Prevent the Soviets from breaking through: Turkey's air defense systems during the Cold War


Turkey Air Defense System.After joining the North Atlantic Alliance in 1952, an intensive renewal of ground-based air defense systems of the Turkish Republic began. As is the case with fighter aviation, anti-aircraft artillery, anti-aircraft missile systems and radars were mainly American-made. From joining NATO until the early 1970s, Turkey received about $ 1 billion worth of US weapons and military equipment.


Flak


At the first stage, the United States handed over to the Turkish army a significant number of 12,7-mm machine-gun mounts, 40-mm Bofors L60 machine guns and 40-mm twin M42 Duster self-propelled anti-aircraft guns to protect the Turkish army at the first stage.


ZSU M42 Duster

To combat air targets in the altitude range from 1,5 to 11 km, 90 mm M2 anti-aircraft guns were intended. Some of them were placed in stationary positions around strategically important objects and on the coast, where they were also used in coastal defense. For the mid-1950s, 90-mm anti-aircraft guns paired with the SCR-268 fire control radar showed good results. The effectiveness of firing at air targets was quite high thanks to the use of automatic projectile feeding with the fuse installer. The ammunition could also include shells with a radio fuse, which had a higher probability of hitting a target. The anti-aircraft battery, in which there were six 90-mm guns, could release more than 150 shells per minute.

Prevent the Soviets from breaking through: Turkey's air defense systems during the Cold War
90 mm M2 anti-aircraft guns at firing position

The radar detected gaps in the air of anti-aircraft artillery shells, adjusting the fire relative to the target, which was especially important when firing at targets that were not observed visually. The SCR-268 station could see aircraft at ranges up to 36 km, with a range accuracy of 180 m and an azimuth of 1,1 °. The use of a radar in combination with an analog computing device and shells with radio fuses made it possible to conduct fairly accurate anti-aircraft fire on aircraft flying at medium and high altitudes even at night. Also, to improve the anti-aircraft fire could be used more advanced radar SCR-584. This radar station was able to detect targets at a distance of 40 km and to conduct anti-aircraft fire corrections at ranges up to 15 km.


Radar scr-xnumx

Due to the increase in the speed and height of the flight of jet combat aircraft, 90 mm M2 guns were already considered obsolete by the second half of the 1960s. However, they existed in coastal defense units until the early 1990s.

In the late 1950s, several dozens of American-made M75 Skysweeper automatic 51-mm anti-aircraft guns were delivered to Turkey. This anti-aircraft gun, adopted in 1953, in its caliber had no equal in range, rate of fire and accuracy of firing. At the same time, the complex and expensive hardware required qualified maintenance, was quite sensitive to mechanical influences and meteorological factors. The mobility of the 75 mm automatic guns left much to be desired, and therefore in Turkey they were usually located in stationary positions.


75mm anti-aircraft gun M51 Skysweeper in combat position

The M51 Skysweeper anti-aircraft gun with radar guidance could fire at air targets at ranges up to 13 km, reach in height was 9 km. Combat rate of fire - 45 shots / min. The T-38 radar, coupled with the gun barrel, had a range of about 30 km and was able to accompany a plane flying at a speed of up to 1100 km / h.


The anti-aircraft battery had four guns. Preliminary target designation by telephone line or radio network was issued from the upgraded radar SCR-584, which were subsequently replaced by mobile radars AN / TPS-43. Despite the problems with the reliability of electronic units built on electrovacuum devices, the operation of the M51 Skysweeper anti-aircraft guns in Turkey continued until the early 1970s.

Airborne Radar


In 1953, the 6th NATO combined tactical aviation command was formed with headquarters in Izmir, which, in addition to other tasks, was also entrusted with the provision of Turkish air defense. In parallel with the deployment of anti-aircraft batteries in Turkey by the end of the 1950s, several stationary radar posts were erected. Initially, these were AN / FPS-8 type survey radars operating at frequencies of 1280-1350 MHz, capable of detecting high-altitude targets at ranges of more than 400 km.


Radar AN / FPS-8

In the early 1960s, the AN / FPS-8 radars were supplemented by more advanced stationary two-coordinate AN / FPS-88 radars operating in the same frequency range, but with antennas covered by radio-transparent domes. AN / FPS-88 radars with a pulse power of 1 MW could see large high-altitude air targets at ranges of more than 400 km. To more accurately determine the range and altitude, radio altimeters AN / FPS-6 and AN / MPS-14 were used.


