Military Review

German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 4)

38
During the Second World War, there was a significant number of anti-aircraft machine guns in the armed forces of Nazi Germany. But the 20-37-mm high-speed towed and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns played the main role in providing air defense in the front-line lane.


Work on the creation of rapid-fire small-caliber anti-aircraft guns were carried out in Germany long before the Nazis came to power. Back in 1914, the German designer Reinhold Becker presented a prototype 20-mm gun for the 20х70 mm projectile. The principle of operation of automation weapons It was based on the impact of the free gate and the ignition advance of the capsule before complete discharging of the cartridge. This scheme of operation of the automatics made the weapon simple enough, but limited the power of the munition and the initial velocity of the projectile was within 500 m / s. Power was supplied from a detachable magazine on 12 shells. With a length of 1370 mm, the weight of the 20-mm gun was only 30 kg, which allowed it to be mounted on airplanes. In this regard, a small number of "Becker guns" installed on the Gotha G1 bombers. In total, the military department of Kaiser Germany in 1916 ordered 120 20-mm guns. There were plans to start mass production of automatic guns, including in the anti-aircraft version, but the matter did not come to the German capitulation to the German capitulation.

After the defeat of the Germans in the war, all rights to these weapons were transferred to the Swiss company Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik Oerlikon. In 1927, Oerlikon specialists brought the model to mass production, which later became known as 1S. In contrast to the “Becker gun”, the new 20-mm machine gun was created under the more powerful cartridge 20 × 110 mm, with an initial velocity of a projectile with a mass of 117 g - 830 m / s. Tool weight without machine - 68 kg. The rate of fire was 450 rds / min. In the advertising brochures of the company "Oerlikon" it was stated that the height reach is 3 km, in range - 4,4 km. The real possibilities of the antiaircraft "erlikon" were much more modest.

German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 4)

Calculation of 20-mm anti-aircraft installation 2,0 cm Flak 28 in firing position


In the Wehrmacht, this anti-aircraft gun received the designation 2,0 cm Flak 28, and in the Luftwaffe it was called 2,0 cm VKPL vz. 36. In total, between 1940 and 1944, Oerlikon delivered 7013 20-mm machines, 14,76 million shells, 12 520 spare barrels and 40 000 cartridge boxes to Germany, Italy and Romania. Several hundred such anti-aircraft guns were captured by German troops in Belgium, Holland and Norway.


20-mm anti-aircraft machine on the stand


20-mm anti-aircraft "airlikony" delivered to the fleet were mounted on the thumbnail carriages, to ensure the air defense of mobile units, there were options with a tripod machine and a detachable wheel course. However, this rule is not always respected. Tumbam installations were often mounted in stationary positions in fortified areas, and anti-aircraft guns on tripods were placed on various floating craft, or used in the air defense systems of naval bases.



Although the 2,0 cm Flak 28 combat rate of fire due to the low rate of fire and the use of box magazines on 15 and drum shells on 30 was relatively small, in general, due to its simple and reliable design and acceptable weight and size characteristics, it was quite an effective weapon, with effective range of air firing. goals - to 1,5 km. Subsequently, during the war years, all the 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were called “erlikon”, although there were not so many of them against the background of other German anti-aircraft guns of the same caliber. According to German data in the Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and Kringsmarin, there were only a little more than 3000 installations 2,0 cm Flak 28.


2,0 calculation cm Flak 28 simulates a fire on a ground target


Structurally, a lot in common with the anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm Flak 28 had a 20 mm aviation MG-FF gun developed in 1936 by the German company Ikaria Werke Berlin based on the Swiss automatic gun Oerlikon FF. The main difference between the aviation MG-FF and the 2,0 cm Flak 28 anti-aircraft gun was the use of a much weaker ammunition of 20x80 mm. Compared to the Swiss Oerlikon FF, the barrel length and reloading system were increased by 60 mm. For feeding the airgun, 15 carob stores or 30, 45 and 100 shell drums were used. A shell weighing 117 g, left the barrel length of 820 mm with an initial speed of 580 m / s. The rate of fire did not exceed 540 rounds / min.

