Military Review

German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 6)

32
German 20-mm anti-aircraft guns have proven themselves to be quite effective in combating aviationoperating at low altitudes. However, the rate of fire of the Flak 28, FlaK 30, and Flak 38 single-barreled anti-aircraft guns was not always enough to hit fast-moving targets, and the Flakvierling 38 quad mounts were too heavy and bulky. In addition, the destructive effect of 20-mm fragmentation shells was still very modest, and in order to reliably disable the Il-2 attack aircraft, it was often necessary to achieve several hits. In this regard, in 1942, Germany began to create anti-aircraft guns, which, at a rate of fire comparable to 20 mm machine guns, had an increased effective fire range and a great destructive effect when hit by a target.


However, the Germans already had some experience in operating 25-mm French anti-aircraft guns manufactured by Hotchkiss. The first modification of the 25-mm unit appeared in the 1932 year, but the leadership of the French military department showed no interest, and until the second half of the 30-s, the anti-aircraft guns were allowed only for export. Only in 1938, the French army ordered a small batch of 25-mm anti-aircraft gunners. The first model, known as the Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes modèle 1938, had an original tripod carriage and store supply. In the international market weapons This modification is most often referred to as 25 mm CA mle 38.

German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 6)

Anti-aircraft gun 25 mm CA mle 39 in the combat position


The installation of Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes modèle 1939 (25 mm CA mle 39), characterized by a refined, more stable carpet, became more popular. For transportation used detachable wheel travel.


Anti-aircraft installation 25 mm CA mle 39 in transport position


The 25-mm anti-aircraft gun 25 mm CA mle 39 in combat position weighed about 1150 kg. She was served by a settlement consisting of 9 people. Used for food shops on 15 shells. The rate of fire was 250 rds / min. Practical rate of fire: 100 — 120 rds / min. Vertical guidance angles: -10 ° - 85 °. The effective firing range is up to 3000 m. Reach height - 2000 m. The fire was fired with 25-mm shots with a sleeve length 163 mm. The ammunition could include: high explosive incendiary, fragmentation tracer, armor-piercing, armor-piercing tracer shells. The high explosive incendiary projectile with a mass of 240 g left the barrel with an initial velocity of 900 m / s and contained 10 g of explosives. At a distance of 300 meters, an armor-piercing projectile with a mass of 260 g, with a normal speed of 870 m / s, normal pierced through 30-mm armor.


Anti-aircraft gun 25 mm CA mle 40


In 1940, the modification Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes modèle 1940 (25 mm CA mle 40) appeared, designed to be placed in fixed positions and on decks of warships. In this model, the mass of which reached 1500 kg, the rate of fire was brought to 300 shots / min. Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes modèle 1940 jumelée was an even faster rate of fire.



In total, the French armed forces received about 800 anti-aircraft guns 25 mm CA mle 38 / 39 / 40, which clearly did not meet the needs. Approximately half of the 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were captured by the Germans. About 200 units were assembled at the Hochiss plant after the occupation of France. In the German army, the French 25-mm anti-aircraft guns received the designation 2,5 cm Flak 38 / 39 (f). In addition to the Wehrmacht, the same guns were used in the Romanian air defense.


2,5 сm Flak 39 (f)


Most of the 2,5 anti-aircraft installations with m Flak 39 (f) were located in the fortifications of the Atlantic Wall, but some of the French-made 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were still on the Eastern Front.



In general, the 25 mm CA mle 38 / 39 / 40 anti-aircraft guns for their time were very good weapons. Due to the fact that the designers of “Gochkiss” abandoned the archaic rigid tapes-cassettes, widely used in other products of this company, it was possible to increase the reliability. Now, much less dust and sand fell inside the machine, which reduced the number of delays when firing. With a combat rate of fire comparable to 20-mm German anti-aircraft guns, the French 25-mm units had a greater effective firing range and reach in height. When an 25-mm high-explosive incendiary projectile hit a plane, a hole of approximately twice the area was formed than from a 20-mm fragmentation projectile.