Radio altimeters AN / FPS-6 as part of a radar system

Radar systems as part of the AN / FPS-88 radar and AN / FPS-6 radio altimeters were used to control airspace, as well as to provide target designation to ground-based air defense systems and to target fighter-interceptors. For greater range, AN / TPS-44 radars located on higher elevations along the coast could work, emitting in the frequency range 1,25 - 1,35 GHz. Currently, AN / FPS-88 and AN / FPS-6 are decommissioned, and very worn-out stations of the AN / TPS-44 type with a passport detection range of more than 400 km are operated in a sparing mode, and therefore their real range does not exceed 270 km.

In 1974, six stationary radar posts operating on the territory of the Republic of Turkey, deployed at an altitude of 1000-2500 m, were included in the structure of the automated ground control system for NATO Air Defense Forces in Europe “Neige”. According to the plan of the NATO command, the "Nage" system was supposed to solve the tasks of continuous monitoring of the air situation, early detection of targets and their identification, collection and analysis of information, the issuance of individual data and an overall picture of the air situation at air defense control centers. It was entrusted with the task of providing control of military means - fighter-interceptors and anti-aircraft missile systems in the conditions of application by the enemy of active radio countermeasures.

Stationary anti-aircraft missile systems


In connection with the adoption of jet bombers by the USSR Air Force, taking into account the strategic position of Turkey and the presence of American military bases on its territory, a more effective air defense system was required than anti-aircraft artillery. In the early 1960s, the deployment of the MIM-3 Nike Ajax anti-aircraft missile systems began in the west of the country. From the very beginning, anti-aircraft missile units were subordinate to the command of the Turkish air forces.

Nike Ajax became the first mass-produced air defense system and the first anti-aircraft missile system, which was adopted by the American army in 1953. For the mid-1950s and early 1960s, the capabilities of air defense systems made it possible to effectively hit any type of jet bombers and cruise missiles that existed then. This stationary single-channel air defense system was designed as a means of object-based air defense to protect large cities and strategic military bases. In its capabilities, the Nike Ajax air defense system built in the late 1950s was close to the characteristics of the much larger Soviet S-75 air defense system, which initially had the opportunity to change positions. Range - about 45 km, height - up to 19 km, target speed - up to 2,3 M. A unique feature of the Nike-Ajax anti-aircraft missile was the presence of three high-explosive fragmentation warheads. The first, weighing 5,44 kg, was located in the nasal section, the second - 81,2 kg - in the middle, and the third - 55,3 kg - in the tail. It was assumed that this will increase the likelihood of hitting a target, due to a longer cloud of fragments. The rocket used a liquid-propellant engine running on toxic fuel and caustic, igniting the combustible substances of the oxidizer. Each battery consisted of two parts: a central station where radars and guidance stations were located - and a sector in which launchers, missile depots, and fuel tanks were located.


SAM position MIM-3 Nike Ajax

For the MIM-3 Nike Ajax in North America, more than 100 capital positions were built. But due to the difficulties in operating liquid rockets and the successful testing of the long-range MIM-14 Nike-Hercules complex with solid-fuel rockets, the Nike Ajax was withdrawn from service in the mid-1960s. Some of the anti-aircraft systems withdrawn from the US Army were not disposed of, but transferred to NATO allies: Greece, Italy, Holland, Germany and Turkey. In the Turkish Air Force, Nike-Ajax systems were used until the early 1970s.

The next step in strengthening the Turkish air defense system was the adoption of the long-range American MIM-14 Nike-Hercules. Unlike its predecessor, Nike-Hercules has an increased combat range - up to 130 km and altitude - up to 30 km, which is achieved through the use of new missiles and more powerful radar stations. However, the concept of the construction and combat operation of the complex remained the same. The new American air defense system was also single-channel, which significantly limited its ability to repulse a massive raid.

The detection and target designation system of the Nike-Hercules air defense system was originally based on a stationary detection radar from the Nike-Ajax air defense system operating in the mode of continuous emission of radio waves. Subsequently, for the modification, known as Hercules Standard A, the mobile radar AN / MPQ-43 was created, which made it possible to change the position if necessary. The upgraded SAM Improved Hercules (MIM-14B) introduced new detection radars, and improved target tracking radars, which increased the noise immunity and the ability to track high-speed targets. In addition, a radar was installed that constantly determined the distance to the target and issued additional corrections for the computer. A part of the electronic units was transferred from electric vacuum devices to a solid-state elemental base.

Although the capabilities of the modernized complex increased, it was still mostly “sharpened” against large and relatively slow and low-maneuverable long-range bombers. The capabilities of even the improved MIM-14В / С air defense systems to combat low-level front-line aircraft were modest. However, this was partially offset by certain capabilities to intercept ballistic missiles.


