Military Review

Poem of Maxim (part of 2)

64
Very accurately suggests the gunner,
A "maxim", like lightning beats.

"Well, well, well!" - says the machine gunner
"Well, well, well!" - says the machine gun.
Music: Sigismund Katz Lyrics: V. Dykhovichny, 1941.


The first material about Maxim's machine gun was liked by VO readers, and there were suggestions that the series of articles contained more and more detail about X. Maxim himself, his eventful life, and changes in infantry tactics that followed his adoption into service, and about examples of use, in a word - it is proposed to write a whole book about a man and a machine gun. Honestly, for now it's difficult. But in principle, nothing is impossible. Let's not rush, and gradually, I hope, answers to most questions will be received. Well, for now let the story evolve according to plan, because a well thought-out plan and consistency in work is always half the success. So, we continue ...

Maxim began his experiments with self-loading firearms. weapons from a patent for the use of recoil force in a Winchester rifle, in which automatic reloading was carried out by installing a system of levers on it connected to the plate on the butt plate. His next step was a weapon, which he called the "Forerunner", and which really became the "forerunner" of a new type of weapon.

3 January 1884, Maxim filed a patent on 12 for various developments in the field of automatic firearms. At the same time, Maxim put his workshop in order at Hatton Garden in London, where he built the first model of his machine gun. Already this first prototype contained many creative solutions based both on its own ideas and on the developments of its predecessors.


The first prototype machine gun model 1884, from the funds of the Royal Arsenal in Leeds. Pay attention to the massive gearbox and air-cooled barrel. In principle, even then it was quite a workable mechanism, but due to the fact that it used cartridges with black powder, long shooting from it was difficult. The design feature of this machine gun was the hydraulic buffer regulator protected by patent number 3493 from 16 July 1883. The passage of fluid from one part of the cylinder to the other could be adjusted using the lever on the right of the box, and thus change the shutter speed and change the rate of fire. This was a clear complication of the design and subsequently Maxim refused this buffer. Experts of the Royal Arsenal in Leeds believe that this sample is the earliest of the surviving Maxim machine guns and, therefore, the earliest known model of automatic weapons.

If you look at his first machine gun, his relatively short barrel and a very long box catch his eye. In addition, noteworthy is the location of the tape-receiver in it: it is located in the lower part of the box, and not in the upper part, as was later adopted, right at the trunk. The reason - in the constructive solutions incorporated in the first sample. The fact is that in it the cartridges from the tape got into the barrel not immediately from the tape, but through an auxiliary mechanism - a ribbed drum, between the ribs of which the cartridges were placed. Rolling back due to the effect of recoil force, the barrel removed the cartridge from the tape through a system of levers, and it itself was pulled through the receiver. In this case, the cartridge fell into the drum, which in essence was a drive, which also turned. Now the bolt went forward and pushed the cartridge from the drum into the barrel, and the barrel and bolt were fastened with a U-shaped latch. A shot followed, the barrel and bolt rolled back, disengaged, the bolt continued to move, removed the cartridge case, and during the return stroke, a new cartridge from a cranked drum appeared on its way. The smoothness of the work of so many complex mechanisms provided the lever-flywheel, rotated at the rear of the box at 270 degrees and squeezed at the same time the combat spring.

Poem of Maxim (part of 2)

Maxim designed not only a machine gun, but also developed an impressive number of different machines for him, satisfying all the requirements of the then British military.

The very first machine gun had a unique trigger mechanism that made it possible to adjust the rate of fire - from 600 rounds per minute or to shoot 1 or 2. Early experiments also showed that when the flywheel crank rotates continuously in one direction, the system accelerates uncontrollably, so the working version received a crank that rotated approximately 270 degrees with each shot, and then went in the opposite direction.


Scheme of the mechanism of the very first Maxim machine gun according to the patent from 7 July 1885.


View of the box above. Patent from 7 July 1885 of the year.