At the end of the 30-s, the German designers began developing 30-mm aircraft cannons. Weapons of this caliber were intended for fighters, opposing long-range bombers, and it was also supposed to be part of the armament of anti-tank attack aircraft and anti-submarine defense aircraft. In the summer of 1940, the company Rheinmetall-Borsig AG introduced the 30-mm aviation gun Maschinenkanone.101 (MK.101). For firing from this weapon a powerful shot of dimension 30x184 mm was created. An armor-piercing projectile with a mass of 455 g, with an initial speed of 760 m / s, when hit at a right angle at a distance of 300 m, could penetrate 32 mm armor. Subsequently, for the 30-mm aircraft cannon, an armored-piercing tracer was created, which, at a distance of 300 m, could penetrate 60 mm armor at an angle of 50º.

Work automation MK.101 was based on a short recoil of the barrel. The mechanical disconnector allowed firing both in single shots and in bursts at a rate of up to 260 rds / min. Power was supplied from box magazines with a capacity of 10 cartridges or 30-charging drums. The weight of the cannon with a drum on 30 shells was 185 kg. The length of the gun - 2592 mm. Due to the large mass and size, and due to the limited capacity of the store, this aircraft gun was not widely used. At the beginning of 1942, an improved version appeared in which it was possible to get rid of many shortcomings. New 30-mm gun MK.103 without ammunition weighed 145 kg. The mass of the box with the tape on the 100 shots - 94 kg. The scheme of functioning of the automatics is mixed: the extraction of the liner, the feeding of the next cartridge and the advancement of the tape took place due to a short rollback of the barrel, and for cocking the gate and unlocking the barrel bore the removal of powder gases was used. The power of the gun MK 103 was carried out from a metal loose tape of length 70-125 shells. Firing rate - up to 420 rds / min. Direct shot range was 800 meters.

According to the complex of characteristics, the gun MK.103 was, perhaps, the best of serial classmates. Soviet experts, familiarized with the trophy MK.103, rated it positively. In conclusion, according to the results of the tests, it was noted that the 30-mm German aircraft gun with belt power has a high rate of fire for its caliber. The design of the weapon is quite simple and reliable. The main disadvantage, according to our experts, was the strong shock loads during the operation of automation. In terms of combat performance, the MK.103 occupied an intermediate position between the 23-mm air gun AY and the 37-mm NA-37 and was generally better suited for arming an armored attack aircraft. However, too much impact, which the multi-chamber muzzle brake could not mitigate, and the sharpness of the work of automation limited the use of 30-mm guns as part of single-engine fighter armament. Production of the MK.103 was carried out from the middle of the 1942 of the year to February of the 1945 of the year and a significant amount of unclaimed 30-mm guns accumulated in the Luftwaffe warehouses, which caused their use in anti-aircraft installations.

At the first stage, as in the case of other aircraft machine guns and cannons, the MK.103 was mounted on hand-made anti-aircraft gun carriages. In the summer of 1943, the first 30-mm cannons were mounted on primitive and fairly rough-made turrets. Thus, the ground personnel of the Luftwaffe tried to strengthen the air defense of field airfields.


Hand-crafted anti-aircraft gun using 30-mm aircraft gun MK.103

The most effective when firing at aerial targets were: 330 g high-explosive projectile 3 cm M.-Gesch. o. Zerl. Containing 80 g of trotyl, and 320 g high-explosive tracer 3 cm M.-Gesch. L'spur o. Zerl., Curb 71 g phlegmatized RDX mixed with aluminum powder. For comparison: in the Soviet 37-mm fragmentation-tracer projectile UOR-167 mass 0,732 g, included in the ammunition 61-K anti-aircraft gun, contained TNNX g of trotyl.