SAM position MIM-14 Nike-Hercules

The Nike-Hercules battery included all military equipment and two launch pads, each of which had 3-4 launchers with missiles. Batteries are usually placed around the protected object. Each division includes six batteries.


Google Earth satellite image: MIM-14 Nike-Hercules air defense missile defense position 5 km east of Marmaris. Photo taken in 2009

The deployment of the MIM-14V / S air defense system in Turkish territory began in the late 1960s. In total, up to the second half of the 1970s, 12 Nike Hercules batteries were betrayed to Turkey. Although these complexes had the theoretical possibility of relocation, the deployment and folding procedure was quite complicated and time-consuming. In general, the mobility of the American MIM-14C Nike-Hercules air defense system was comparable to that of the Soviet long-range S-200 complex.

By the end of the Cold War, 10 Nike Hercules batteries had been deployed in operational condition in Turkey. All positions were at an altitude of 300 to 1800 m above sea level.


Layout of the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules air defense system in Turkey as of the beginning of the 1990s

The diagram shows that the long-range anti-aircraft missile systems in the country were located unevenly. The air defense of the eastern regions bordering Armenia and Georgia was supposed to be carried out using fighter-interceptors, anti-aircraft artillery and short-range mobile systems. The stationary positions of long-range air defense systems were located in the western part of the Republic of Turkey. Judging by the locations and the direction in which the launchers of anti-aircraft missiles were oriented, they primarily had to protect ports and sea straits. The highest density of SAM positions was observed in the vicinity of Istanbul.


MIM-14 Nike-Hercules launcher at the Aviation Museum of Etimesgut Airbase, 15 km west of Ankara

After the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact Organization and the collapse of the USSR, the number of Nike-Hercules complexes deployed in Turkey gradually decreased. The latest air defense systems in the vicinity of Istanbul were decommissioned in 2007. However, unlike other NATO countries, the air defense systems removed from combat duty were not disposed of, but were sent for storage to the 15th missile base, located north-west of Istanbul.


Layout of the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules air defense system in Turkey as of 2009

As of 2009, the Nike-Hercules air defense systems remained only on the coast of the Aegean Sea. Such an arrangement of air defense systems at stationary positions clearly demonstrates against whom they are primarily directed. Although Turkey and Greece are full members of NATO, there are serious contradictions between these countries, which in the past have repeatedly led to armed clashes.

Despite the fact that the Nike-Hercules air defense systems in Turkey are extremely worn out and hopelessly outdated, they are still formally in service.


Google Earth satellite image: position of the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules SAM in the vicinity of Izmir. Of the six launchers, only two are equipped with anti-aircraft missiles

The positions of the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules SAM are still maintained in the vicinity of Izmir, Kojakoy and Karakoy. Satellite images show that part of the launchers is equipped with missiles, which indicates a shortage of air-launched missiles. Three stored batteries are evenly distributed along the coast, control airspace from the side of the Aegean Sea and, at the distance redistribution, overlap the mutual damage zones.


Google Earth satellite image: MIM-14 Nike-Hercules airborne radar systems around Izmir

Despite the fact that the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules in Turkey are complexes of late modifications that can be relocated if necessary, in fact, most of them are tied to stationary radar for detecting air targets. By the mid-1980s, long-range Nike-Herkles air defense systems were coupled with powerful stationary radars with a phased antenna array Hughes HR-3000. In this regard, the standard radars AN / FPS-71 and AN / FPS-75 were used as auxiliary.

Mobile anti-aircraft missile systems


In the early 1970s, the Turkish Army's air defense was strengthened by the FIM-43 Redeye man-portable air defense systems. MANPADS were shipped from the United States and from surplus Bundeswehr. The first-generation portable system could hit subsonic aerial targets when firing after it at a range of 4500 m and in a range of heights of 50 - 2700 m.


Although the characteristics of noise immunity and sensitivity of the infrared seeker of this complex were modest, MANPADS "Redeye" was widely used. About 150 launchers and nearly 800 missiles were delivered to Turkey. Currently, the FIM-43 Redeye MANPADS in Turkey are replaced by the FIM-92 Stinger.

In addition to the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules, in the mid-1970s, several batteries of the MIM-23B Improved Hawk mobile air defense systems were delivered to the United States from Turkey in the mids. For its time, the I-Hawk air defense system was quite advanced, and had the following advantages: the ability to intercept high-speed targets at low altitudes, the high noise immunity of the radar exposure and the ability to homing on the interference source, short response time, high mobility.


