Military Review

Poem of Maxim (part of 3)

56
There was one intelligent machine gunner,
Meet my Maxim,

And the other machine gun was the easel
Also called Maxim.
Music: Sigismund Katz. Words: V. Dykhovichny. 1941


So, last time we settled on the fact that "Armory Maxim's company ”began to produce machine guns and widely advertise them at the end of the 1899th century. They did not spare any money on advertising, because everything paid off immediately. Firstly, machine guns themselves were sold, then cartridges for them were sold. Secondly, production licenses were sold, and they were very expensive. And one of the reasons why Hiram Maxim managed to push his machine gun into the market was its excellent survivability and reliability, which is of great importance for mass weapons. It is known, for example, that at the end of 303 one of his machine guns chambered for a British .7,7 caliber cartridge (15 mm) fired 600 thousand shots without any particular difficulties and after that all its parts had no signs of wear. The rate of fire chosen by the inventor turned out to be successful - 250 rounds per minute (with a combat rate of 300-XNUMX rounds per minute), which made it possible to control these weapons without any problems and at an acceptable ammunition consumption.

Poem of Maxim (part of 3)

Atlas drawings machine gun "Maxim" published in 1906 year. Let's not talk about its content now. We note only one thing - all the drawings were made in black ink by hand with the help of the router, and then printed.

The successful demonstration of Maxim’s machine gun in Europe ended with Maxim’s visit to Russia, where he arrived with his .45 machinegun (11,43 mm). Then, namely in the 1887 year, in Russia they tested its machine gun under the chambered X-NUMX-mm ammunition from the Berdan rifle, loaded with black powder. 10,67 March 8, a significant event happened: Emperor Alexander III himself fired a machine gun, approving the purchase of his 1888 model machine gun of the year from Maxim 12 for a Berdanov cartridge.


The first Russian machine gun "Maxim" on the "high" machine with an additional tank for water. (Photo by N. Mikhailov)


Museum plate under the exhibit. (Photo by N. Mikhailov)


Machine gun in the hall of the Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg. (Photo by N. Mikhailov)


Handles, a trigger, a cocking handle and a tape receiver. (Photo by N. Mikhailov)

The delivery of machine guns to Russia was due to the firm Sons Vikkers and Maxim. The entire order was completed in May 1889. The Russian imperial fleet also showed interest in the new type of weapon, and it hurried to order two more machine guns in addition for testing on ships.


Page from the Atlas of Drawings. General view of the machine gun.

When Berdan's rifle was removed from service, the machine guns were already altered under the 7,62-mm rifle cartridges for the new three-line design. In 1891 — 1892 bought five machine guns under her 7,62x54 mm. And then in 1897 — 1904. another 291 machine gun.

In 1901, Maxim's 7,62-mm machine guns on a high-wheeled English-style carriage and 244 kg weight officially entered service with the Russian Imperial Army, which received the first 40 machine guns in the same year. Machine guns were supposed to be used for the defense of fortresses, where, if necessary, they should be installed in pre-equipped and respectively protected positions.

The deployment of its own factory production of machine guns in Russia began in March of 1904. Then the company “Imperial Tula Arms Plant” received an order for the production of 122 machine guns and 100 thousand rubles for the deployment of their production. It was planned to manufacture the first machine gun on it already by 1 in September of 1904, however, they were only able to assemble it by December 5. But already on December 8, a report was sent from the factory to GAU that the machine gun “all the established tests passed quite satisfactorily”, and that 3000 shots were fired from it, and no delays or breakdowns were observed. But in view of the fact that the plant did not receive special steels from the Vickers company, the steel used for the manufacture of rifles, arr. 1891


Page from the Atlas of Drawings. Longitudinal cuts machine gun and bolt.

The cost of the domestic machine gun should have been 942 rubles + 80 pounds sterling should have been given to Vickers, that is, approximately 1700 rubles. By that time, this amount was very high, although it still came out cheaper than buying ready-made machine guns from the British at the price of 2288 rubles 20 kopecks for a machine gun. Production began in May, but, as we see, it was developing rather slowly due to the complexity of the technological order.


Page from the Atlas of Drawings. Shutter position when shooting.

At the end of December 1905, the company was already ready for the delivery of the 32 machine gun and almost all the parts needed to assemble another 105 machine guns were made. However, for the entire 1905, the Tula Arms Plant was able to hand over only 28 machine guns, of which only 16 came into the army. But the reason was objective. The plant lacked equipment. 700 machines of various types were required, and they could only be obtained from abroad. True 600 machines were obtained, but it did not immediately take time to set up and master them.