In order to at least somehow compensate for the not high penetrating ability of the armor-piercing projectile and the weak high-explosive effect of the fragmentation projectile at the end of 1940, the experts of the Institute of Ballistics of the Luftwaffe Technical Academy created a thin-walled high-explosive projectile with a high filling ratio of explosive. A thin shell of the projectile was carried out by the method of deep drawing of special alloy steel and hardened hardened. Compared with the former fragmentation projectile equipped with 3 g pentrite, the filling ratio increased from 4 to 20%. The new 20-mm projectile, designated Minengeschoss (German projectile-mine), contained hexogen-based plastic explosives with the addition of aluminum powder. This explosive was superior to TNT by power approximately 2 times, characterized by an increased high-explosive and incendiary effect. The new lightweight time-delay fuses made it possible for the projectile to burst within the aircraft structure, causing serious damage not to the skin, but to the power set of the airframe. So, when a high-explosive projectile hit the base of a fighter wing, in most cases it would tear off. Since the new projectile contained less metal, its mass decreased from 117 to 94, which, in turn, affected the recoil force of the free gun shutter. To keep the automation working, it was necessary to significantly ease the valve and reduce the force of the return spring.

A new modification of the gun assigned the index MG-FF / M. At the same time, ammunition for the old versions of the MG-FF and the new MG-FF / M were not interchangeable. Changes made to the design of the weapon were minimal and a significant number of MG-FF guns released by replacing the bolt and return spring were upgraded in the field workshops to the level of MG-FF / M. Although the introduction of a high-explosive projectile increased the effectiveness of firing at air targets, the range of aimed fire even at very large and low-maneuverable aircraft did not exceed the 500 m.

By the end of 1941, the MG-FF gun had already ceased to meet the requirements of modern warfare. Its low weight and technological simplicity were not compensated by significant drawbacks: low rate of fire, low initial velocity of the projectile and bulky drum magazine. The adoption of the MG.151 / 20 aviation cannon with a tape feed of ammunition, although much more complex and difficult, but also much more rapid-firing and accurate, gradually led to the decommissioning of the aviation “airlicon”.


Aviation 20-mm gun MG-FF on the anti-aircraft machine


In the second half of the war, many 20-mm guns available in the warehouses echoed the fate of X.UMM-mm MG.7,92 / 15 and 17-mm MG.13 machine guns taken from aircraft. Several hundred aircraft cannons were installed on pivot mounts, which were used for air defense of airfields and for arming small displacement ships. However, the “landed” MG-FFs in terms of range and accuracy of the fire were much inferior to the specialized 131-mm anti-aircraft guns originally created for much more powerful ammunition. So the maximum effective slant range of the anti-aircraft variant MG-FF was 20 m.

In Germans, the Germans were 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK 30 and 2,0 cm Flak 38, differing from each other in some details. 2,0 cm FlaK 30 (2,0 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30 - 20-mm anti-aircraft gun model 1930 of the year) was developed by Rheinmetall in 1930 and officially entered service in 1934 year. In addition to Germany, these 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were officially in service in Bulgaria, Holland, Lithuania, China and Finland. The advantages of the Flak 30 anti-aircraft gun were: simplicity of design, possibility of quick disassembly and assembly, and relatively low weight.


20-mm anti-aircraft installation FlaK 30 in combat position


The principle of operation of the automatic 20-mm anti-aircraft installation was based on the use of recoil force in the short course of the barrel. The unit had a recoil device and a feed of ammunition from the carob shop on 20 shells. Rate of fire 240 rds / min.


The calculation of the Flak 20 30-mm anti-aircraft gun translates it into a combat position


During transportation, the implement was placed on a two-wheeled course and secured with two brackets and a connecting pin. It took only a few seconds to remove the pin, after which the clamps were loosened, and the system along with the gun carriage could be lowered to the ground. The carriage provided the possibility of a circular attack with the highest angle of elevation 90 °.



The automatic building sight produced vertical and lateral lead. Data was entered into the scope manually and determined visually, except for the range, which was measured by a stereo range finder.



Since 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were often used for fire support of ground units, beginning in 1940, some of them were fired with a splinter shield. The mass of 2,0 cm FlaK 30 with a wheel course without a shield was about 740 kg, in a combat position - 450 kg.