MIM-23B Improved Hawk Launcher

The Advanced Hawk air defense system could hit supersonic air targets at ranges from 1 to 40 km and in the altitude range of 0,03 - 18 km. The main firing unit of the MIM-23V complex was a two-platoon anti-aircraft battery. The fire platoon had a radar target illumination, three launchers with three anti-aircraft guided missiles on each. In addition, in the first firing platoon there was a target designation radar, a radar range finder, an information processing center and a battery command post, and in the second - a target designation radar and a control post.

The first MIM-23V air defense missile systems launched combat duty in the vicinity of Istanbul, and initially served as an addition to the long-range Nike-Hercules complexes. But subsequently, the bulk of the mobile low-altitude systems were used by the Turkish Air Force command as a reserve, which, if necessary, could be transferred to the most dangerous section. For this reason, in the Turkish territory, the anti-aircraft systems of the Hawk family were deployed very limitedly in permanent positions.

In the late 1990s, part of the Turkish MIM-23B Improved Hawk air defense system was upgraded to Hawk XXI. After the upgrade, the obsolete AN / MPQ-62 surveillance radars were replaced with the modern AN / MPQ-64 three-axis radar. Changes have undergone air defense controls and data exchange equipment. In addition, the modified MIM-23K missiles were equipped with new high-explosive fragmentation warheads and more sensitive radio fuses. This made it possible to increase the likelihood of hitting air targets and give the complex limited missile defense capabilities.

In total, Turkey received 12 Hawk batteries; some of the complexes came from the presence of the US armed forces. It is reported that the last delivery was in 2005. Currently, even the upgraded systems no longer fully comply with modern requirements, and due to physical wear and tear in working condition, several Hawk XXI air defense systems remained in the Turkish Air Force. Which in the near future should be replaced by complexes of Turkish production.

In the late 1970s, the question arose of protecting Turkish military airfields from low-altitude bombing and assault strikes. A significant part of the air bases located in the Republic of Turkey was within the combat radius of the Soviet fighter-bombers Su-7B, Su-17, MiG-23B and front-line bombers Su-24. All Turkish air bases are located within the reach of long-range Tu-16, Tu-22 and Tu-22M bombers.


Google Earth satellite image: Rapier-2000 air defense system position in the vicinity of Incirlik airbase

In this regard, the US Air Force funded the purchase of 14 Rapier short-range air defense systems from the British British Aircraft Corporation. Initially, the complexes that covered the bases in Turkish territory were served by American calculations. The first Rapira air defense systems appeared in the Turkish Air Force in the early 1980s.

The main element of the complex, adopted by the United Kingdom in 1972, is a towed launcher for four missiles, on which a detection and target designation system is also mounted. Three more vehicles are used to transport the guidance post, a crew of five and a reserve ammunition.


Launcher SAMs Rapier

The complex’s surveillance radar, combined with a launcher, is capable of detecting low-altitude targets at a distance of more than 15 km. Guidance missiles is carried out using radio commands, which after capturing the target is fully automated. The operator only keeps the air target in the field of view of the optical device, while the infrared direction finder accompanies the missile launcher along the tracer, and the counting and resolving device generates guidance commands for the anti-aircraft missile. SAM Rapier can be used autonomously. Typically, the complexes are reduced to batteries, each of which includes: battery management, two firing platoons and a repair section. The first serial modification of the complex could hit air targets at ranges from 500 to 7000 m, in a range of heights of 15-3000 m.


In the second half of the 1990s, mass production of the radically improved modification of the Rapier-2000 began. Thanks to the use of more effective missiles Mk.2, with an increased firing range of up to 8000 m, non-contact infrared fuses, and new optoelectronic guidance stations and tracking radars, the characteristics of the complex have increased significantly. In addition, the number of missiles on launchers doubled - up to eight units. The Rapira-2000 complex was equipped with Dagger radar. It is capable of simultaneously detecting and tracking up to 75 targets. A computer coupled to a radar allows you to distribute targets and fire at them depending on the degree of danger. Guidance missiles to the target radar Blindfire-2000. In a difficult jamming environment or with the threat of anti-radar missile defense systems, an optoelectronic station comes into play. It includes a thermal imager and a highly sensitive TV camera. The optoelectronic station accompanies the rocket along the tracer and gives the coordinates to the calculator. Using radar tracking and optical means, simultaneous firing of two air targets is possible.


SAM launcher Rapier-2000

After the Turkish company Roketsan received a license to manufacture the Rapier-2000 air defense systems, 86 complexes were built in Turkey. The Mk.2A missiles and a number of electronic components were supplied by BAE Systems. Radars were provided by Alenia Marconi Systems.