Page from the Atlas of Drawings. The shutter in different forms and machine gun belt.

Another reason was the requirement of complete interchangeability of all parts of the machine gun, which was not fully achieved even at Vickers. The reject rate was also high, so the production with its undoubtedly very high quality was still too small.

Therefore, wanting to speed up the process of saturating the army with a new weapon, the military ministry transferred the following order to the Berlin plant DWM. It should be noted that the production of machine guns wore a sufficiently not only "international", but also "cooperative" nature. So in the documents of the Tula Arms Plant it was noted that 400 machine guns from the Bryansk arsenal should receive 400 wheel pairs, Izhevsk factory 400 large pieces of armored shields, 400 shields of small, and in addition 400 pieces of wheel axles, and 1600 pieces of rough gun shafts.



The barrel for the “maxim” was a very difficult part for the technologist, requiring minimum tolerances. Page from the Atlas of Drawings.

Note that the problems with the machine gun arose literally "from scratch", where, seemingly, there could be no problems in principle. For example, it turned out that the English fabric for machine-gun belts is better than the Russian one, because of the poor quality of which, respectively, the domestic ribbons are worse than the English ones and cause delays when firing.



But this is a very interesting document, clearly indicating the production of machine guns already in 1912 year. (Archive of the Museum of Artillery and Communications Forces in St. Petersburg - F. 6. Op. 59. D. 5. L. 34. - Courtesy of N. Mikhailov)

Another problem was bad cartridges. So, in the report of the Chief of the Tula Arms Plant in the State Autonomous Institution of Armenia 16 in July 1907, it was reported that the cartridges of the Petersburg and Lugansk factories give frequent breakthroughs of the caps when shooting, which causes gas to break through the capsule nest. There are cases of bullets falling out of the sleeve. In addition, a specific “nuisance” has arisen, such as the clogging of a machine gun muzzle with shells of bullets. And most often such a defect was found in the cartridges of the Tula cartridge plant. It got to the point that in 1906, they even decided to change the design of the muzzle, offered and produced two new models, but the same thing continued with them.


Marine machines for machine guns "Maxim". Page from the Atlas of Drawings.

As a result, in the first three months of 1907, the plant delivered only 64 machine guns, then in April - 24, in May - 40, in June - 72, in July - 56, and in August - 40. For the whole of 1907, 448 were manufactured (or 440?) "infantry" and 77 machine guns for fleet. Before that, for the whole of 1906, the plant managed to surrender to the army only 73 machine guns out of 145 issued (and the fleet in general only 3), and in 1907 - 228 out of 525. That is, it turns out that about 50% of the machine guns produced were defective. That is, until 1908, pilot production took place at the plant. In just 1905–1908, the plant produced 1376 “land” machine guns complete with spare parts (556 “field” and 820 “serf”), as well as 208 machine guns for the imperial navy.


For the successful maintenance of the machine gun required the appropriate tools that also had to make and pack in a special wooden box. Page from the Atlas of Drawings.

Immediately after the end of the Russian-Japanese war, the export began (if you can call it that!) Of Russian machine guns abroad. Then the request to Russia was addressed by the Bulgarian government, who wished to receive a machine gun for informational purposes. And in January 3 1906, by the “highest permission”, was allowed to send one serf machine gun and one pack machine with a reserve of 20 000 cartridges to Bulgaria for free. The Bulgarians liked the machine gun, and they first decided to order in the Ace 144 pack machine guns and 115 serfs, but they thought, and as a result, turned with this order to the German company DWM, and Russia ended up with nothing.


Moreover, each machine-gun unit relied on such a machine for automatic filling of tapes. Page from the Atlas of Drawings.


Scheme tumbovy installations for the fleet. Page from the Atlas of Drawings.

Production of machine guns for those years was extremely difficult, for which they needed expensive metalworking machines that were purchased abroad and measuring tools, as well as highly skilled factory workers. For example, such an indicator as the tolerance for the diameter of the bore through the fields of its rifling was in the Maxim machine gun 0,0028, and at the bottom of the rifling barrel was 0,0031 inches. Separate parts of the shutter "rubbed in" to each other with an accuracy of equal precision of the patterns according to which they were made. And if the three-line rifle consisted of 106 parts and required 540 patterns, the Maxim machine gun was assembled from 282 individual parts and required 830 patterns, and its machine - 126 parts and only 234 patterns. For the manufacture of one machine gun "Maxim" it was necessary 2448 operations, 2422 technological transition, working hours 700 hours and loading 40 machines per day. For comparison, we point out that the Mosin rifle needed only 35 hours, while the machine gun - 500, and the machine for it - 170 hours. The barrels were made of low carbon steel with tungsten and manganese impurities. In general, the production of "maxims" sharply increased the demand in the arms industry for high-quality low-carbon and alloyed steels.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Poem of Maxim (part of 1)
Poem of Maxim (part of 2)
56 comments
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  1. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 17 May 2018 16: 00
    +7
    Why is it there ... "Maxim, Maxim"! am And what are these ... not handsome? request