The device of the cloth tape and cylinder-drive cartridges. Patent from 7 July 1885 of the year.

In principle, this crank handle alone would be enough for a machine gun to fire. Twist it and the machine gun will start shooting. That is, the system, in principle, was close to Gatling's mitralese. But the presence of the spring turned the device into an automaton, where the handle had to be cranked only before the first shot, and then everything went by itself.

Subsequent samples of the Maxim machine gun differed from the first by significantly reducing the length of the box and simplifying the design of the mechanism. Maxim was also the first to think about the barrel water cooling. He noted that water is a better means for removing heat than steel (that is, more thermal energy is required to raise the water temperature than to increase the same mass of steel by the same amount of degrees).


Machine gun Maxim played a crucial role in promoting the British in Africa. Without it, they would never have succeeded in their African expansion.


Kitchener Army (1915 g.). Over time, the Maxim machine gun became an integral part of the arsenal of the British army. But he had a special role to play during the First World War.

Well, and then Max made several copies of the prototype machine gun, achieved reliable work from them, and then widely announced his developments in the press, where they immediately began writing about them as sign news in military affairs.

It is worth noting that this machine gun was developed and publicly shown in 1884 year - that is, another year before the invention of smokeless powder. All of Maxim's work on him was fueled by the .45 caliber Gardner-Gatling cartridges, which makes his job of creating a reliable machine gun even more impressive. It was not for nothing that Maxim constantly filed additional patents during this work, created devices that facilitate the work of automation in the conditions of a rapidly forming powder deposit. Naturally, the appearance of cartridges with smokeless powder, although it devalued all these developments, but it was a real gift for him, as for a gunsmith.


Ship version of Maxim machine gun, caliber 37-mm M1895.

In order to better use the possibility of automatic fire, which is capable of his machine gun, Maxim also developed a delivery mechanism that is more complex than the vertical shops used on Gatling and Gardner mitraliases. In fact, he came up with two filing systems: feeding the cartridges with a tape and feeding them from the drum magazine. The drum was worn on the top of the machine gun box, and was structurally very similar to the drum shop from the Lewis machine gun, which entered service later. Nevertheless, Maxim decided that the tape mechanism was more practical and further improved only him, leaving the development of drum shops.


Nothing else but the size (and the oil recoil damper), Maxim's 37-mm submachine gun did not differ from its predecessor machine gun.

During the tests, Maxim shot more than 200 000 cartridges with the help of his prototype machine guns with the minimum number of breakdowns and delays, which at that time was just a fantastic achievement! However, the size of his machine gun and technical complexity did not allow to use it in the armies of the time. And Maxim followed the advice of his friend, Sir Andrew Clarke (Inspector General of Fortifications), and returned to the drawing board, trying to achieve such simplicity of design that his machine gun could be completely disassembled without tools in seconds.


On the deck of the American ship "Vixen", 1898

Simultaneously with the machine gun rifle caliber at the same time at the end of the 1880-s, Maxim created his enlarged version of the caliber 37-mm. It was a caliber that allowed the developed design to be used with a minimum of rework, but the weight of the projectile should not exceed 400 grams (0,88 pounds), since it was the lightest explosive projectile allowed to be used in accordance with the St. Petersburg 1868 declaration of the year and confirmed Hague Convention 1899.


The German version of the QF 1-pom Pom Pom Cannon (Museum of Military stories in Johannesburg)


And his English equivalent of the sample 1903 g. (Imperial War Museum, London)

The early versions were sold under the brand Maxim-Nordenfeld, while the British service version (from 1900 of the year) was produced by Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM), since Vickers bought the assets of the Maxim-Nordenfeld company in 1897 year All of these samples are actually the same weapon.


QF1-pound steel projectile Mk I М1900


High-explosive ordnance.


Tracer shells (on the right) were relied on, but they had no explosive charge.