Layout of airbases covered by Rapier-2000 air defense systems

At the moment, the Rapier 2000 air defense system is permanently covered by five large air bases located in the southern and western parts of Turkey. Usually in the vicinity of the air base deployed from 2 to 6 complexes. The Incirlik Air Base is best protected, where American warplanes are permanently located and B61 thermonuclear bombs are stored.


Layout of the positions of the Rapier-2000 air defense system in the vicinity of the Incirlik air base

Currently, the Turkish leadership has embarked on a renewal of the national air defense system. The problem of replacing obsolete radars and anti-aircraft missile systems is solved by purchasing modern models abroad. In addition, Ankara is actively seeking to establish licensed production of advanced radar facilities on its territory, which gives access to technology. At the same time, the creation of their own radar and air defense systems, which have already begun to enter the troops, is ongoing.

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  1. Aviator_ 27 December 2019 19: 01 New
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    Good review. Respect to the author.
    1. Atlant-1164 27 December 2019 19: 14 New
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      I also liked the review. Thanks to the author for an interesting excursion.
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        1. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 02: 27 New
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          Quote: Vasya I.
          Author! I want to know the answer to this question too! Are you apparently evading the answer ?!

          You still do not understand that the author of the trolls who are banned twice a week does not feed?
          1. Vasya I. 28 December 2019 02: 43 New
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            zyablik.olga (Olga), you are simply not experts with your husband in the field of radar and write nonsense at times. Your ignorance is there. You even did not bother to correct your mistakes in the articles on the VO. This is simply disrespect to VO readers!
            1. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 02: 46 New
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              Quote: Vasya I.
              zyablik.olga (Olga), you are just not experts with your husband in the field of radar and write nonsense.

              If someone will be interested in your opinion, you will be asked about this. But this is unlikely to happen, because your reputation is nowhere lower.
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                1. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 03: 00 New
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                  Quote: Vasya I.
                  Your reputation is even lower than mine. I'm at least much stronger
                  you with your husband and illiterate opus in radar and not only ...

                  If you are such a great specialist, write an article on this topic. The Military Review website is an open area, even I have a couple of publications. However, I doubt that you can do it. Yours is to pour mud and teach others. negative
                  Quote: Vasya I.
                  Readers see - who is not with you (approvingly), that troll must be destroyed.

                  Please list the list of these readers? wassat I do not argue, there are inadequacies, but there are such a clear minority and they are well known.
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          2. Vasya I. 28 December 2019 23: 58 New
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            Quote: Truthfulness
            Quote: Sergey Linnik US missile defense system. Part 2. March 29, 2016.


            Transportation radar AN / TPY-2 possible by air and sea, as well as towed on public roads. With a warhead detection range of 1000 km and a scanning angle of 10-60 °, this station has a good resolution, sufficient to distinguish the target against the background of fragments of previously destroyed missiles and separated stages. According to Raytheon's advertising information, the AN / TPY-2 radar can be used not only in conjunction with the THAAD system, but also as part of other missile defense systems.


            Quote: Sergey Linnik Turkey's air defense radar: will they ensure the safety of air lines? December 9, 2019.


            Mobile early warning radar AN / TPY-2 deployed in Turkey is located at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level, and approximately 700 km from the border with Iran. According to information published by Raytheon Corporation, a radar operating in the frequency range 8,55-10 GHz is capable of fixing above the horizon ballistic targets at a distance of up to 4700 km.


            Dear author - Sergey Linnik! I want to know the truth in your contradictions. What is the true maximum range of the AN / TPY-2 radar?

            Author! I would also like to get an answer to this question! Or are you consciously avoiding this ?! And it was not necessary to erase this comment above in their own interests.
            Not easier to answer the question? - and not engage in flood below with an opus, which showed complete ignorance of this issue earlier ... and complete ignorance of the radar!
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  2. ABM
    ABM 27 December 2019 19: 57 New
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    The only NATO country preparing for war with someone. Sultan, his name is loyal, lost in space
    1. vanavatny 27 December 2019 20: 26 New
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      and who is on your list of pacifists? Washington gerontocracy or European fans of their dual-use systems? apparently increasing their military budgets is there a way to replicate doves of the world? and the Sultan really strides widely, they can crack pants too ...
      1. ABM
        ABM 27 December 2019 20: 44 New
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        turn off the zombie and everything will be fine
        1. vanavatny 27 December 2019 20: 59 New
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          yes, yes, about the zombie man and propaganda, the trump card is not killed, but what about NATO’s peacefulness? It is possible without historical excursions, such as the Yugoslav events ...
          1. ABM
            ABM 27 December 2019 21: 11 New
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            Yes, at least read the news here sometimes:

