this regard, the Turkish company MKEK has launched a licensed production of a 20-mm twin towed anti-aircraft gun Oerlikon GAI-D01 with detachable wheels. The gunner is covered by a shield from the bullets and splinters in front.


20 mm twin Oerlikon GAI-D01 anti-aircraft gun in combat position

The towed anti-aircraft gun weighs about 1800 kg in the stowed position. To increase the speed of aiming at the target, it is equipped with electric drives, which are powered by a compact gasoline-driven power generator with a capacity of 7 hp. After modernization of the installation, the determination of the range and speed of flight occurs using a computerized ballistic computer.


20 mm twin Oerlikon GAI-D01 anti-aircraft mount at the shooting range

The initial velocity of a 20 mm projectile weighing 130 g is 1050 m / s. The firing range for aerial targets is up to 2000 m. The total rate of fire is 2000 rds / min. According to Military Balance 2016, there were 439 Oerlikon GAI-D01 units in the armed forces of the Republic of Turkey.

In addition to the Oerlikon GAI-D01, the Turkish army has about 400 twin 20 mm Rheinmetall Mk 20 RH-202 anti-aircraft mounts. Compared to the Oerlikon GAI-D01, it is a much simpler model, with mechanical guidance drives.


20 mm twin Rheinmetall Mk 20 RH-202 anti-aircraft gun firing at a ground target

The mass of the installation in the combat position is 1630 kg, in the marching position - 2040 kg. Rate of fire - 1100 rds / min. Ballistic performance and effective firing range are similar to the Oerlikon GAI-D01. But this sample is equipped with simple sights and has a lower targeting speed. It is known that in the past, 20-mm anti-aircraft installations were located at checkpoints and were used to provide fire support to infantry units during battles with the Kurds.

Short-range man-portable air defense systems and self-propelled air defense systems


Currently, the Turkish army has over 1900 portable anti-aircraft missile systems, as well as 105 self-propelled short-range anti-aircraft missile systems.

After the unification of Germany, a lot of Soviet-made weapons, formerly belonging to the German Democratic Army, were transferred to Turkey. The Turkish army received 40 Igla-1 MANPADS and approximately 300 missiles from anti-aircraft weapons. Unlike MANPADS of the first generation, the Igla-1 complex is capable of hitting high-speed targets both on overtaking and oncoming courses. The operator’s work is simplified thanks to the use of built-in equipment for automatically turning the rocket to a pre-determined point on the initial section of the trajectory. According to advertising data, Igla-1 MANPADS has a maximum firing range of 5000 m, the upper boundary of the affected area is 2500 m. The probability of destruction in the absence of organized interference with a target of the “fighter jet” type flying at a speed of 310 m / s, when fired towards - 0,59 , 260. Chase at a target speed of 0,44 m / s - XNUMX.


The Turkish military, who previously operated the American FIM-43C Redeye MANPADS, highly appreciated Soviet-made man-portable systems. In the 21st century, Igla-1 MANPADS were supplanted by the American FIM-92 Stinger systems. What happened to the Igla-1 systems removed from service is not known. There is reason to believe that they could be in the hands of militants fighting in Syria against the government army.

In 1995, the replacement of the FIM-43C Redeye MANPADS with the next-generation portable systems FIM-92 Stinger began. The Stinger guided missile with a passive cooled dual-spectrum seeker has much higher noise immunity and is capable of hitting targets at a range of 4500 m, with a maximum reach of 3800 m in height.


To control the actions of MANPADS calculations and the issuance of preliminary target designation, mobile command posts on the BTR ACV-300APC chassis (Turkish version of the BTR M113) are used, which receive information from the AN / MPQ-64 Sentinel radar. Some of the MANPADS launchers are mounted on machines that reduce the load on the operator and allow them to carry out long-term combat alert positions.


Also, the ground forces of the Republic of Turkey have short-range air defense systems that use FIM-92 SAM systems. Complexes based on the Land Rover army vehicle and the ACV-300APC armored personnel carrier are known as Zıpkın and Atılgan.