At first, the British military rejected this proposal of Maxim and the 37-mm “autocannon” went on commercial sale, including to Germany, and from there it went to the Boers to South Africa just in time for the start of the Second Boer War. However, being under the fire of Maxim's guns, they quickly changed their minds and bought them for the British army. In the Transvaal was sent from 50 to 57 such guns, which have proven themselves in battles. At the same time, “pom pom poms” (as they were called for the characteristic sound of a shot) got into the fleet as an anti-cater and anti-carrier weapon. During the First World War, these guns were not used in the ground forces of the British Army, but were installed on ships as a means of air defense and Pearless armored vehicles, including those who fought in Russia as part of an armored division sent by the British.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
Poem of Maxim (part of 1)
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  1. Cat
    Cat 12 May 2018 06: 50
    +11
    There are no words alone emotions !!!!!!!!!!!!!! ----
    1. avt
      avt 12 May 2018 07: 41
      +11
      Quote: Kotischa
      There are no words alone emotions !!!!!!!!!!!!!! ----

      Good continuation! good
      1. Evdokim
        Evdokim 12 May 2018 11: 58
        +6
        I am joining. Thanks to the author. good
        1. your1970
          your1970 12 May 2018 19: 15
          0
          -
          great-grandfather was a machine gunner in World War I.
          According to various sources - in the family there were 4, in the official biography - 3 St. George's Crosses
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 12 May 2018 08: 07
    +7
    Great loop! Popular and not overloaded with technical details.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 12 May 2018 10: 47
    +14
    Very interesting stuff. Thank.
    Unfortunately, nothing is said about the "machine guns" in the Russian army. For those who want to expand their knowledge on this topic, I propose to read the chapter "Submachine guns" in the Russian Army "from Fedoseyev's book" Machine guns of the Russian Army in battle "...
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 12 May 2018 12: 23
    +4
    At the same time as the machine gun of the rifle caliber, then at the end of the 1880's Maxim created his enlarged version of the 37-mm caliber.
    The early versions were sold under the brand Maxim-Nordenfeld, while the British service version (from 1900 of the year) was produced by Vickers, Sons and Maxim (VSM), since Vickers bought the assets of the Maxim-Nordenfeld company in 1897 year All of these samples are actually the same weapon.

    Well, if Maxim’s guns were 37-mm caliber, and Vickers’s guns were 40-mm caliber, then all these guns weren’t, on 100% ", the same weapon" ... wink
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2018 16: 38
      +4
      They differed only in caliber, well, and some details were increased in proportion.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 13 May 2018 01: 33
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        They differed only in caliber, well, and some details were increased in proportion.

        Just "enlarged"? And not changed? What about ammunition?
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 13 May 2018 11: 01
          +2
          PS Comparison table of ammunition for anti-aircraft and naval guns of small caliber.
          Name Caliber Projectile weight, kg Initial speed, m / s Shot energy, J
          Maxim 1 PR 37x94R 0,555 367 37000
          Vickers 1 PR Mk.111 37x69R 0,45 365 30000
          Vickers 1½ PDR 37x123R 0,68 365-395 45000-53000
          Vickers Crayford 1.59 "40x79R 0,54 240 (HE) 300 (AP) 15500-24000
          Vickers 2 PR No.1 40x158R 0,900 or 0,770 (HV) 610 or 730 (HV) 167000-205000
          Vickers 2 PR HA 40x107R 0,9 360 58000
          1½ PR COW gun 37x190 0,68 610 127000
          2 PR Mk.V 40x240R 0,9 700 220000
          2 PR Davis Gun 40x378R 0,9 365 60000
          37mm Bofors AT gun 37x257R 0,74 800-850 237000-267000
          37mm US tank gun 37x223R 0,87 870-885 330000-340000
          2 PR No.2 40x304R 1,090 or 1,220 (APCBC) 850 or 790 (APCBC) 394000-380000
          40mm Class S 40x158R 1,130 or 1,360 615 or 570 214000-221000
          2 PDR HV (APDS) 40x438R 2,01 1295 1685410
          40mm Bofors L/60 40x311R 0,9 880 348000
          40mm Bofors L/70 40x364R 0,9 1020
  5. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper 12 May 2018 13: 19
    +9
    Vyacheslav!
    That's what I like about our site.
    That there are people with whom in real life you’ll never meet.