            https://topwar.ru/166143-pentagon-nameren-sokratit-kolichestvo-nadvodnyh-korablej-vms-ssha.html
            https://topwar.ru/166106-v-amerikanskoj-presse-zajavili-chto-goroda-ssha-ne-gotovy-k-jadernoj-vojne.html
            https://topwar.ru/166051-perspektivnomu-palubnomu-istrebitelju-ssha-ne-dali-deneg.html

            further on your own
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. vanavatny 27 December 2019 21: 20 New
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              and what a ridiculous selection? What about? and where is the topic of the militarization of outer space, for example? NATO does not prepare for war, it leads them continuously, for decades, do not you see? or Gaddafi died of a cold?
              1. ABM
                ABM 27 December 2019 21: 29 New
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                NATO is not a homogeneous structure and wars are not more frequent than ours, but not with us - and they are not preparing for a major war. They are waging colonial wars, by and large, like us - we have two Chechen companies, a war with Georgia, Syria, Crimea, Donbass, conflicts of low intensity - in total, we, too, are fighting without stopping
                1. vanavatny 27 December 2019 21: 50 New
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                  and who spoke of the great war? By the way, small conflicts have already achieved chaos in the BV, and it’s not yet clear what it will pour out, there is someone who puts a little face in the neighbor’s face ... I believe no more than you in an attack on us, for I more or less imagine what and how for this idiocy it’s necessary and I don’t see fools armed enough for this, but ... we have someone killing someone along almost all borders, we are separated from a peace-loving Europe (filled with some kind of refugees), distraught Ukraine, foolishly supported by the same Europe, the future of Central Asian countries is very unclear modes, p Under the leadership of local tsars, Georgia sleeps and sees itself in NATO .. ​​the only one who, for the sake of his own survival, should rake this mess, supported by members of the alliance, is Russia, and our jerk is obviously stalling, and your examples are a little incorrect in terms of size and reasons of occurrence but these are the details
          2. ABM
            ABM 27 December 2019 21: 19 New
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            we are bred for an arms race, and without doing anything for that!
            1. vanavatny 27 December 2019 21: 23 New
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              the race didn’t stop, it’s endless, like a rearmament process, if the state is alive, of course, and so far Russia is clearly succeeding, even with our “economy”
          3. ABM
            ABM 27 December 2019 21: 21 New
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            strange, left a comment - it is not visible for some reason
            1. vanavatny 27 December 2019 21: 22 New
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              also crooked comment went ...
  3. merkava-2bet 27 December 2019 21: 25 New
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    Thank you Sergey, it’s very interesting and Happy New Year.
    And a little question, you can write the story of the creation of the S-300 air defense system and the Tor air defense system, in detail about all the modifications, on this forum I re-read everything on them, but everything is superficial without history. Thanks in advance and hello Olechka.
    1. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 03: 20 New
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      Quote: merkava-2bet
      Thank you Sergey, it’s very interesting and Happy New Year.
      And a little question, you can write the story of the creation of the S-300 air defense system and the Tor air defense system, in detail about all the modifications, on this forum I re-read everything on them, but everything is superficial without history. Thanks in advance and hello Olechka.

      Andrei, hello!
      I don’t know if Sergei will undertake to write more about our air defense system. A couple of times he “burned” although everything was exclusively based on “open materials”.
      Thank you for your congratulations! In turn, our family wishes you and your loved ones all the best for the New Year!
  4. ABM
    ABM 27 December 2019 22: 00 New
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    Quote: vanavate
    and who spoke of the great war? By the way, small conflicts have already achieved chaos in the BV, and it’s not yet clear what it will pour out, there is someone who puts a little face in the neighbor’s face ... I believe no more than you in an attack on us, for I more or less imagine what and how for this idiocy it’s necessary and I don’t see fools armed enough for this, but ... we have someone killing someone along almost all borders, we are separated from a peace-loving Europe (filled with some kind of refugees), distraught Ukraine, foolishly supported by the same Europe, the future of Central Asian countries is very unclear modes, p Under the leadership of local tsars, Georgia sleeps and sees itself in NATO .. ​​the only one who, for the sake of his own survival, should rake this mess, supported by members of the alliance, is Russia, and our jerk is obviously stalling, and your examples are a little incorrect in terms of size and reasons of occurrence but these are the details


    our problem is a very unattractive socio-economic model of society plus historically educated militancy. We remind the whole world of the nation of soldiers from the Fifth Element - no one dares to fight with us, and why, it makes no sense. To be honest, we ourselves are to blame for the conflicts around our borders. The territory of a neighboring state in Europe the previous time was joined by the notorious Aloizovich, who later ended poorly - in Europe, this nonsense is well remembered
    1. vanavatny 28 December 2019 10: 35 New
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      战斗 民族, zhàndòu mínzú, a warlike nation, I am flattered ...
  5. ABM
    ABM 27 December 2019 22: 04 New
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    Quote: vanavate
    and what a ridiculous selection? What about? and where is the topic of the militarization of outer space, for example? NATO does not prepare for war, it leads them continuously, for decades, do not you see? or Gaddafi died of a cold?