For shooting from 2,0 cm FlaK 30, 20 × 138 mm ammunition was used, with more muzzle energy than 20 × 110 mm ammunition designed for X-NUMX cm Flak 2,0 anti-aircraft guns. The fragmentation-tracer with a mass of 28 g left the Flak 115 barrel at a speed of 30 m / s. Also in the ammunition included armor-piercing, incendiary tracer and armor-piercing tracer shells. The latter weighed 900 g and at the initial speed of 140 m / s at a distance of 830 m punched 300 mm armor. Theoretically, the 20-mm anti-aircraft gun could hit targets at a height of more than 20 m, the maximum firing range - to 3000 m. However, the effective fire zone was about two times smaller.

In addition to the main version, intended for use in the air defense of the ground forces, two more serial modifications were created: 2,0 cm FlaK C / 30 and G-Wagen I (E) leichte FlaK.


Calculation with 20-mm anti-aircraft installation 2,0 cm FlaK C / 30


An anti-aircraft gun on a C / 35 carriage with a 20 drum magazine was used to arm warships, but it was often used in permanent, engineering-protected positions. Many such anti-aircraft guns were available in the fortifications of the Atlantic Wall. The G-Wagen I (E) leichte FlaK anti-aircraft gun had railroad specificity, it was equipped with mobile anti-aircraft batteries designed to protect large railway junctions, and this modification was installed on armored trains.

The baptism of fire of German 20-mm anti-aircraft guns took place in Spain. In general, the anti-aircraft gun proved to be positive, it was equally effective against bombers and light tanks available to the Republicans. Based on the results of the combat use of 2,0 cm Flak 30 in Spain, Mauser upgraded the anti-aircraft system. The upgraded sample was called 2,0 cm Flak 38. The new anti-aircraft machine used the same ammunition, the ballistic characteristics also remained the same.

The principle of operation of 2,0 automatics cm Flak 38 compared with 2,0 сm Flak 30 has not changed. But by reducing the mass of the moving parts and increasing their speeds, the rate of fire was increased by almost 2 times - to 420-480 rpm. The introduction of the space acceleration copier made it possible to combine the unlocking of the shutter with the transfer of kinetic energy to it. To compensate for the increased shock loads, special shock absorbers were introduced. The changes made to the design of the carriage turned out to be minimal, in particular, the second speed was introduced in manual guidance drives. Mass deliveries of 2,0 cm Flak 38 to the troops began in the first half of 1941.


20-mm anti-aircraft installation Flak 38 on semi-tracked tractor SdKfz 10 / 4


Very often, 2,0 cm Flak 38 was installed on various mobile platforms: half-track tractor SdKfz 10 / 4, armored personnel carrier Sd.Kfz. 251, light tanks of Czech production Pz.Kpfw.38 (t), German Pz.Kpfw. I and Opel Blitz trucks. Self-propelled anti-aircraft installations were used to accompany the columns, covered concentration sites, and often operating in some combat formations with other armored vehicles fired at ground targets.


ZSU with 20-mm automatic gun Flak 38 based on light tank Pz.Kpfw. I

Also for the Kingsmarin, the 2,0 cm FlaK C / 38 and 2,0 cm FlaK-Zwilling 38 stand systems were produced. By order of the mountain infantry units, the 1942 anti-aircraft gun Gebirgs-FlaK 2,0 was serially produced from 38, using a lightweight carriage, which transports the gun in a "baggage" manner. His weight when assembled was 360 kg. Weight of individual parts in packs: from 31 to 57 kg. The ballistic characteristics and the rate of fire of a mountain anti-aircraft gun remained at the level of 2,0 cm Flak 38. In the combat position in the case of the installation of an anti-splash shield, the mass of the installation increased to 406 kg, while on a wheeled track - 468 kg.


German mountain hunters towing anti-aircraft installation 2,0 cm Gebirgs-FlaK 38

In the first half of the 1939, each Wehrmacht infantry division was supposed to be 12 20-mm anti-aircraft guns. The same number of Flak-30 / 38 was in the anti-aircraft division, attached to the tank and motorized divisions. The scale of the use of 20-mm in the German armed forces can be judged from the statistics collected by the Ministry of Armaments. As of May 1944, the Wehrmacht and the SS troops had 6 355 Flak-30 / 38 anti-aircraft guns, and the Luftwaffe units providing German air defense had more than 20000-mm 20 guns. A few thousand 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were installed on the decks of combat and transport ships, as well as in the vicinity of naval bases.