    Schwarzlose machine gun.
    wink
    1. kalibr
      17 May 2018 18: 08
      +6
      About Schwarzlose there were just a few of my articles. Type in a search engine or go to the profile ...
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 17 May 2018 20: 49
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        About Schwarzlose there were just a few of my articles.

        Glory - thank you for sanctifying things like obvious things! You learn a lot.
        About castles and armor the same is interesting. hi
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 18 May 2018 00: 22
          +3
          About castles and armor the same is interesting.

          So come back often. People are working to provide information! drinks
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 18 May 2018 00: 20
        +4
        Thanks for the recommendation! I will definitely use it!
    2. Cat
      Cat 18 May 2018 17: 00
      +3
      I did not have time, I was late, I clicked on an article about Maxim!
      If it weren’t for Nikolay, I would have been in flight! All "+", thanks to Nikolai special, as I understand his photos!
      Thanks a lot, everyone!!!!!!!!!
  2. beeper
    beeper 17 May 2018 16: 17
    +6
    With great pleasure I read all three parts of yours, indeed, Poems, dear Vyacheslav Olegovich! good
    Photos, and especially drawings, simply amazing-drawing skills of Russian officers were at their best! I read somewhere that every graduate of the imperial military school had to draw up a hand-made drawing of the details of a given weapon sample ...
    As a child, behind a grandmother’s hut, in a heap of unnecessary metal rubbish, lay a rusty table from the machine tool of the P. Sokolov system — I later understood this from a publication in the Technique-Youth of 1973, when that heap was gone request
    But, intuitively, the military mission of this heavy piece of iron was always felt, and there were rumors in the family that after the war, great-grandfather Ivan drowned the Maxim machine gun in a swamp on the edge of the garden, someone saw (the village is everywhere smile ) and reported "where it should be", my great-grandfather was pulled for interrogations and everywhere, in the yard, in all buildings and in the garden, they searched, but they didn’t find anything ...
    I wish you good luck and health !!!
    Best regards hi
    1. kalibr
      17 May 2018 18: 05
      +5
      Thank! "Glad to try, yours ... sensitively thank you!"
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 17 May 2018 18: 20
        +8
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon! hi Thank you for the cycle, everything is clear, informative. good Until the first machine guns, comparatively “short life” in the role of rapid-fire weapons were the card cases. This is a weapon that’s a very vague idea - "well, there was some kind of prodigy there, there are a lot of trunks, and .. that's all!". If you have time and creative desire .. would you write about them? winked I think many would be interested! hi
    2. Alf
      Alf 17 May 2018 22: 50
      +4
      Quote: pishchak
      drowned the Maxim machine gun in a swamp on the edge of the garden,

      It was necessary not to drown, but to bury in the city in the spring, then the whole garden would be dug up. laughing
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 17 May 2018 23: 41
        +4
        my great-grandfather so drowned a box with cartridges, according to a family legend ... request
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 17 May 2018 23: 52
          +4
          I have a great grandfather so the box with cartridges drowned
          ,, nude nude ,, repeat