    they fly on our booster blocks ... what militarization?
    1. vanavatny 28 December 2019 10: 29 New
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      and what about 780 days hanging in their orbit and successfully landing? in this direction we are still quiet, and this is important ...
  6. opus 27 December 2019 22: 10 New
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    Sergey - shikardos!
    he himself didn’t know much.
    1. ZSU M42 Duster-: I saw it personally, touched it with my hands, it (it is he) was flooded near Aqaba, in Jordan.
    We were there about 2a ago. We still have to go, because we didn’t get to the Hercules (Lockheed C-130) with a skeleton: it’s simple, you can’t dive with +39
    6-8 meters deep, beautiful view, about 7 sisters, he rests at the bottom, but not Turkish, but Egyptian like.
    joke that my son and I could not guess what a miracle? And my wife guessed: they are Russian women: they can identify a horse and a Pollinator
    (Divers call him M-41 Bulldog, but it’s not over, there is another VLD, and the slope is different, not to mention the open cabin and 2a of the trunk)).
    2.Our made a very big mistake - it would be better if Turkey was neutral.
    3. S-400 to Turkey, it is in vain
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    2. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 02: 32 New
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      Quote: opus
      ZSU M42 Duster-: I saw it personally, touched it with my hands, it (it is he) was flooded near Aqaba, in Jordan.

      Anton, how did all this wealth in the sea turn out?
      1. Mordvin 3 28 December 2019 03: 24 New
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        Quote: zyablik.olga
        how did all this wealth in the sea turn out?

        Specially drowned. And there’s no need to pay for disposal. wink
        American-made ZSU M42 was flooded in Jordan in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) at a depth of about nine meters. Now the once formidable fighting vehicle is used for completely different purposes. Soft corals and sponges covered her body and serve as a haven for beautiful reef fish, who consider her their home.


        https://zen.yandex.ru/media/rusblog/zatoplennyi-tank-kajetsia-mashinoi-iz-fantasticheskogo-mira-istoriia-i-foto-tankov-okazavshihsia-na-dne-moria-5bbe42f6e7ce3c00ab8ee9dd
        1. zyablik.olga 28 December 2019 03: 29 New
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          Quote: mordvin xnumx
          Specially drowned. And there’s no need to pay for disposal.

          Thank you, I didn’t know! request
          Although it is probably not the cost of disposal. Such cars can be of considerable value to collectors, and even if cut to metal, then probably it is still economically profitable. Perhaps in this way they are trying to attract tourists who are engaged in diving.
          1. Mordvin 3 28 December 2019 03: 42 New
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            Quote: zyablik.olga
            Perhaps in this way trying to attract tourists who are engaged in diving.

            Well yes. For fish, divers and not to waste money on disposal. There is a good article by reference.
            1. Bongo 28 December 2019 04: 33 New
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              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              Quote: zyablik.olga
              Perhaps in this way trying to attract tourists who are engaged in diving.

              Well yes. For fish, divers and not to waste money on disposal. There is a good article by reference.

              Thank you, got acquainted with the interest! good
              It’s not clear just why they put you a minus. request
              1. opus 28 December 2019 13: 04 New
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                Quote: Bongo
                It’s not clear just why they put you a minus.

                there are people here who are simple: ran, crap, then ran (crap).

                Quote: mordvin xnumx
                Well yes

                don't pay attention
          2. opus 28 December 2019 12: 44 New
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            Quote: zyablik.olga
            Such cars can be of considerable value to collectors, and even if cut to metal, then probably it is still economically profitable.

            the rights.
            before flooding: scraped, licked, deactivated, removed everything that could harm fish / corals
            + Logistics: bring and dump where necessary and as needed: costs money.
      2. opus 28 December 2019 12: 39 New
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        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Anton, how did all this wealth in the sea turn out?

        Downstairs Voldemar answered
        Only, as we were, he was prettier, maybe they cleaned.
        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        And there’s no need to pay for disposal

        not. not a matter of scrap.
    3. Bongo 28 December 2019 04: 29 New
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      Quote: opus
      ZSU M42 Duster-: I saw it personally, touched it with my hands, it (it is he) was flooded near Aqaba, in Jordan.