    But here it is possible to argue with the electrician and the marshal.
    Sofa fighter and veteran.
    What a pity that we can not meet in real life.
    Thank you for your extremely interesting articles.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 12 May 2018 13: 33
      +8
      so come back often. drinks I repeat, like a mantra - an intelligent and friendly interlocutor, whom you, Alexei, are, judging by the words - worth its weight in gold! hi there, by the way, on the “history” branch, an article by Vyacheslav Olegovich about Lyushkov came out. Interesting was the character! (with a negative sign).
      1. Grim Reaper
        Grim Reaper 13 May 2018 02: 47
        +3
        Quote: Mikado
        so come back often. drinks I repeat, like a mantra - an intelligent and friendly interlocutor, whom you, Alexei, are, judging by the words - worth its weight in gold! hi there, by the way, on the “history” branch, an article by Vyacheslav Olegovich about Lyushkov came out. Interesting was the character! (with a negative sign).

        so come wink
        Yes, I read about Lyushkov.
        Then in the comments.
        belay
        I did not expect such a hmmm .... to rise.
        Well it would be for someone sad
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 13 May 2018 04: 47
          +1
          Is it really “hmmm” !? Here are the comments on the Poison Feather cycle - yes! "Come on in life!"
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 13 May 2018 12: 10
            +2
            There are pluses to this! wink For example, I discovered the talent of a poet! laughing
            Shpakovsky gave us the whole world, friends.
            Articles of the world, knowledge is interesting!
            It’s nice to discuss, I’ll tell you,
            In the company of our good honest!

            So the rules? I'm just learning! stop I am to Major071 - as to China in an interesting pose! drinks
            And materials Vyacheslav Olegovich really knows how to choose. Talent, you can’t argue. hi But, most importantly, we met with each other and met on his forum. This is really expensive! good drinks
    2. kalibr
      12 May 2018 16: 37
      +5
      Yes you are right! Here I met very smart and educated people of erudition who can be envied, people with great creative potential (envious of their youth!), People who can write on topics in which I pass. It is very enriching!
  6. Curious
    Curious 12 May 2018 14: 23
    +10
    Great article. I will allow myself a few comments. “The readers of VO liked the first material about Maxim’s machine gun, and they expressed their wishes that the series of articles would tell more and more in detail about H. Maxim himself, his eventful life, and about changes in infantry tactics that followed the adoption of it’s in service, and about examples of application, in a word - it’s proposed to write a whole book about a man and a machine gun. Honestly, it’s still difficult. " It’s not just complicated, it’s extremely difficult, considering that this issue has been worked out to microns. And the answers to all these questions can be found in the book of Roger Ford, “The Infernal Mower. Machine gun on the battlefields of the XX century.”