          Grandfather watering a bed of oil. The grandson runs out and shouts:
          - Grandpa, there are flowers!
          - Flowers survive, the main thing that the machine gun is not rusted.
          wink
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 17 May 2018 23: 58
            +5
            so how many such weapons remain after the war! request More than Brazil PedroВ - and you won’t count! drinks
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 18 May 2018 19: 02
          +3
          I worked with one person! According to his stories, the older brothers and their peers gathered themselves whole arsenals of cartridges, grenades, and even it seemed like a few rifles! And this despite the fact that the German in our area was a very short time! But, as usual, the boys indulged in dangerous toys and an accident occurred! The police arrived, fathers and grandfathers (who had one), mothers and grandmothers armed themselves with belts and other means of “inquiry” ... And all the supplies were surrendered or seized !!! soldier
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 18 May 2018 20: 06
            +6
            my uncle is born in 1946. The first post-war, reckless and active generation. So, his story. My great-grandfather Fedya, that is, Uncle Uncle, dug up a rifle, a saber and a box of cartridges in the barn. I don’t remember how it was revealed for a schoolboy uncle of not the most senior classes. In general, the uncle’s carbine was exchanged for something by older children, and he obviously cheapened up (well, how old was he there?). And they played with the saber as a whole company, and played out to the point that they drowned in a pond - ran along the ice with it, under one (which had this saber in his hands at that moment!) The ice cracked, fortunately, he got out, but drowned the saber laughing Great-grandfather, after some time having discovered the loss, the box with cartridges also went and drowned. drinks the uncle’s story that he heard, then conveyed!
            And there was a story and sadder. Friends of the uncle found some school equipment, threw it into the fire. Four laid .. Boys! recourse Not far from my great-grandfather and great-grandmother are in the cemetery in Strelna, the uncle drove, showed. Even the monument is common ...
            that is, stories about the "shell and bonfire" are by no means fiction. Schoolchildren have schoolchildren ...
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 18 May 2018 21: 54
              +3
              Some books of the Soviet era described similar cases! Here is one from memory -
              a group of teenagers filled a garbage can with explosives, stuck a detonator and a Bikford cord and decided to jam the catfish in the river ...
              They threw a bucket into the river. They lie waiting ... one could not stand it and crawled to see why it did not explode - naturally an explosion and he flies over his comrades like a bird!
              All escaped with temporary deafness and torn clothes!
              And how many in reality became disabled or died ...
      2. andrewkor
        andrewkor 18 May 2018 10: 11
        +2
        And pour machine oil, so it’s done!
  3. Curious
    Curious 17 May 2018 16: 41
    +10
    "We note only one thing - all the drawings were made in black ink by hand with a pen, and only then were printed."
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, until 1959, when IBM released the first Calcomp 565 plotter, which worked with the IBM 1620 computer, all drawings all over the world, from lobo-jackets to space rockets, were made by hand with a pencil and ink using a re-feeder.
    And then too, since for many years it was exotic.
    1. kalibr
      17 May 2018 18: 07
      +6
      But now my students, “techies,” do not know what a ticket manager is!
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 May 2018 18: 21
        +7
        And the designer does not need a drawing chair. The designer works with a pencil and eraser. And then a professional draftsman makes "squirrel" ink. And then the copyist makes tracing paper. Here they need a lender.
      2. ARES623
        ARES623 17 May 2018 21: 36
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        But now my students, “techies,” do not know what a ticket manager is!

        But what, drawing using Compass or AutoCAD has become worse? In my opinion, the main thing is not the expression technique used, but the idea embedded in the drawing. Today's paperless design is worthy of respect. Once upon a time, an arithmometer was considered the top of computing. I don’t think that it’s necessary to nostalgic for the lecturer, your students have more modern tools for learning and implementing knowledge.
        1. beeper
          beeper 19 May 2018 09: 25
          +3
          Oh yeah! Compass and AutoCAD, of course, greatly facilitate the life of the designer, but by no means contribute to the development of the new "paperless generation" of the same sense of material as the old whatman, graph paper, ruler and pencil, alas! request
          Many times I had to deal with this, “pile up” the details in the “programmer”, print them out and give them to the workshops, and “in the metal”, if the specified dimensions are strictly observed (the dimensions are also often forgotten to be put down, but you won’t be able to measure directly on the drawing, since the image is “a priori not large-scale”), monstrous “undercuts” and “thinning” are obtained in critical sections that would become immediately noticeable if the designer in “machine programming” did not just bother to set the dimensions, but carefully observe the scale, or same at least, roughly “figured” a knot or part on paper (graph paper) using a pencil and a ruler yes !
          It came to the ridiculous.
          Came to us (alas, a fluid staff turnover), somehow, a young "advanced" designer with no experience, but something "told" about himself and, far from understanding production, the owner appointed him Chief request smile
          He brought, as usual, the same “friends”, and the workshops began to receive drawings of parts (even the simplest pins and keys) with an additional three-dimensional “projection” in the corner of the sheet ... dimensional errors continued to “pop up” regularly, not to mention their illiterate line-up, has become a common place of "independence" ...
          I ask this chapter “a stork (he didn’t stay with us for a long time, because he was“ judged by his affairs ”- he got a job record that he worked as the Chief Designer, and“ flew ”further, looking for unreal gullibles ...)": "And what is it in the corner? "-" This is a 3D projection! For a better view. "... Then I talked to all this" group ", they told me (as I understand from the context of the conversation, which seemed to them to be a mossy and backward" dinosaur "? winked ), as a real "revelation", it was said that only the Compass (AutoKAD) "opens their eyes" to the spatial shape of the part or to the shape of the casting in the chill mold, and they were not able to imagine "isometry" over the three projections of the drawing .. .
          That is, IMHO, you still need to start training designers from the basics, from the "drawing" and drawing on a drawing paper, graph paper, pencil and ruler (and the drawing pen, yes, that crap, thank God, is already indecent). Let them build axonometry and isometry according to Godik and Haskin, until they develop spatial thinking, and only then, not earlier, attach to the "graph-building programs", otherwise degeneration will occur! IMHO
          After all, a constructor thinks and thinks a lot of things mentally before proceeding with (compo) drawing. And if there is zero in the computer “at the input” (lack of design ideas, and designers “think in images”, spatial ones and no machine can replace this “flight of thought” so far smile ), then the same zero and "at the exit (not, well, what kind of" craft "routine, of course, will be given diligently" in the likeness ", but you cannot wait for the designer's creativity with such a" mechanistic approach!) "!
          hi
          1. ARES623
            ARES623 19 May 2018 16: 41
            +1
            Quote: pishchak
            Compass and AutoCAD, of course, greatly facilitate the life of the designer, but by no means contribute to the development of the new "paperless generation" of the same sense of material as the old whatman, graph paper, ruler and pencil, alas!