Shells for 30-mm gun MK.103 from left to right: high-explosive, practical fragmentation tracer, high-explosive with self-destruction, armor-piercing and incendiary

High-explosive 30-mm projectiles hit any part of the Il-2 attack aircraft, resulting in lethal damage. For the manufacture of especially powerful 30-mm projectiles with a high filling ratio of explosive, the technology of “deep drawing” was used, followed by quenching the steel body with high-frequency currents.

In the middle of 1943, the designers of the company Waffenfabrik Mauser AG by imposing an aircraft cannon on the 20-mm anti-aircraft machine Flak 38 anti-aircraft guns created an 3,0 with Flak 103 / 38 anti-aircraft guns. Although this installation was largely a forced improvisation of wartime, in general, it turned out to be very successful.


30-mm anti-aircraft installation 3,0 сm Flak 103 / 38


Compared to the 20-mm anti-aircraft gun, an increase in the caliber of the artillery unit led to an increase in weight of about 30%. The mass of 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 in the transport position was 879 kg, after separation of the wheel travel - 619 kg. According to expert estimates, the efficiency of the 30-mm anti-aircraft gun has increased approximately 1,5 times. At the same time, the effective range of fire has increased by 20%, but due to the use of band power and a box on 40 shells, the combat rate of fire has significantly increased. In addition, the power of the 30-mm projectile was about twice as large as the 20-mm projectile. Thus, to shoot down an armored attack aircraft or a twin-engine dive bomber, as a rule, it took no more than 2-3 of fragmentation tracer hits or a high-explosive missile hit. Since the heavier 1-mm projectile was slower to lose its energy, the maximum slant range for air targets was 30 m, its height reach was 5700 m.


3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 in the field test

Single-barreled anti-aircraft guns based on the MK.103 on a standard 20-mm carriage 2,0-cm Flak 38 anti-aircraft guns were used as towed, placed on the armored personnel carrier chassis or in truck bodies.


30-mm anti-aircraft installation 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 in the back of a Steyr 2000A truck


Most often, 30-mm machines were installed on Steyr 2000A trucks. Austrian multi-purpose vehicles Steyr 270 during World War II were widely distributed in the German armed forces. All-wheel drive Austrian vehicles were in all kinds of troops and were used to transport soldiers and various cargoes. Model Steyr 1500A with HP 85 engine could carry up to 1,5 t or serve as a lightweight tractor. In 1944, an extended version of the Steyr 2000A with a load capacity of 2 t went to the series.


Model ZSU Steyr 2000A mit 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 "Jaboschreck"


On the basis of this model, Graubschat Berlin in the second half of 1944 created the anti-aircraft self-propelled gun Steyr 2000A mit 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 "Jaboschreck". The final assembly of the ZSU took place at the Ostbau plant in Sagan (now Poland). In order to reduce the cost of production, the cabin was made open. For weather protection, an awning could be installed over the driver’s workplace and body on removable arcs. In addition to the armored shield, the calculation of the improvised anti-aircraft self-propelled gun was not covered by bullets and fragments, and as a result it turned out to be very vulnerable to repelling air raids.


Destroyed in Czechoslovakia ZSU Steyr 2000A mit 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38 "Jaboschreck"


The exact number of built ZSU unknown, according to various sources they were released from 50 to 70 units. Such a small number of self-propelled units built due to the fact that their production was adjusted to the company, which was soon captured by the advancing units of the Red Army.

In addition to improvised unarmored ZSUs on a cargo chassis, 30-mm aircraft guns were used in full-fledged light-weight self-propelled guns tanks Czech-made Pz.Kpfw. 38 (t). Externally, this machine was almost no different from the serial production ZSU Flakpanzer 38 (t) with a 20-mm automatic gun.