    "Maxim's machine gun played an extremely important role in promoting the British in Africa. If not for him, they would never have succeeded in their African expansion."
    It would be worthwhile to pay more attention to this moment in the light of the fact that these first cases of the use of a machine gun allowed the military, by and large, to understand what kind of weapon it was and its place in the infantry weapons system in general.
    In short, in 1893, a colonial conflict broke out between the British South African company and the kingdom of Ndebele (today it is the territory of Zimbabwe). The first major skirmish occurred near the Shangani River, where a British expeditionary force of 700 people was attacked by a 4-strong native army. The British deployed five machine-gun calculations - and the battle turned into execution: 1500 attackers were destroyed. A month later, the detachment had already met with the 6th army - and again the machine guns decided the outcome of the case: 2500 people fell under merciless fire. “They rushed with devilish cries to their own death, because the machine guns exceeded all expectations and mowed them, literally like grass. I’ve never seen anything like this and couldn’t even imagine that such a thing was possible, ”said one of the participants in these battles, Hiram Maxim.
    Even louder, "Maxim" declared itself during the "fight for Sudan" in 1898, when the 100th army of the Makhdists attacked the 10th Anglo-Egyptian army. It was an unprecedented massacre: more than 20 Mahdists left on the ground, defeated by a dagger fire "Maxim"; British losses amounted to only 150 people. “In the past, we won wars with the onslaught, skill and courage of officers and soldiers, but our last campaign was won by one very quiet gentleman,” the English newspapers wrote, paying tribute to Hiram Maxim.
    fishing, the machine gun became a real scourge in the hands of the "white man" on the Black Continent, killing no less than yellow fever or an epidemic of plague. However, the fact that Maxim could serve as an effective tool not only against the natives, but also against trained European armies, none of the then military leaders seriously believed - until the First World War.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 12 May 2018 15: 39
      +5
      V.N.Thank you for the commentary supplement. I have said more than once that many interesting materials on the "History" section, and even more give comments, additions
    2. kalibr
      12 May 2018 16: 21
      +4
      Great comment, as always, actually. I can after him about the tactics of using machine guns in the early twentieth century and not write ...
  7. Vova Kabaev
    Vova Kabaev 12 May 2018 14: 31
    +1
    “Maxim filed additional patents all the time” ?!
    No patents filed! Patent applications. Learn the topic.
    1. Cat
      Cat 12 May 2018 15: 35
      +6
      Quote: Vova Kabaev
      “Maxim filed additional patents all the time” ?!
      No patents filed! Patent applications. Learn the topic.