            I think crap is not an invention of a new computer age. There were ignoramuses at the time of "whatman, kulman and raiser". Not worth the progress in the mistakes of the owner of your company. "Paperless" planes are designed, and those that are characteristic fly ... And as for the idea, here we have full consensus. The main thing in creativity is the idea, to draw, as shown by "KhrenTV", can be "masculine dignity." wink
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 17 May 2018 21: 38
        +3
        You ask them about the slide rule or the scores!
        1. Curious
          Curious 17 May 2018 23: 02
          +10
          By the way, our teacher on compromising on a slide rule considered faster than I did on a calculator, which, by the way, were two per group. One problem is that accuracy is sometimes not enough.
      4. Amurets
        Amurets 18 May 2018 00: 08
        +5
        Quote: kalibr
        But now my students, “techies,” do not know what a ticket manager is!

        Ladies used to use raisers to pluck their eyebrows. The better the picker, the faster it will be stolen.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 18 May 2018 00: 13
          +6
          This is an eternal debate over dialectics, Nikolai. request Soon the pants will be removed, and begin to measure wink Is it already morning on the Amur? drinks but I still can’t go out for dinner! crying
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 18 May 2018 09: 43
            +5
            Quote: Mikado
            Is it already morning on the Amur?

            There are 6 hours of difference and 9000 km of distance between you and us. So do not be surprised that you write yesterday, but I answer today.
  4. Curious
    Curious 17 May 2018 18: 16
    +7
    "The trunks were made of steel with a low carbon content and impurities of tungsten and manganese. In general, the production of "maxims" sharply increased the demand in the arms industry for high-quality low-carbon and alloy steels. "
    It would be interesting to know the source of this information, since the steel steels that were used in Russia at the beginning of the last century, and not only in Russia, are in no way related to low-carbon ones.
    And impurities in steel are called harmful elements that worsen its properties - sulfur, phosphorus. Those that improve their properties are alloying additives.
    1. kalibr
      17 May 2018 18: 19
      +3
      I’m unlikely to tell you that, for sure. Or Bolotin, or Gnatovsky and Shorin, or Fedoseyev. I can’t write out links to every fact.
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 May 2018 22: 12
        +4
        You specify, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Obviously, instead of high-carbon, you wrote low-carbon. Mild steel contains up to 0,25% carbon. In the steel from which the trunks of Maxims of carbon were made 0,70%. This is high carbon steel. M.G. Arefiev and L.I. Karpov. Production of small arms barrels. Moscow, Oborongiz, 1945. Edited by Academician Blagonravov.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 17 May 2018 20: 28
      +3
      I am not an expert, but I remembered the word "additive".
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 May 2018 20: 55
        +4
        The additive is also correct, although the term is older.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 17 May 2018 21: 21
          +3
          Is this a downward or upward component?
          1. Curious
            Curious 17 May 2018 21: 58
            +7
            This is a component that allows you to get the necessary composition and, accordingly, the properties of the metal or slag, since in slag processes the properties of metal and slag are interrelated. Therefore, metallurgists sometimes say - cook slag, the metal itself will turn out. Therefore, additives can be slag-forming (lime, fluorspar, bauxite and their combinations or substitutes), carburizing (ground coke, cast iron, metal carbides), oxidizing (ore, scale, metal oxides ) alloying (ferroalloys, ligatures, technically pure chemical elements).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 May 2018 04: 02
              +3
              Thank! As always - necessary and sufficient! (At least for now).
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 17 May 2018 22: 31
    +5
    Another reason was the requirement of complete interchangeability of all parts of the machine gun, which was not fully achieved even at Vickers. The reject rate was also high, so the production with its undoubtedly very high quality was still too small.