The German automatic guns 2,0 cm Flak 38 and 2,0 сm Flak 30 at the time of the creation of a complex of service and operational and combat characteristics in their caliber were probably the best anti-aircraft guns in the world. However, the store supply of ammunition severely limited the combat rate of fire. In this regard, the specialists of the Mauser armory company based on the 2,0 cm Flak 38 automatic machine, created the 20-mm quadcopter 2,0 cm Vierlings-Flugabwehrkanone 38 anti-aircraft gun (2-cm quad anti-aircraft gun). In the army, this system was usually called - 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38.


2,0 cm Flakvierling 38 in a museum exposition, next to a twin thumb trimmed ZPU using 7,92-mm machine guns MG.42

The mass of the quad 20-mm anti-aircraft gun in a combat position exceeded 1,5 tons. The carriage allowed firing in any direction with elevation angles from −10 ° to + 100 °. The rate of fire was 1800 rds / min, which significantly increased the probability of hitting the target. At the same time, the number of calculations in comparison with single-barrel 20-mm automata increased 2 times and was 8 people. Flakvierling 38 serial production lasted until March 1945, a total of 3768 installations were transferred to the troops.



Since the mass and dimensions of the quad unit were very significant, they were often placed on stationary, well-prepared in engineering positions and installed on railway platforms. At the same time, the calculation in front was covered with a splinter shield.



Like the 2,0 cm Flak 38, the 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38 anti-aircraft anti-aircraft gun was used to create self-propelled anti-aircraft guns on the chassis of half-track tractor, armored personnel carriers and tanks.



Perhaps, the Flakpanzer IV “Wirbelwind” (it. Anti-tank Tank IV “Smerch”) created on the basis of the medium tank PzKpfw IV was the most well-known and perfect ZSU, in which four-way 20-mm automatic machines were used.


ZSU Flakpanzer IV "Wirbelwind"


The first ZSU was built in May 1944 at the enterprise of the company Ostbau Werke in Sagan (Silesia, now - the territory of Poland). For this, the chassis of the PzKpfw IV tank damaged in battles and returned for overhaul was used. Instead of a standard turret, a new, nine-sided, open-top one was installed, in which the quad 20-mm anti-aircraft gun was located. The lack of a roof was due to the need to monitor the air situation, and besides, when shooting from four barrels, a large amount of powder gases was ejected, which could cause a deterioration in the state of mind of the calculation in a closed volume. Solid ammunition 3200 20-mm shells placed inside the hull of the tank.

Shipments of the Flakpanzer IV ZSU to the troops began in August 1944. Until February, the 1945 of the whole 122 installation was built, of which 100 was assembled on the chassis of the line tanks for repair. Most of the anti-aircraft "Smerch" was sent to the Eastern Front. The combination of a fairly strong body armor, maneuverability and mobility at the level of the base chassis, as well as the high rate of fire of the quad artillery system made the Flakpanzer IV an effective means of anti-aircraft cover of tank units, and provided the ability to deal not only with air targets, but also with ground targets with light armor and manpower.



In general, 20-mm assault rifles at the disposal of the German anti-aircraft gunners were a very effective means of defense of the near zone, capable of inflicting heavy losses on attack aircraft and front-line bombers. The weight and dimensions made it possible to place single-barrel and quad-rigs on various, including armored, self-propelled chassis. The inclusion of ZSU with rapid-fire 20-mm anti-aircraft guns in the composition of the transport and military columns, as well as their placement on railway platforms significantly reduced the effectiveness of the Soviet Il-2 attack planes and forced them to select a special group consisting of experienced pilots who suppressed the MZA fire.