      Sold "rights"!
      Learn the Civil Code of the Russian Federation hi !
      Moreover, in international law there is a practice to generalize the "application for invention" and "the right to invention" under one word - "patent"!
      1. Vova Kabaev
        Vova Kabaev 13 May 2018 09: 38
        0
        Do not write the volume in which do not chop meat. The same to me, an international law expert drew!
      2. Mikado
        Mikado 13 May 2018 10: 56
        +1
        What, Vladislav, was also found an interlocutor trying to prove superiority and dunk Kot's head in a poop? drinks Get used to it! It’s not for me alone to puff off these drinks
        Vova Kabaeva - Vladislav, in fact, cuts a lot. Moreover, in many respects, for us - the secret behind seven seals hi My friends, more accurately, without lunges, we communicate exactly! drinks
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist 12 May 2018 15: 33
    +5
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Great loop! Popular and not overloaded with technical details.

    Namely: the presentation is accessible and technically competent and illiterate
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 12 May 2018 16: 04
    +3
    V.O.You mentioned "St. Petersburg Declaration I 1864", but why? I know that EV Nikolai Aleksandrovich is the “father” of the League of Nations and, to some extent, the UN. He was the first to concern himself with a peaceful resolution to conflicts. He took steps to “humanize” the war. Gaga Agreements on subsequent Geneva Conventions.
    And as for the Maxim machine gun, the comrades below have already expressed their compliments to you and I need to add: You know how to select illustrations .. I especially liked the photo where the machine gunner sits under a baobab and the black one is nearby. : "Sahib, will you bring some water or a fan to wave?"
    1. kalibr
      12 May 2018 16: 32
      +6
      Regarding compliments, you are right - you can, I think, not answer, except to thank each time, but I hope that people will not be offended if I do not. But regarding the selection of illustrations, here it is. I grew up on them !!! My grandfather taught geography at school and was head of the city. He ruthlessly cut out the encyclopedia of Marx, Brockhaus, Creder's geographic directory. And everything was in his folders. From the age of five, it wasn’t a great happiness for me to look at them, not in an apartment, but sitting on a huge Russian stove, where I had a cave and a ship ... Niva magazines and the Great War magazines were in the same place. .. And there IT WAS ALL, Maxim machine guns and blacks, Mahdists on horses, Boers of all kinds, boxers and Japanese, Germans and Lube’s visit to Petersburg ... And I read and remembered all this, and from childhood I knew the story in pictures better than another teacher. And now, in the library of our museum, "cornfields" are waiting for me with bookmarks of my "children's memorable pictures"! We must go, take off and here with the relevant articles to give. Over time, that's bad. This was my "picture self-education." But I just heard about the “Declaration”, just like you, but I don’t know the content! Alas!
    2. Curious
      Curious 12 May 2018 18: 29
      +7
      The 1868 St. Petersburg Declaration on the Abolition of the Use of Explosive and Incendiary Bullets is an international agreement concluded on November 29 (December 11), 1868 in St. Petersburg. The declaration banned the use in the armies of European countries of shells that, with a weight of less than 400 grams, have the property of explosiveness or are equipped with shock or combustible composition.
      I see in perspective a series of articles "Ethics of War."
  10. ammunition
    ammunition 12 May 2018 17: 41
    +2
    Excellent machine gun. But! Only for the end of the 19 century and for the beginning of the 20.
    ------------------------------
    As for the Great Patriotic ... No.
    Eh!
    Yes, if our infantry in 41 year, would not have not this "kulevrina" .. !!! And there would be MG - 42. Or at least MG-34. We would never have retreated to Moscow and to the Volga !!!
    1. your1970
      your1970 12 May 2018 19: 26
      +6
      Quote: ammunition
      Excellent machine gun. But! Only for the end of the 19 century and for the beginning of the 20.
      ------------------------------
      As for the Great Patriotic ... No.
      Eh!
      Yes, if our infantry in 41 year, would not have not this "kulevrina" .. !!! And there would be MG - 42. Or at least MG-34. We would never have retreated to Moscow and to the Volga !!!
      - And if the T-72 / Mi-24 / AK-we would have won them at the border in a week ...... And if there were nuclear weapons - it would simply have ended in Germany and the end of the war ... and then the Wehrmacht then would slowly catch ...
      fool fool
    2. Cat
      Cat 12 May 2018 19: 31
      +10
      In the 41st we had a crude Degtyarev Easel DS-39.
      So the reason for the resumption of the production of Maxim was obvious and justified. As well as curtailing the production of CBT. On the verge of disaster, when the factories were still on wheels, two Mosin rifles were more necessary and more important than one self-loading SVT. By the way, the mass arming of the Red Army with submachine guns PPSh and PPS was also not from a good life.
      Now about the causes of the “defeats of 41 years,” alas, they are much broader and more comprehensive than the lack of an analogue of the Hitler’s sawmill.
      1. ammunition
        ammunition 12 May 2018 20: 40
        +2
        Quote: Kotischa
        So the reason for the resumption of production of "Maxim" was obvious and justified