Launchers with an optoelectronic guidance system located on the Land Rover are remotely controlled using an external remote control. Inside the tracked armored personnel carrier there is enough space for equipment and a calculation of three people. The anti-aircraft battery includes three fire engines, a mobile command post with communication equipment, a technical assistance vehicle and an anti-aircraft missile transporter. Three batteries are organized into a division. The division’s command is carried out over the radio network based on information received from the AN / MPQ-64 Sentinel radar.

In the 1990s, Turkey received 148 Stinger launchers and 647 missiles from the United States. Subsequently, the Turkish company ROKETSAN began licensed production of FIM-92 missiles. A number of important components required for the manufacture of MANPADS were supplied from the United States. But due to the aggravated Turkish-American relations, the production of Stingers in Turkey is in danger of stopping. In the past, Ankara was accused of having Turkish-made Stinger MANPADS at the disposal of the Syrian armed opposition.

The ending should ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Turkey's air defense radar: will they ensure the safety of air borders?
Prevent the Soviets from breaking through: Turkish fighter aircraft during the Cold War
Alternatives to replacing the F-35A. Chances of supplying Su-35SK to Turkey
Prevent the Soviets from breaking through: Turkey's air defense systems during the Cold War
37 comments
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  1. cavl
    cavl 4 January 2020 05: 32
    +12
    Detailed material is accompanied by numerous visual material. Reading is simple and interesting!
    Thanks to the author for the article! I will wait for the end
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 January 2020 06: 01
      +10
      I agree, Sergey is always on top!
  2. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 4 January 2020 06: 23
    +13
    Great article, in the style of the good old VO.
    Thank you!
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 4 January 2020 07: 34
    +2
    Dear author, for some reason you persistently call the ZSU M41A1 Duster some kind of “Daxter”. Is that such a Turkish accent? smile
    1. Bongo
      4 January 2020 13: 09
      +7
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Dear author, for some reason you persistently call the ZSU M41A1 Duster some kind of “Daxter”. Is that such a Turkish accent?

      To blame request Mistake and Typo ... wassat when at the same time your head is busy with different things and at the same time you are printing an article, sometimes it turns out that you think one thing, and your hands on the machine write another.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 4 January 2020 15: 10
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        the head is busy with different things and still at the same time you print the article

        I respect There is a maximum of enough head comments!
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 January 2020 08: 52
    +4
    Thanks for continuing the interesting cycle.
  5. YOUR
    YOUR 4 January 2020 09: 23
    0
    Mostly weapons are obsolete, 60 - 80 of the last century. More or less modern can be called MANPADS Stinger and self-propelled guns with its use.
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 4 January 2020 10: 38
      +2
      Quote: YOUR
      Mostly weapons are obsolete, 60 - 80 of the last century. More or less modern can be called MANPADS Stinger and self-propelled guns with its use.

      Generalize is not worth it. No.
      In addition to the Stingers, the frankly outdated anti-aircraft guns are being replaced by these models.



      In addition, new air defense systems are being developed in Turkey and the S-400 is being developed. The author will tell about this in the final part of the review.
  6. Elturisto
    Elturisto 4 January 2020 09: 54
    +5
    Good review thanks.
  7. AlexNikos
    AlexNikos 4 January 2020 11: 47
    +5
    That is, the maximum range of coverage of the convoy by means of military air defense is 5 km? Turkish generals are not considering the option that Apaches will operate with the same Helfires from 10 km on their units? Interesting girls dance.
    Thanks for the review, I look forward to continuing!
    1. Bongo
      4 January 2020 13: 18
      +4
      Quote: AlexNikos
      That is, the maximum range of coverage of the convoy by means of military air defense is 5 km? Turkish generals are not considering the option that Apaches will operate with the same Helfires from 10 km on their units? Interesting girls dance.