ZSU with 30-mm gun based on Pz.Kpfw.38 (t), captured by Soviet troops in Prague


Judging by the archive data, in the 1945 year, shortly before the end of the hostilities, several Flakpanzer 38 (t) anti-aircraft tanks 2,0 cm Flak 38 replaced 3,0 cm Flak 103 / 38. At least two such cars in May 1945 participated in battles in Czechoslovakia.



Also on the basis of the tank Pz.Kpfw.38 (t) in 1945 year was developed ZSU "Kleiner Kugelblitz" (it. Small ball lightning) with twin 30-mm guns. A similar installation, known as "Kugelblitz" (German. Ball lightning), was created on the chassis of the medium tank PzKpfw IV. Until the end of the war, the Germans managed to release six ZSU with 30-mm Spark, which entered the military tests.


Tower ZSU "Kugelblitz" in the museum exhibition


The tower for "Ball Lightning" with two anti-aircraft guns was manufactured by Daimler-Benz in October 1944. The spherical turret was welded from 20-mm armor and was mounted in a fixed 30-mm armored casing with a gimbal suspension.

In the autumn of 1944, the Czech company Waffenwerke Brünn (this was called Zbrojovka Brno during the occupation) began mass production of twin 3,0 cm MK 303 (Br) anti-aircraft systems, also known as 3,0 cm Flakzwilling MK 303 (Br). Unlike the 3,0 сm Flak 103 / 38 with band feed, the new anti-aircraft gun had a system for supplying ammunition from stores on 10 shells, with a rate of firing from two barrels to 900 rds / min. Thanks to the longer barrel, the initial velocity of the armor-piercing projectile was increased to 900 m / s. Effective range of air targets - up to 3000 m.


Twin 30-mm anti-aircraft installation 3,0 with m Flakzwilling MK 303 (Br)


Originally paired 30-mm anti-aircraft gun was intended for installation on warships. However, most of the 3,0 сm Flakzwilling MK 303 (Br) was used in land stationary positions. Before the German capitulation to the troops, it was possible to transfer more than 220 anti-aircraft installations 3,0 сm MK 303 (Br). After the war, Czechoslovakia created an 30-mm coaxial anti-aircraft gun ZK-453 (М53) in Czechoslovakia, which was produced in a towed version and was used as part of the ZNU М53 / 59.

By analogy with the 20-mm 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38 quadruple anti-aircraft installation, at the end of 1944, using the guns MK.103, 3,0 cm Flakvierling 103 / 38 was created. Externally, the 30-mm quad unit differed from the 20-mm in longer and thicker trunks, equipped with a multi-chamber muzzle brake.


30 4mm anti-aircraft gun 3,0 cm Flakvierling 103 / 38


Compared to the 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38, the 3,0 cm Flakvierling 103 / 38 mass in a combat position has increased by about 300 kg. But weight gain was more than offset by increased combat performance. In 6 seconds, the quad unit could launch an 160 projectile, the total mass of 72 kg, in a continuous queue. The Verkhmat command planned to increase the firepower of armored self-propelled guns and rearm the Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind ZSU with four MK.30 XM guns capable of making more than 103 rounds per minute. This self-propelled self-propelled gun was designated Zerstorer 1600, and in January 45, Ostbau Werke built an experimental prototype. By firepower, this ZSU did not have analogues at that time and could pose a serious danger both to combat aircraft operating at low altitudes and to Soviet tanks. But the rapid advance of the Red Army did not allow for the mass production of self-propelled anti-aircraft systems, capable of seriously strengthening the German military air defense. A total of about 1945 single-barreled, twinned and quad sets chambered for 500x30 mm were assembled at German and Czech enterprises. Germany’s limited resources, the incessant bombardment of defense plants, and the successes of the Red Army prevented the release of 184-mm anti-aircraft guns in quantities that could have a significant impact on the course of hostilities.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://sudwall.superforum.fr/t906-25-cm-flak-39-f
https://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=161014
http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNFR_25mm-60_Hotchkiss.php
http://replica-weapons.com/replica-artillery-shells-and-projectiles/german-3cm-m-gesch-patr-mk-103.html
https://forum.valka.cz/topic/view/38137/3-cm-Flak-103-38
https://banaventura.livejournal.com/710.html
http://www.ww2technik.de/sites/dflak/3%20cm%20flak.htm
http://alternathistory.com/30-mm-pushki-rejnmetall-mk-101-i-mk-103/
Author:
Articles from this series:
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 1)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 2)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 3)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 4)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 5)
32 comments
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  1. Andrey NM
    Andrey NM 3 January 2019 07: 49
    +11
    Hmmm ... Long live the "fraternal" Czechoslovakia, until the last day working at an accelerated pace for the good of the ideas of National Socialism ...
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 3 January 2019 07: 54
      +8
      Quote: Andrey NM
      Hmmm ... Long live the "fraternal" Czechoslovakia, until the last day working at an accelerated pace for the good of the ideas of National Socialism ...