        I will not answer Sergey (useless), but Vyacheslav will answer you.
        ---------------------
        Who will argue that Max is better than without a machine gun at all ????
        -------------
        Do you understand .. sad Motor Rifleman I Infantry..
        As if shorter .. I do not even know. How many had to go crazy with every weapon! In winter, spend the night in the forest and in the field. Not zhramshi. Fill tape with your fingers, without a typewriter. Carry all sorts of machine guns. Understand! Yes, better than 40 kg of cartridges to drag to MG, than to drag this cuttlefish - Maxim! A cast to fight ??? !! That's it! And what is a canvas tape? You know ?? In the cold cola, and in the summer, it will get wet .. in the fall in the dirt. sad
        -------------------
        I feel sorry for my infantry to tears!
        And the effectiveness of the defeat ?? !!! MG - count as a rifle. Rraz! And shoot. Do you know how MG is cool with target destruction? Due precisely to its rate of fire !!!!! sad
        MG 5-6 first bullets go a bunch !!! How kartech .. almost ... With almost guaranteed defeat!
        --------------------
        You know .. PC is a great machine gun. And reliable and convenient. If he added rate of fire like MG - in general PRICES WOULD NOT BE PC machine gun. How do motorbike say!
        Here is Maxim .. (and the PC partly), sews on infantry chains .. like a comb with broken teeth. Not thickly sews. And MG - not that! MG is thick! Do not miss .. to through again.
        -----------------
        Here the bazaars went, that the cartridges should be in bulk.
        1) MG machine gun cartridges can take a lot more than to Maxim.
        2) The overall efficiency of the queue from MG .. times in 10 more than from Maxim. sad
        ----------------
        What can I say !!!
        You would be in the dank autumn .. yes wet, dirty, swollen tapes of tarpaulin .. yes with rusty rivets .. and even would have minted .. if there were minuses here.
        Well, if dry trench. And you yourself dug trenches ?? Yes, the full profile? Where to get them? trenches, if the war is not positional ????????? 99% firefight without any trenches .. Well, let him bend .. let 90% .. Anyway!
        -------------------
        In short. sad
        It is very, very sad that we had to keep Maxim in service during the Second World War. And it is a pity that the Germans had such a machine as MG.
        So I think that the German MG has provided them with a fair amount of initial victories.
        1. Cat
          Cat 12 May 2018 21: 26
          +9
          I have no desire to delve into the theoretical debate "if the war had timed"!
          In this connection, briefly.
          1. Tapes for "Maxim" were sewn on canvas, not canvas.
          2. Canvas tapes, this is our poverty, not wealth. Metal - loose ribbons our weapons designers knew. On the example of the same Finns. But they considered it difficult, time-consuming, and therefore expensive. In general, if you read the memoirs of the same Degtyarev. He makes it clear that metal tape is the obvious next step. But .... we just did not have time. The war has begun.
          3. Swearing "Maxim" You forget that by the beginning of the war they were removed from production. And only the war prevented to bring to mind the DS-39. It was not stagnation and stupidity that compelled our command to resume the production of Maxim, Mosinki and curtail the production of SVT, DS-39, and other weapons. And again, the progmatic approach of saving and technological capabilities.
          4. Your cry for MG-42, which could save the Red Army from defeating at 41, is naively surprising, because Hitler's Saw appeared in 42!
          5. The easel "Maxim", unlike the uniform "Germans", was more stable in the fire confrontation, had the ability to conduct long bursts. By the way, it must be remembered that we also entered the war with the infantry Degtyarev.
          6. The tactical structure of the platoon and detachment of the German and Red Army had a fundamental difference. If the Germans built their squad around a machine gun (1 single machine gun, 1 pp and 7 Mauser rifles and 2 pistols), then our construction of the squad included, in addition to the DP-29 infantry machine gun, the presence of self-loading SVT rifles (5 pcs), 2 PP, the rest armed with Mosin rifles. In addition, a single machine gun was supposed to be a plus for a platoon. The Germans did not have it. There is no desire to continue further - read A. Isaev. a comparative analysis of the middle and end of the war is interesting, which completely refutes your conclusion that MG could save someone.
          By the way, history proved the opposite - MG did not save the Third Reich, like other wunder-waffles. hi
          1. ammunition
            ammunition 12 May 2018 22: 02
            +1
            Quote: Kotischa
            I have no desire to delve into a theoretical dispute


            And not about the theory of speech.
            I am not going to argue. .. if you like so - here is just a subjective experience.
            Theorists .. ((((
        2. Curious
          Curious 12 May 2018 23: 00
          +4
          "Did you dig trenches yourself? Yes to the full profile? " And you?
          1. ammunition
            ammunition 13 May 2018 00: 03
            +1
            Quote: Curious
            And you?