      Do you sincerely believe that Turkey, which is one of the largest recipients of American military assistance, a member of NATO, the country in whose territory American nuclear weapons are stored and American military bases will go to an armed confrontation with the United States? No. For all his megalomania and authoritarianism, Erdogan is not a suicide. No.
      In addition, if we take NATO air defense and the United States as a whole, then the focus is on fighter aircraft. Air defense ground complexes play an auxiliary role.
      However, Turkey is developing Hisar mobile systems with a firing range of 15 and 25 km. We will talk about them in the next part of the review.
      1. AlexNikos
        AlexNikos 5 January 2020 11: 58
        +2
        For me, the Turkish military air defense is still a dark forest, so I draw information from articles like yours. As for the Americans, in light of recent events, I would not call them the best friends of the Turks. Plus, there is Israel and Iran. Now relations are neutral, but, thanks to the efforts of "respected partners", the Middle East can blaze very robustly in the near future.
    2. Oquzyurd
      Oquzyurd 4 January 2020 13: 18
      +1
      "The Turkish generals are not considering the option that Apaches will operate with the same Helfires from 10 km on their units?" The track has Hisar-A and Hisar-O air defense systems, there are enough of them for Apaches and attack aircraft to come to their senses.
      1. Bongo
        4 January 2020 13: 27
        +3
        Quote: Oquzyurd
        "The Turkish generals are not considering the option that Apaches will work with the same Helfires from 10 km on their units?" The track has Hisar-A and Hisar-O air defense systems.

        On the "caterpillar" Hisar-A. Serial deliveries to the army units of the Turkish army are expected from this year.

        SAM Hisar-O on a wheelbase.

        Deliveries are expected after 2022.
        Quote: Oquzyurd
        there are enough of them for Apaches and attack aircraft to change their minds

        Are there "Apaches" and "Warthogs" in Syria, Iran and Armenia?
        1. Oquzyurd
          Oquzyurd 4 January 2020 16: 55
          +1
          These complexes are not only against "Apache" or "warthog".
          Hisar-A:
          Minimum range, km: 2;
          Maximum radius of action, km: 16;
          Minimum height, m: 30;
          Maximum height, m: 5000
          A vertical launch rocket with a two-stage solid propellant rocket engine uses a radio command guidance system on the marching section of the trajectory and infrared homing on the final section.
          SAM has an infrared seeker (developed by Aselsan), a high-explosive fragmentation warhead (developed by the TUBITAK Sage Institute) and a fuse.
          The Hisar-O medium-range air defense system (formerly known as T-MALAMIDS) uses the Roketsan Hisar-O SAM with a maximum firing range of 25 km and a range of 10 km. The launcher with six lifting containers for vertical launch missiles placed on the car chassis Mercedez-Benz 2733 with a wheel arrangement of 6x6
          Turkish TV experts said that these complexes are ready-made, have been tested, and can be used in Libya if desired.
          1. V.I.P.
            V.I.P. 7 March 2020 17: 09
            0
            They are still developing long-range air defense systems. It’s called SIPER ... Something doesn’t go well with them, and they either wanted the Europeans (but they don’t have long-range air defense systems), or we asked for help to finalize the complex ...
    3. Altai72
      Altai72 4 January 2020 16: 01
      +3
      Hisar-A, Hisar-O domestic from the Turks. Quite normal complexes.
    4. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 5 January 2020 18: 31
      0
      part of the reasons for not invading Syria are mi25 and mig29 with the shortest missiles (versus f16 is a very mediocre version). you will not confuse current traction with a full-fledged war for oil and land, etc.
  8. Private-K
    Private-K 4 January 2020 12: 04
    +4
    Especially for respected hi members of the witness sect of high performance small-caliber shrapnel shells: Turkey is not going to equip the latest ZSU with 35 mm autocannons with such shells. belay
    SCANDAL!!! laughing
    1. Bongo
      4 January 2020 13: 20
      +1
      Quote: Private-K
      Especially for the respected hi members of the sect of witnesses to the high performance of small-caliber shrapnel shells: Turkey is not going to equip the latest ZSUs with 35 mm autocannons with such shells. belay
      SCANDAL!!!

      There is no scandal. No. Turks know how to count money. 35 mm shells with a programmable or radio fuse do not meet the cost / performance criterion.
      1. Private-K
        Private-K 4 January 2020 13: 23
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        35 mm shells with a programmable or radio fuse do not meet the cost / performance criterion.

        For a long time I have been trying many times to drag this FACT into their enthusiastic heads. drinks
        Scha minus.
        1. Bongo
          4 January 2020 13: 31
          +3
          Quote: Private-K
          For a long time I have been trying many times to drag this FACT into their enthusiastic heads.