      Hello! This ZSU is still formally in service in Turkey. About M42 Duster in particular and modern Turkish air defense systems in general, will be in the final part.
      1. opus 28 December 2019 12: 41 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        About M42 Duster in particular and modern Turkish air defense systems in general, will be in the final part.

        Well, she has a Bulbdock platform - why shouldn't she stand?
        light
        nimble
        - maintenance is not expensive.
        By the way, if I have all the rules, I can watch it in Turkey in the spring.
        1. Bongo 28 December 2019 12: 49 New
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          For the beginning of the 50s ZSU was quite on the level. But quickly outdated, the main drawback was the lack of a radar guidance system.
          1. opus 28 December 2019 13: 01 New
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            Quote: Bongo
            the disadvantage was the lack of a radar guidance system

            You know, I think now in the era of UAV-come down: cheap and cheerful
            I think the Turks can do something, integrate something like Mildar radar there

            12 for eyes and ears
            and in the Turkish mountains she’s crawling
            1. Bongo 28 December 2019 13: 03 New
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              Quote: opus
              You know, I think now in the era of UAV-come down: cheap and cheerful
              I think the Turks can do something, integrate something like Mildar radar there

              They already have it.

              Quote: opus
              By the way, if I have all the rules, I can watch it in Turkey in the spring.

              Visit the aviation museum at the airbase west of Istanbul, there are many interesting things.
              1. opus 28 December 2019 13: 29 New
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                yep
                I did not have time in 2018 - quickly ran through Turkey.
                just a seagull and drank

                Threat in 2020 I will go fishing / hunting:
                you need to catch up, our Arkharovtsy 28 bears took this year. And I can’t get everything
                1. Bongo 28 December 2019 13: 38 New
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                  Quote: opus
                  Threat in 2020 I will go fishing / hunting:
                  you need to catch up, our Arkharovtsy 28 bears took this year. And I can’t get everything

                  I'm not an expert on bears, only forced. I hunt more "by pen." You will build a bridge to Sakhalin, come and take a fishing trip. But in winter you don’t like it.
                  1. opus 28 December 2019 13: 53 New
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                    Quote: Bongo
                    . But in winter you don’t like it.

                    any better than ours today ...
                    We drive for snow for 300km

                    Quote: Bongo
                    You will build a bridge to Sakhalin

                    I definitely won’t be, I’m reluctant to bunk, for old age.
                    I’ll put the best equipment there or bring it myself, but let them build "close to the body."
                    / To you in the Far East, I’ll come anyway, in February there seems to be a case
                    1. Bongo 28 December 2019 13: 55 New
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                      Quote: opus
                      any better than ours today ...
                      We drive for snow for 300km

                      Everything is relative. I would not be upset if we had warmer. Now at -40 at night it crushes, and in the afternoon there is also a breeze. wassat
  7. Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg) 28 December 2019 01: 46 New
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    Sergey, thanks.
  8. san4es 28 December 2019 13: 36 New
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    Thanks Sergey hi Hello everyone. Movies on the topic:
    , The United States transferred a significant amount of ..... and 40-mm twin M42 Duster self-propelled anti-aircraft guns to the Turkish army.
    ... M51 Skysweeper anti-aircraft gun with radar guidance could fire at air targets at ranges up to 13 km,
    The first Rapira air defense systems appeared in the Turkish Air Force in the early 1980s.
    In the second half of the 1990s, mass production of the radically improved modification of the Rapier-2000 began.


    All with the coming! Hurrah!!
    1. Bongo 28 December 2019 13: 45 New
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      Quote: san4es
      Thanks Sergey hi Hello everyone. Movies on the topic:

      Alexander, welcome! Thanks for the movie! You are always on top! good
      Quote: san4es
      All with the coming! Hurrah!!

      drinks
  9. Saxahorse 28 December 2019 20: 31 New
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    Good review. Thanks to the author!

    The truth is a little puzzled by this paragraph:
    The Nike-Hercules battery included all military equipment and two launch pads, each of which had 3-4 launchers with missiles. Batteries are usually placed around the protected object. Each division includes six batteries.

    I always thought that there were usually three batteries in a division. Do Turks have six or is it a typo?
    1. opus 28 December 2019 21: 15 New
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      Quote: Saxahorse
      I always thought that there were usually three batteries in a division. Do Turks have six or is it a typo?

      it's only for the Nike C-84

      the Nike SL-40 had six.


      Oven Nike batteries were normally organized into a single battalion.

      Nike Ajax, included four launch pads (battery) * 4 =