    It should be noted that Tretyakov and Pastukhov, being in the Vickers factory in 1903, discovered that the company had not yet achieved interchangeability in machine guns — the bolt assembled from the details of four machine guns had already delayed the 20th shot (bolt, or “lock”, as it was called then, it was the most difficult knot in manufacturing). And the representative of Vickers, Yu.K. Miller, who arrived in Tula in 1905, was able to make sure that interchangeability of the castle parts was achieved here. But production volumes were still small.
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 17 May 2018 22: 38
    +5
    ... For example, it turned out that the English fabric for machine-gun belts is better than the Russian, due to the poor quality of which, respectively, the domestic belts are worse than the English ones and cause delays in firing.

    In March 1906, three English tapes and four manufactured by ITOZ were tested at the Main Artillery Range. According to the landfill report, “tapes made from English fabric turned out to be noticeably better than made from Russian braid” - the nests were cramped in the latter, too much of the energy of the mobile system was spent on removing the cartridge from the tape, which led to delays in firing. On February 23, 1907, the Arkom recognized that "improving production ... braid is an urgent need of the military department." Of the various options tested by ITOZ, the best was the braid of the Riga manufactory, delivered by имimunek and Co. ”. An order for braid for machine-gun tapes “Shimunek and Co.” was received in 1906, at the same time 300 sets of leather covers and bags for machine guns were ordered by the Tula workshop S. Rabinovich - the involvement of “private industry” was limited to such orders.

    In the whole empire, only one manufactory produced TEN of proper quality! Yes, and that was in Riga!
    Where did machine-gun belts do after leaving Riga in 1917? And from the very beginning of the war in 1914, who else was involved in the manufacture of tapes and other additional accessories for machine guns?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 May 2018 23: 35
      +6
      In Riga, they also produced the only cars in the empire. It seems like a sacred place. fellow These labuses should pray for us that the industry carried them. By the way, "rafiks" were also released in Latvia. hi
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 May 2018 23: 59
        +5
        "These labuses should pray for us that the industry carried them. "
        So you, it turns out, is a German. Or a Belgian?
        In the 60s of the XIX century, the Belgian-German company Van der Zipen and Charlier received an order for the construction of 500 wagons for the Riga-Dvina railway. In order not to pay the import duty, in 1869, experienced entrepreneurs opened their own branch in Riga to assemble wagons from imported parts. Five years later, this branch was transformed into the Joint-Stock Company of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works (RBVZ or Russo-Balt). Until 1894, Russo Balt was not at all interested in Russian entrepreneurs. But in 1891 they began to build the Trans-Siberian Railway, the demand for railroad cars increased sharply, and in 1894 Russo Balt came under the control of Russian shareholders. They got the finished production running.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 18 May 2018 00: 04
          +6
          "The powder is not gunpowder, the letter is not a cannon, the scythe is not a cleaver, and I am not German, but a natural Rusak!"(A.V. Suvorov). No, thanks, I don’t need homosexuals and lovers of saturated grass in my relatives, I’ll get along with Chuvash, the middle zone of Russia and ethnic brackets. And our multinational company is friends in the VO!
          and in 1894 Russo Balt came under the control of Russian shareholders. They got the finished production running.

          That is, car production was already under Russian control? hi
          1. Curious
            Curious 18 May 2018 00: 24
            +6
            Yes, when after the Russo-Japanese War the demand for railroad cars fell, in 1908 the chairman of the board, the largest shareholder of the plant M.V.Shidlovsky, suggested that the board start production of cars.
            The chief designer invited a 26-year-old Belgian engineer, Swiss by birth, Julien Potter, who had experience in the design and development of machines at the Fondue company. In fact, the first Russo-Balta is the Fondue.
            Incidentally, at the beginning of the last century, Latvia was one of the most industrialized regions of the Empire.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 18 May 2018 00: 37
              +4
              Incidentally, at the beginning of the last century, Latvia was one of the most industrialized regions of the Empire.

              By the wayVictor Nikolaevich is by the way. Was.
              In Riga, they also produced the only cars in the empire.