      Well, everything is not so clear ... In addition to the Czech enterprises, the Germans worked in the industry of all the occupied countries, and the weapons used were made there. In fairness, it is worth saying that the Germans were forced to disarm the Slovak units, and the Czechs in May 1945 raised a rebellion.
      1. Andrey NM
        Andrey NM 3 January 2019 08: 02
        +6
        Yes, it is clear that all of Europe worked there, but Czechoslovakia made the greatest contribution to this business. 10 May passed the last technique. And not a single case of sabotage. Insurrection? And where would they go?
        1. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 3 January 2019 08: 15
          +3
          France, Sweden, Hungary, Italy ....
          1. Andrey NM
            Andrey NM 3 January 2019 08: 17
            +2
            Quote: Zaurbek
            France, Sweden, Hungary, Italy ....

            Yes ... Especially the "winner" France. Sweden is also such neutrals. And the Italians had their own guy at the helm ...
            1. Zaurbek
              Zaurbek 3 January 2019 08: 20
              +3
              I mean, each of these countries was technologically a Superpower compared to the USSR ... and everyone worked on the Wehrmacht and did not work. Denmark and Holland yet.
            2. Amurets
              Amurets 3 January 2019 09: 03
              +6
              Quote: Andrey NM
              Sweden is also such a neutral.

              I will not look for and give figures, but the German industry mainly worked on "neutral Swedish ore", and SKF bearings were spinning in the drives and units. Czechoslovakia could nominally make the excuse that it was occupied by Germany, but the very thing, Sweden was a neutral country and no one could force the Swedes on the side of Germany.
              1. Bongo
                3 January 2019 09: 11
                +7
                Quote: Amurets
                Sweden was a neutral country and no one could force the Swedes on the German side.