          Great mind in order to understand the irrationality of manning 35-mm shells with remote fuses. The mass of the projectile is known, the explosive filling factor is also not a secret. How many explosives will fit there if most of the internal volume of the body will be occupied by a fuse?
          Quote: Private-K
          Scha minus.

          Is not a fact... No.
          1. Private-K
            Private-K 4 January 2020 13: 45
            +4
            Quote: Bongo
            Quote: Private-K
            For a long time I have been trying many times to drag this FACT into their enthusiastic heads.

            Great mind in order to understand the irrationality of manning 35-mm shells with remote fuses. The mass of the projectile is known, the explosive filling factor is also not a secret. How many explosives will fit there if most of the internal volume of the body will be occupied by a fuse?
            Quote: Private-K
            Scha minus.

            Is not a fact... No.

            Yes, literally 5 days ago, the next praises sang https://topwar.ru/166270-umnye-kalibry-dlja-borby-s-asimmetrichnymi-ugrozami.html#
            Scha run to minus. Not yet evening.
          2. LastPS
            LastPS 6 January 2020 22: 31
            +4
            Great mind in order to understand the irrationality of manning 35-mm shells with remote fuses. The mass of the projectile is known, the explosive filling factor is also not a secret. How many explosives will fit there if most of the internal volume of the body will be occupied by a fuse?

            How many similar missiles with remote detonators are needed to destroy a small UAV or a missile, as I understand it, this is conditionally some kind of long line? Does the SSA generally do this? It’s just that the experience of cannon shells showed that somehow, well, generally not very cannons can now fight such goals. I just now don’t understand the meaning of systems of this caliber at all, if, in fact, they can only fight something big, so that they won’t enter the firing zone.
            1. Bongo
              7 January 2020 04: 00
              +4
              Quote: LastPS
              How many similar missiles with remote detonators are needed to destroy a small UAV or a missile, as I understand it, this is conditionally some kind of long line? Does the SSA generally do this? It’s just that the experience of cannon shells showed that somehow, well, generally not very cannons can now fight such goals. I just now don’t understand the meaning of systems of this caliber at all, if, in fact, they can only fight something big, so that they won’t enter the firing zone.
              .
              Thanks for the interesting comment. hi
              Compare SSA not with "Pantsir" but with the latest modifications of Oerlikon GDF. The 35mm mount has higher accuracy and firing range. When firing at one aerial target of the batteries, the probability of hitting it is quite satisfactory. In addition, it should be understood that for the military air defense of the Kyrgyz Republic and UAVs are not priority targets, the main purpose of the Turkish 35-mm ZSU is the fight against combat helicopters, fighter-bombers and attack aircraft.
              1. LastPS
                LastPS 7 January 2020 10: 55
                +2
                Thank you for your reply.
  9. exo
    exo 4 January 2020 14: 30
    +3
    I read it with pleasure! Article +
  10. Altai72
    Altai72 4 January 2020 16: 04
    +3
    Test article. Thanks to the author.
  11. Mihail42
    Mihail42 4 January 2020 18: 14
    0
    Turkey Russian BUKI and TOPs would be just right The latest models
  12. Alexander Alekseev_2
    Alexander Alekseev_2 5 January 2020 13: 31
    0
    Bofors L-60, 70? Maybe they can push the counter "Maxims", they are also good systems) They collected assorted from all over the world)
  13. Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 5 January 2020 18: 26
    0
    it's some kind of shame (nato second army)
  14. Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 5 January 2020 18: 29
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    Hisar mobile systems with firing ranges of 15 and 25 km are being developed in Turkey. We will talk about them in the next part of the review.

    sir i already have lulz from a vertical start at such a range it's 5+
  15. Sniper
    Sniper 5 January 2020 23: 53
    +9
    here I would read such articles in the morning .. for breakfast with a sandwich and tea! _
  16. spech
    spech 7 January 2020 11: 05
    +2

    Will fight again wink
  17. ABM
    ABM 29 February 2020 09: 44
    0
    Not bad for 1945
  18. Pavel57
    Pavel57 7 March 2020 17: 40
    0
    Air defense is. We must reckon with him.