In the memoir literature can be found mention of how 20-mm anti-aircraft projectiles ricocheted from the armored corps attack aircraft. Of course, when meeting a small-caliber armor-piercing projectile, even with relatively thin armor at a large angle, rebound is quite possible. But we have to admit that 20-mm armor-piercing incendiary and fragmentation projectiles posed a mortal danger to IL-2.
Our attack aircraft suffered very significant losses from MZA fire. As experience of combat operations and control shooting at the range showed, the IL-2 armored box in most cases did not protect against the destructive action of 20-mm fragmentation and armor-piercing shells. For the loss of efficiency of the propeller group of the attack aircraft, it was often enough to hit the 20-mm fragmentation projectile into any part of the engine. The dimensions of the holes in the armored case in some cases reached 160 mm in diameter. The cockpit armor also did not provide adequate protection from the 20-mm projectiles. When hit in the fuselage for disabling the IL-2, it was necessary to ensure, on average, 6-8 hits of 20-mm fragmentation shells. The dimensions of the holes in the skin of the fuselage ranged from 120-130 mm. At the same time, the likelihood that the rudder control cables of the attack aircraft would be killed by the fragments of the shells was very high. According to static data, the control system (steering wheels, ailerons and control wiring) accounted for 22,6% of all lesions. In 57% of cases, when 20-mm fragmentation shells hit the IL-2 fuselage, the steering rudder control cables were broken and 7% of hits resulted in partial damage to the tubular rudder heights. Hit 2-3-x explosive shells of German guns caliber 20 mm in the keel, stabilizer, steering wheel or height was enough to put the IL-2 out of order.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://wwii.space/zenitnyie-orudiya-germaniya/
http://www.wk2ammo.com/showthread.php?596-2cm-Flak-28-Oerlikon
https://vk.com/page-50957736_45721716
https://www.pinterest.ru/pin/494199759091515722/
http://www.ww2technik.de/sites/dflak/3%20cm%20flak.htm
Author:
Articles from this series:
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 1)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 2)
German anti-aircraft small-caliber anti-Soviet aircraft (part of 3)
38 comments
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 23 December 2018 07: 06
    +15
    So detailed Sergey painted this topic that even questions do not arise ... thanks to the good work and article. hi
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 23 December 2018 07: 44
      +6
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      So detailed Sergey painted this topic that even questions do not arise ... thanks to the good work and article.

      Yes, not a bad reference book is obtained!
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 23 December 2018 09: 08
    +1
    Damn, how many German anti-aircraft guns were in the army. We have units at the front. It would be more than the Lapptellers would not have hosted so.
  3. Decimam
    Decimam 23 December 2018 09: 39
    +5
    "In the second half of the war, many of the 20-mm cannons in warehouses repeated the fate of the 7,92-mm MG.15 / 17 and 13-mm MG.131 machine guns removed from aircraft. Several hundred aircraft cannons were installed on pivot mounts, which were used for air defense of airfields and armament of small displacement ships. However, the "grounded" MG-FFs in terms of range and accuracy of fire were much inferior to specialized 20-mm anti-aircraft guns, which were originally created for much more powerful ammunition. "
    MG 151 didn’t escape the fate of using it as an anti-aircraft gun. In 1943, it was MG 151, because of its good ballistics, that they chose to install Flak-Drilling based on SdKfz 251 C or D.

    Three 1,5-cm MG 151 / 15 or 2-cm MG 151 / 20 were mounted in a specially designed installation. Guidance drives were absent.
    1943 to 1945 Such ZSU released order 320 pieces.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 23 December 2018 09: 43
      +7

      And this is a trophy.
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 23 December 2018 09: 44
        +6

        And this is a trophy.
    2. Bongo
      23 December 2018 09: 47
      +6
      Thanks for the informative comment! good
      Quote: Decimam
      Three 1,5-cm MG 151 / 15 or 2-cm MG 151 / 20 were mounted in a specially designed installation. Guidance drives were absent.
      1943 to 1945 Such ZSU released order 320 pieces.

      Still, 15-mm systems were more installed on other chassis and railway platforms. Pro ZSU based on the BTR based on SdKfz 251 will be in the next part. hi
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 23 December 2018 09: 57
        +7
        In German sources there is information about installing the MG 151 on the captured American M8 Greyhound-Spähpanzern, but I did not find the photo. There is also information about the installation of the MG 151s built on the Beton-Flakwagen, which is confirmed by this photo.
        1. Bongo
          23 December 2018 10: 00
          +3
          Quote: Decimam
          In German sources there is information about installing MG 151 on trophy American M8 Greyhound-Spähpanzern

          Perhaps, but many of these ZSU probably did not exist.
          Quote: Decimam
          You can also find information about installing MG 151 on Beton-Flakwagen, which is confirmed by this photo.