                Exactly... yes Just like Switzerland.
              2. ruigat
                ruigat 4 January 2019 16: 39
                +1
                So the entire economic basis of Swedish "socialism" created a period of 1 and 2 MB, when the "neutral" Swedes received both from those and from those. The Finns, however, only after 2 MV realized that "sucking two queens" was profitable and the Finnish economic "miracle" flooded.
              3. ecolog
                ecolog April 1 2019 13: 34
                0
                It was always interesting why Sweden was allowed to trade with the Germans. The United States and England could not put pressure on them?
      2. 2329 Carpenter
        2329 Carpenter 3 January 2019 12: 58
        +5
        In fairness, for the Czechs, many questions could be asked at the end of WWII. On whose side they were, and whose aircraft they supported, incl. and creative in-house developments.
        Well, the fact that they surrendered their country without a fight, possessing not the last army of Europe; and the fact that the uprising was so heroically raised a week before the end of the war is true, in between ...
        Yes, and they fought ... In German hospitals, they mostly sorted out the wounded and flew into the columns of German refugees from the rear flank.
        And before that, women-children were famously soaked that our beasts were forced to drive away this beast.
        Yes, they are not in the first.
        October 1918, Ivashchenkovskaya massacre. From 11tys. the inhabitants of Ivaschenkov (now Chapaevsk), the Czech legionaries shot and killed with bayonets 2.700 people. Without analyzing gender and age.
        These are our brothers Slavs.
      3. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 3 January 2019 15: 48
        +5
        The Czechs were sharply emboldened only in May 1945, and only because there was a real opportunity to shoot Germans with impunity. Again, they could fall under reparations, as they supplied the Nazis with weapons, however, they were lucky, they did not have time for them.
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor 3 January 2019 08: 18
      +3
      I will add that the Czechs also received gratitude from the Fuhrer. Until now, some have been hanging in a frame on the wall!
      1. Mooh
        Mooh 5 January 2019 00: 54
        +3
        Arranged here anti-Czech political rally understand.
        First off-topic articles,
        Secondly, there were very cases of sabotage,
        Thirdly, there was a full-fledged communist underground,
        In the fourth, the Czechs served in serious numbers both in the Soviet army and among the allies.
        Well, such a trifle as the massive harboring of Jews you forgot.
        In short, the Czechs are certainly not angels, but they do not need to be exposed as complete freaks.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 3 January 2019 09: 46
    +2
    In general, anti-aircraft installations 25 mm CA mle 38/39/40 for their time were very good weapons. Due to the fact that the designers of "Hotchkiss" abandoned the archaic hard tape tapes, widely used in other products of this company, it was possible to increase reliability.
    Thank you Sergey, it’s interesting, as regards the cannon-gun armament, the French created the devil knows that these are shops for the Japanese Hotchkiss Type-11, which, when filling the store, could chop off the machine gunner’s fingers, is it unclear whose big merit is the Japanese or the French? The Japanese just stupidly copied a machine gun without buying a license

    And as you rightly noted, archaic rigid tapes that did not add rate of fire


    1. Bongo
      3 January 2019 09: 49
      +4
      Quote: Amurets
      is it unclear whose great merit of the Japanese or French is here? The Japanese just stupidly copied a machine gun without buying a license

      The Japanese "creatively reworked" the 25-mm French anti-aircraft guns. But the shops were closed from the very beginning.
      1. san4es
        san4es 3 January 2019 16: 45
        +3
        hi Thank. Happy New Year!
        The Japanese "creatively reworked" the 25-mm French anti-aircraft guns.
    2. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 3 January 2019 16: 48
      +2
      Quote: Amurets
      stores for Japanese Hotchkiss Type-11, which, when filling the store, could chop off the fingers to the machine gunner

      This is Nambu Type 11 - purely Japanese art, which has little to do with Hotchkiss. The idea was that the cartridges should be powered from a hopper filled with standard rifle clips of 5 rounds. Here is the feed mechanism from the clip and worked like a finger cutter.
  3. bubalik
    bubalik 3 January 2019 11: 40
    +5
    Until the end of the war, the Germans managed to release six ZSU with 30-mm Spark, which entered the military tests.

    ,, one at least took part in the fighting in the defensive battles for Spichra west of Leipzig against the Americans 1 April 1945 ,, ,,

    The remains found in 1996 year
    1. Mooh
      Mooh 5 January 2019 00: 58
      +2
      Another respected author forgot to highlight the interesting fact: such a whimsical design of the tower was due to the fact that it was originally created for submarines and, accordingly, was airtight.
      1. Bongo
        5 January 2019 03: 34
        +2
        Quote: MooH
        Another respected author forgot to highlight the interesting fact: such a whimsical design of the tower was due to the fact that it was originally created for submarines and, accordingly, was airtight.