              The only cars produced at Nikolashka in Riga? In Riga. Who issued there, under whose guidance and distribution of shares - it’s deep for me .. They released! hi
              1. Curious
                Curious 18 May 2018 00: 49
                +4
                Well, no, as they say, and there is no trial.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 18 May 2018 00: 55
                  +4
                  And thank God, Dear Man! drinks
              2. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 26 May 2018 07: 36
                +4
                Quote: Mikado
                The only cars produced at Nikolashka in Riga? In Riga.

                In general, before 1917 in Russia at different times, cars were produced by the following plants and factories: “P.A. Frese and K ”,“ E.L. Lidtke ”,“ D. Skavronsky ”, JSC“ G.A. Lessner ”,“ Iv. Breytigam ”, Partnership“ Polytechnic ”,“ P.D. Yakovlev ”,“ K.Kryummel ”,“ I.P. Puzyrev ”(St. Petersburg); AO “Luke”, “N.E. Bromley”, “Brothers Krylov and K”, “A.I. Evseev”, “P.P. Ilyin”, “Automobile Moscow Society (AMO)” of the Ryabushinsky brothers (Moscow); “A. Leitner”, JSC “Russian-Baltic Carriage Works (RBVZ)” (Riga); machine-building workshop of M.M.Khrushchev (Oryol); JSC "A.A. Lebedev" (Yaroslavl); “Aksay” (Rostov-on-Don); “Russian Renault” (Rybinsk); “Bekas” (Mytishchi) and others. At the same time, there were a large number of enterprises producing tires, batteries, electrical equipment, automobile accessories, and clothing for drivers.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 18 May 2018 01: 13
      +6
      Quote: hohol95
      Where did machine-gun belts do after leaving Riga in 1917? And from the very beginning of the war in 1914, who else was involved in the manufacture of tapes and other additional accessories for machine guns?
      Before the Second World War, Maxim machine guns were made only for TOZ. During the Second World War, the production of machine guns was established in Izhevsk and Zlatoust.
      V.N. Novikov. “On the eve and in the days of testing:” Tape - not a machine gun, its production mastered quickly. But here comes the military representative and complains:
      - The machine gun works fine on the Tula-made belt, but bad on the one that we do. I cannot accept it.
      Immediately called anyone:
      - What's the matter?
      They say:
      - We do everything exactly in size, and the belt really "sticks" in the machine gun.
      I went to the workshop. Only women worked there. They look at me guiltyly, but they can’t explain anything ........... Tulechki arrived the next day. They sat down to work - and a good ribbon of the same parts went. Everything turned out to be offensively simple. During the installation of rivets, the tape should be given a certain tightness, which was felt only by hands. Experienced workers knew this, but ours did not. Having completed their work, the Tulechki flew home, and our women now worked with a smile.
      The issue of Maxim machine guns entered a steady rhythm. However, there were moments that required attention. Indeed, of all the products of small arms, Maxim's machine gun is the most complex. "
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 18 May 2018 18: 57
        +2
        Machine guns were then made on ITOZ before and during WWI! This is not disputed! And machine gun belts were produced only in RIGA -
        Of the various options tested by ITOZ, the best was the braid of the Riga manufactory, delivered by имimunek and Co. ”. An order for braid for machine-gun tapes “Shimunek and Co.” was received in 1906.

        Or learned to make tape in other factories ???
        And who in Russia produced the tape during the Imperialist War ???
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 19 May 2018 01: 19
          +3
          Quote: hohol95
          And who in Russia produced the tape during the Imperialist War ???

          The tape did ITOZ. Ribbon tape was supplied from Riga "Shimunek and Co.". And the braid was produced at the Riga paper spinning and weaving mill, later Lenta, was founded in 1880. There were no other enterprises of a similar profile in Riga. http://www.citariga.lv/rus/tornakalns/rupnieciba
          Braid
          a narrow woven or woven strip, which is most widely used in household goods, sewing a dress, etc., differs from a ribbon T. mainly because the first serves primarily as a decoration, while T. is used to tie and pull together parts of clothing etc., as a result of which the fortress is one of the necessary qualities for it. Therefore, threads are made from T. more durable materials: linen, cotton, less often wool and silk, connected by simple interlacing: linen, twill, and more rarely satin. There is also wicker (see the corresponding article) T. In essence, woven fabric T. and ribbon are one and the same product of weaving (see. Weaving).
          S. G. Δ.
          Encyclopedic Dictionary F.A. Brockhaus and I.A. Efron. - S.-Pb .: Brockhaus-Efron. 1890 — 1907.
          And other RI manufactories could produce tapes of proper quality.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 19 May 2018 10: 20
            +1
            Your words -
            And the braid was produced at the Riga paper spinning and weaving mill, later Lenta, was founded in 1880. There were no other enterprises of a similar profile in Riga.