          In the armored trains of the air defense they were really widely used. Such photos pretty.
  4. Fotoceva62
    Fotoceva62 23 December 2018 10: 30
    +2
    Rifle Regiment (staff number 04/601)
    Reduced Division of the Red Army (wartime).
    1941 year.
    armament of the air defense company:
    complex 7.62 mm machine guns - 6
    anti-aircraft 12.7 mm. machine guns - 3
    http://army.armor.kiev.ua/hist/strelpolk-1941.php

    Another thing is how many trunks industry could give.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 23 December 2018 18: 56
      +3
      If you compare with the equipment of the Wehrmacht with air defense systems then .... You will not envy the Red Army
  5. san4es
    san4es 23 December 2018 11: 35
    +4
    hi... Greetings again. Thank.
    2,0 cm Flak 28 .... Several hundred of these anti-aircraft guns were captured by German troops in Belgium, Holland and Norway.

    ... The work of the calculations of the allies, on "D-day" (June 1944)

    The main military air defense system in wartime among the Germans was the 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK 30 and 2,0 cm Flak 38 ....

    ... the Flakpanzer IV Wirbelwind became the most famous and perfect ZSU in which quadruple 20 mm automatic machines were used
    ... For the quality - sorry.

    repeat ... A little off topic, (so far at hand), I will add the work of US air defense, for the Japanese on June 4, 1942, in the Pacific Ocean. USS Hornet (CV-8) and USS Yorktown hi
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 23 December 2018 14: 42
    +6
    An interesting review. Father said that separate crews were also allocated to their regiment of night bombers to neutralize air defense while the regiment was processing the main target. So he received the Order of the Red Star and a portion of the fragments of Erlikon shells, with the fragments I buried him in 2004 year.
  7. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 23 December 2018 15: 50
    +3
    Excellent as always good
    The concept of an anti-aircraft tank for escorting convoys and providing air defense in the near zone with the possibility of effective work "on the ground", it seems to me, reached its highest point of development precisely by being embodied in Wirbelwind: firepower, reach, fire density, security and passability - land- Lizov armored cars with their machine-gun twin-guns and quadruplets ("Maxons" and others) are resting in chorus (except that the versions with 20-mm sparks of licensed "Erlikons" - "Hispano" could compete). It is good for our ancestors that so few of them were built. The Ostwinds were, of course, stronger due to the 3,7 mm gun, but fortunately even fewer of them were produced.
    From SW. hi
    PS
    More interesting black and white documentary photos for the photo god! fellow
    P.P.S
    True store food multiplied by 4 this is another perversion ... recourse
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 24 December 2018 03: 36
      +3
      Quote: Raphael_83
      "Virbelwind": firepower, reach, density of fire, security and maneuverability - Lend-Lease armored cars with their machine-gun twin cars and quadruplets (Maxons and others) are resting in chorus (except that versions with 20 mm sparks of licensed Erlikons - "Hispano "could compete)

      No need to fetish caliber. The M45 Quadmount Quadruple Four produced more fire density with ample power for most cases.
      1. Bongo
        24 December 2018 04: 17
        +1
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        No need to fetish caliber. The M45 Quadmount Quadruple Four produced more fire density with ample power for most cases.

        On the side of the German quad installation based on the PzKpfw IV was the best security, besides the 20-mm projectile was more effective in ground targets. American ZSU М16 and М17 Maxson Mount on the basis of the semi-tracked BTR M3 and M5 were preferable to bringing anti-aircraft fire. ZSU M17 enjoyed great popularity in the Red Army.