        Frankly, for the first time I hear about it ... request I have always believed that Ball Lightning is a purely land structure. And what's the point of putting a tower on a submarine?
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 5 January 2019 08: 47
          +1
          Frankly, for the first time I hear about it.
          that it was originally created for submarines
          ,, hi Twilight Teutonic genius laughing
          ,,, little information on this issue what but where it comes across:

          As a combat module, it was proposed to take the special MK 303 Doppelflak turret, developed by Rheinmetall for installation on submarines of type XXI, as a replacement for existing artillery installations.

          https://topwar.ru/93517-zenitnaya-samohodnaya-ustanovka-flakpanzer-iv-kugelblitz-germaniya.html

          Flaxpanzer IV 3 German U-Boats (submarines) with an adequate anti-aircraft system. This project was carried out by Altmärkische Kettenwerke GmbH (Alkett), starting in January 1944. The design of a fully enclosed oblate spheroid turret armed with two 3 cm Mk 303 cannons. This was not the case for flakpanzer with similar armament.

          http://www.tanks-encyclopedia.com/ww2-germany-leichte-flakpanzer-iv-3-cm-kugelblitz/
        2. Mooh
          Mooh 6 January 2019 20: 24
          +1
          And what's the point of putting a tower on a submarine?

          Submarines suffered huge losses from aircraft, primarily in the Bay of Biscay. We tried to somehow protect them. In the process, they decided that RPD is more effective.
          1. Bongo
            7 January 2019 03: 53
            +2
            Quote: MooH
            Submarines suffered huge losses from aviation, primarily in the Bay of Biscay. We tried to somehow protect them.

            I know that. On German boats, they put up quite powerful anti-aircraft weapons, and some crews had downed aircraft in 3-4. But the armored turret on a submarine is meaningless.
            1. Wildcat
              Wildcat 7 January 2019 09: 51
              +1
              Excellent article as always, plus!
              hi
              Coastal Command seemed to accept the risk of losing the patrol aircraft in a one-to-one fashion, introducing the "attack first, report second" principle.
              IMHO, I saw the assessment that the biggest mistake was not to put anti-aircraft guns on submarines, but to stop using passive systems for detecting radiation from aircraft radars, which allowed them to plunge before the attack. For some reason, Doenitz concluded that they were unmasking the boats.
            2. Mooh
              Mooh 7 January 2019 15: 00
              0
              The armored tower can open fire almost immediately after the ascent and does not need to be evacuated before urgent diving. These are very precious seconds or even minutes.
              1. Bongo
                7 January 2019 15: 25
                0
                Quote: MooH
                The armored tower can open fire almost immediately after the ascent and does not need to be evacuated before urgent diving. These are very precious seconds or even minutes.


                Andrew, do I understand correctly that the shooter must be in this tower on a submarine in a submerged state?
                1. Mooh
                  Mooh 8 January 2019 23: 55
                  0
                  I honestly did not hold a candle, but I understand that. The tower shoulder strap is supported or built into a strong building, as a result, only the upper part of the tower with trunks sticks out of the superstructure, which, when immersed, lie in the lodgement made in the superstructure. Thus, at a negative or maybe zero elevation angle, tightness is ensured. When immersed, this whole thing is additionally pressed by a body of water, and works like a valve. I would do so, but I repeat, this is purely my imagination, I have not met a detailed description of the design. I do not see any other reasonable explanation for the presence of the motionless base of the tower (barbet?).
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 3 January 2019 14: 11
    +5
    ,,,Yes recourse All the same, the German FOR was effective,
    statistics of combat casualties of Red Army airplanes from anti-aircraft fire. :
    -1146 on 41,
    -541 on 42,
    -2234 on 43,
    -2810 on 44 and 1748 for the first four months of 45. Total 8479.
    and the FLAKTURM project is simply impressive!
  5. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 3 January 2019 15: 11
    +3
    Thank. Interesting and informative.
  6. Bodipancher
    Bodipancher 3 January 2019 17: 06
    +2
    Through neutral Sweden, the Germans also went American supplies, the Americans earned on both sides of the conflict)
  7. NF68
    NF68 3 January 2019 17: 10
    0
    Interesting article.