            Do not fit with the end of the comment -
            And other RI manufactories could produce tapes of proper quality.

            Why, then, was the preference given to Shimunek and Co. products?
            And after the loss of Riga and the subsequent events of 1917 - 1921, it was necessary to establish production on the territory of the RSFSR!
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 19 May 2018 11: 42
              +1
              Quote: hohol95
              And after the loss of Riga and the subsequent events of 1917 - 1921, it was necessary to establish production on the territory of the RSFSR!
              In the spring of 1915, the evacuation of Riga began.
              "The offensive of the Russian army in eastern Prussia was unsuccessful and by the spring of 1915 the German army reached Latvia. Part of the army went to Liepaja, and the second to Jelgava. At the end of summer, the front line already passed near Olaine and Sloka. The war affected the Latvian economy. Since it was necessary to leave large territories, the Russian government demanded that factories, factories, agricultural products should not fall into the hands of the enemy.The equipment of factories was taken to the central regions of Russia, peasants had to leave their homes, some even ate burn their food stocks and crops destroyed. Only from Riga were evacuated (removed) 427 large enterprises and institutions. " How it was carried out is another matter. Http://mirznanii.com/a/342754/latviya-v-perv
              oy-mirovoy-voyne
              According to the memoirs of N.N. Polikarpov, the equipment of the Riga enterprises was dumped downhill from Zh.D. the way. And you think that after the evacuation of Riga, there was no braid for six years?
              Even in the article there is that the braid was produced in Russia, but of inadequate quality.
              "And after the loss of Riga and subsequent events of 1917 - 1921, it was necessary to establish production on the territory of the RSFSR!" You yourself answered your statement. After the revolution, the industry and transport of the RSFSR did not work due to the lack of fuel, raw materials, and cooperation materials between enterprises.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 20 May 2018 00: 43
                0
                Then let me ask another question -
                What did the Russian merchants and industrialists do?
                The oil woman was under the British and Danes with the Belgians, chemistry under the Germans!
                Of the Russians, only the Demidovs in the steel industry were remembered, but there was not much left of their clan to WWI!
                It was cheaper to buy coal for the fleet in England than in the Donbass!
                Massively imported Chinese migrant workers for the heavy and coal industry!
                There was no shoe industry (there were private shops that could not help shod the army in WWI).
                All the rest were engaged in food and light industry.
                And even that is not “quality” for the army.
                So it turns out?
                In the arms business (in modern terms), which of the RUSSIAN PARTICIPANTS was?
  7. Amurets
    Amurets 18 May 2018 00: 33
    +7
    I don’t know how much this information is known, but in a book about Degtyarev G. Nagaev writes: "The head of the weapons training ground at the Officers' School, the mighty bearded colonel
    Filatov, called Degtyarev to him and instructed him to train military gunsmiths.
    Degtyarev was embarrassed by such a task, but the order was signed, and he set to work.
    Teaching army gunsmiths how to repair a machine gun, he simultaneously taught them
    the manufacture of the most fragile and necessary parts ... Following the training of corporals, who all passed the required exam,
    Degtyarev at the insistence of Filatov took up the training of soldiers.
    Over time, thanks to the efforts of Filatov, these classes began to be conducted more
    organized, and on the basis of individual study groups arose in Oranienbaum
    school of Russian machine gunners, the first teacher in which was an ordinary soldier and
    weapons master Vasily Degtyarev. "
    1. Curious
      Curious 18 May 2018 00: 44
      +5
      Not only Degtyarev worked there. Fedorov, Tokarev.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 18 May 2018 05: 23
        +5
        Quote: Curious
        Not only Degtyarev worked there. Fedorov, Tokarev.
        In addition to the ones you listed there, a whole galaxy of Russian gunsmiths worked there: Roschep, Konovalov. I’ll not mention it all. The stupidest thing is that with the beginning of the WWII, all work on self-loading and automatic weapons was stopped, and the creators of the weapons were sent to active units.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 26 May 2018 07: 50
    +3
    There is a suggestion to the author .... All articles about Maxim are interesting! I would like to draw attention to such a “fact”: on the basis of Maxim's machine gun, many “modifications” were created by “third-party” designers; including handbrake. Samples of light machine guns based on the machine gun "Maxim" are of considerable interest! Moreover, there are not so few of them created .... How about an article "devoted" to handbrakes based on "maxim"? Yes, and "vobche" .... ,, imitation ,, "Maxim"?