        At the final stage of the war, American installations were often used in street battles when firing at attics and upper floors of buildings.
      2. Yuriy_999
        Yuriy_999 17 January 2019 22: 04
        0
        Four KKP M45 Quadmount gave a higher fire density with ample power for most cases

        However, m2 did not have HE ammunition.
  8. NF68
    NF68 23 December 2018 17: 55
    0
    Interesting article.
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 23 December 2018 18: 52
    +3
    For me, "Bongo" is the main authority on air defense. Perhaps who remembers the old Soviet cartoon about Dunno and his friends, when he portrayed Dr. Pilyulkin with a thermometer instead of a nose? This is how I tried to imagine a "bongo" instead of a car on a "Shilka", and its table was probably inserted by models of guns
    1. Bongo
      24 December 2018 02: 44
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      Perhaps who remembers the old Soviet cartoon about Dunno and his friends, when he portrayed Dr. Pilyulkin with a thermometer instead of a nose? This is how I tried to imagine a "bongo" instead of a car on a "Shilka", and its table was probably inserted by models of guns

      Svyatoslav, hello! drinks Thank you laugh! lol I have such a car. Not "Shilka" of course, but for hunting and fishing trips, taking into account the roomy interior and all-wheel drive, it is normal.

      On the table, unfortunately a mess, overwhelmed with receipts and invoices. request
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 24 December 2018 15: 07
        +2
        Good day, Sergey. It’s a pity that it’s not Shilka: any traffic jam breaks up if you warn me in the swearing words: first warning, and then to defeat. “I don’t know where you live, but we have periodically on the road“ cool cars ”, which is called“ greyhound ”. If near DPSnikov they are b.m. sane, and so .... today I stand on the sidelines, and some * lesson wagged "lifan" into a puddle and .... "washed away".
        I have a "creative order" on my desk: I put it off all the time. When women get tired of this picture and start.
        1. Bongo
          24 December 2018 15: 20
          +1
          Quote: vladcub
          Good day, Sergey. It is a pity that it is not "Shilka": any cork breaks if you warn it to the matyugalnik: first warning, and then to defeat. "

          Diesel fuel is now expensive, at gas stations north of Komsomolsk liter is more than 60 rubles.
          Quote: vladcub
          I do not know where you live, but we have periodically on the road "cool cars", which is called "greyhound".

          I am the Far East. Everywhere the same thing ... however, it is not known from whom harm is greater from fools on expensive cars or sellers of striped sticks.
          Quote: vladcub
          When women get tired of such a picture and start.

          I have the opposite, basically my second half table clutters.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 24 December 2018 18: 05
            +1
            Most likely equally: "then * urakov (I'm afraid of the moderators) on expensive cars and sellers of striped sticks."
            Your "other half" is in the minority: usually women love to nag us for it. Although there are exceptions: my director had an underground nickname: "Olga" is a man obsessed with accuracy. He was always dressed with a needle and was furious with dirt. I also had a neighbor: a fan of cleanliness, any neat woman hanged herself with envy.
      2. Yuriy_999
        Yuriy_999 26 December 2018 21: 49
        0
        Lucky for some good is not available to us. I just lick my old C22 bathtub
        1. Bongo
          27 December 2018 13: 33
          0
          Quote: Yuri_999
          Lucky some good for us is not available. I just lick my old hardcore C22

          You do not live in Russia?
          1. Yuriy_999
            Yuriy_999 29 December 2018 11: 52
            0
            not. On the site of the microbe, is it you?
            1. Bongo
              30 December 2018 09: 07
              +1
              Quote: Yuri_999
              not. On the site of the microbe, is it you?

              No, I don’t even know this site.
  10. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 23 December 2018 19: 13
    +2
    The question is a little off topic, but.
    Vladimirov, as you know, was killed by the return spring of a machine gun of his own design when disassembling it.
    How do they cope with similar multi-caliber farms in near-field conditions so that the springs do not regularly kill someone? How are they assembled and disassembled? Are there any special clamps for compression and smooth release of the springs?
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 23 December 2018 19: 44
      +2
      [/ i] Maybe not quite in the subject, but significant
    2. Bongo
      24 December 2018 02: 52
      +3
      Quote: Narak-zempo
      How do they cope with similar multi-caliber farms in near-field conditions so that the springs do not regularly kill someone? How are they assembled and disassembled? Are there any special clamps for compression and smooth release of the springs?

      KPV, when disassembling and loading, a rather problematic unit. In addition to the Strela-2M MANPADS, our unit had several 14,5-mm ZPU-4s as anti-aircraft reinforcement. They usually stood in a technical park under a tarp. But they were sometimes rolled out to teachings, loaded and even cleaned. And somehow in the process of cleaning the ensign was left without a finger.
  11. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 24 December 2018 00: 30
    +2
    Good article. Thank!
  12. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 24 December 2018 10: 25
    +3

    Perhaps from 20 mm guns, the transport option Polsten 20 mm Quad AA Gun - most meets the requirements for a light quad MZA - armored carapace, anti-shatter protection for the shooter from all sides (it’s located in a reserved capsule, which makes it possible to withstand with greater confidence the attack assault Aviation High mobility and security.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 24 December 2018 14: 42
      +4
      Looks cool with a box in the middle and the chicken walks like a clock
  13. Wildcat
    Wildcat 24 December 2018 13: 53
    +2
    An excellent article, as always I read with pleasure and quickly put a plus. hi
    Small clarification: "The main military air defense system of the Germans in wartime were 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK 30 and 2,0 cm Flak 38, differing from each other in some details. As follows their designations 2,0 cm FlaK 30 (German 2,0 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30 - 20-mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1930 model) was developed by Rheinmetall in 1930 and officially entered service in 1934. " "Papa" bottle 30, probably Solothurn:
    Source - IA # 36, page 22 "Ispano Cannons" (you and him coincide in terms of supply of flask 28 during the VM period, but do not coincide in the number of Becker guns in the PM; if necessary, I can drop the password in the evening, there is still something interesting).
    hi
    1. Bongo
      24 December 2018 14: 13
      +3
      Quote: Wildcat
      As their designation follows, the 2,0 cm FlaK 30 (German 2,0 cm Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30 - 20 mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1930 model) was developed by Rheinmetall in 1930 and officially entered service in 1934. "Pope" flak 30 probably still Solothurn

      Thanks for clarifying! good
      But mass mass production of FlaK 30 was established in Germany. By the way, the Germans handed over the documentation for this gun to the USSR, but the breeders of plant No. XXUMX from Podlipok near Moscow failed to master its mass production.
      Quote: Wildcat
      Source - IA # 36, p.22 "Cannons of Hispano" (you coincide with him in terms of supply of flask 28 during the VM period, but do not coincide in the number of Becker guns in PM

      Unfortunately, different sources have different numbers. How many guns Becker fired in reality, it is now difficult to install. I saw the phonography of the German 20-mm anti-aircraft machine, made in 1918 year. But I could not find information about the existence of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns at this time. request
      1. Wildcat
        Wildcat 24 December 2018 22: 50
        +2
        hi
        Quote: Bongo
        Unfortunately, different sources have different numbers. How many guns Becker fired in reality, it is now difficult to install. I saw the phonography of the German 20-mm anti-aircraft machine, made in 1918 year. But I could not find information about the existence of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns at this time. request

        Total production figures are not known, but were in excess of 539 (111 by Becker and 428 by MAN); a total of 362 were surrendered to the Allies.
        [media = https: //www.bevfitchett.us/heavy-machine-guns/images/3036_40_126-oerlikon-great-war.jpg]
        [media = http: //www.landships.info/landships/artillery_articles/images/TAK_Becker_1.jpg]
        [media = https: //pbs.twimg.com/media/DCyBXUlXcAAIpae.jpg]


        Apparently there were, "E, trosh, but tealka for sebe" winked
  14. Amurets
    Amurets 1 January 2019 13: 47
    +2
    Sergey, I agree with LEHOA. So much in detail Sergey has painted this topic so that even questions do not arise ... thanks, especially since I went to the Internet late.
  15. kunstkammer
    kunstkammer 26 January 2019 22: 59
    0
    20-mm machine guns ... were a very effective means of air defense

    I believe that the most important component was the training of calculation.
    Once, when reading our memoirs, I came across data on the effectiveness of our air defense and the cost of ammunition. In general: our efficiency is scanty and shot down a little and the cost of hundreds of ammunition shot down by an enemy aircraft. I got used to this thought: after all, the main thing is to scare off. Do not allow to strike. Well and goodies!
    However, when the Germans began to fall into the hands of the effectiveness of their anti-aircraft defense ... I thought hard - they have an efficiency much higher!
    I especially remember the episode when an enemy aircraft was shot down in three volleys from a quad installation.
    What's this? Like, you can shoot down a plane from a rifle?