            Ryl. Any.
            And sedentary, and lying and full.
            Unless we dug trenches. Customized only. ((
            So it is not even the most important thing!
            -----------------
            Thousands and thousands of kilometers on foot and run are wound. Half a ton of cartridges fired from all types of small arms. According to everyone. And in the snow to the waist .. and in the heat and cold. Do not tell all (((
            He also hated the 74 RPK. sad
            I believe that the PC is necessary not in the platoon, but in each department.
            But this .. personal and deep conviction.
            --------------------
            And about Maxim ... sad Both from the PC and from the MG-34, the company from the march is brought to battle in 5 seconds. And with maxim .. but with maxim everything is much worse (((
            1. Curious
              Curious 13 May 2018 00: 35
              +6
              By no means do I want to belittle your military merits, but you are painting so as if you were the only one fortunate to serve in the valiant Soviet motorized rifle. Yes, and on foot I had to move the entire service, it’s even interesting, haven’t they ever used the standard equipment?
              1. ammunition
                ammunition 13 May 2018 09: 25
                0
                Quote: Curious
                Surely they never used standard equipment?

                -))))
                What about technology ..
                Dear Victor. Here at once, explain to me the fool, why the loops in the BTR-70 are made vertically and not horizontally ??????? sad
                On the planes of the loopholes .. like that .. never there was no need to fire. But dovorot automatic (and machine gun), .. right .. mostly (and left), often very not enough to turn the tide. sad
                Tree sticks!!! 60 degrees the whole sector of shelling .. (there would be horizontal loopholes, the sector of shelling would be almost doubled .. to 110 degrees.) Though (enraged), bend the machine.
                Why is that? .. Theorists, what loopholes did? And maybe so Yudashkin pushed through his "design" ??
                -------------
                In vain you roll a barrel on me. You seem to think .. that .. supposedly - "crawled out here to pick out" .. Yes, no. Not certainly in that way.
                -----------------
                I really want to see everything in mind. It’s a pity to lose a soldier .. well, I’m sorry to tears .. Especially if the reasons are .. - someone’s self-conceit. sad
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 13 May 2018 10: 51
                  +2
                  Why is that? .. Theorists, what loopholes did? And maybe so Yudashkin pushed through his "design" ??

                  if I'm not mistaken, there is another example - on the BTR-60PB the walkie-talkie antenna was located in front of the tower. And when on March 15, 1969, a second (main) battle with the Chinese took place on Damansky Island, communication with the border guards who were there was immediately lost. Because in the heat of battle, the arrows of the armored personnel carrier carried their own antennas with fire. request
                2. Curious
                  Curious 13 May 2018 12: 23
                  +4
                  You know, Nikolay, I don’t have experience in firing through armored personnel carriers, we had BMP 1. They have an embrasure in the form of a ball mount, through which aimed fire is generally problematic.
                  As for the form, this is not for firing at aircraft, but for the possibility of aiming. AK fly what height? She when shooting outside, sight inside. If you make the embrasure smaller in height, you cannot aim. And if they are "stretched in breadth" - then the likelihood that they will "fly through" will sharply increase. So do not blame theorists. Of the two evils, they chose the lesser. On BTR 80, the layout of the landing and embrasures changed, it was like on a BMP, the loopholes were made with ball mounts, just like on a BMP, but practically I have not tried it.
                  In general, if the landing force is forced to shoot through the embrasures, then this is a situation where it is not necessary to think about the accuracy of shooting, but about telling the Apostle Peter to let him through, because this situation is critical, and getting into it says that someone something about .... looked.
                  And judging by your description, so you broke through with battle, firing at the enemy that surrounded you from all sides, and more than once.
                  Maybe this is a secret, of course, but if not a secret, tell me where you are so lucky twice. The first time to get into such situations, and the second time to get out of them?
                  1. ammunition
                    ammunition 13 May 2018 16: 25
                    +1
                    Quote: Curious
                    Do AK fly what height? She's shooting outside, sight inside. If you make a lower embrasure, you cannot aim. And if they "stretch in breadth"

                    Uh! Not.
                    The width of the loopholes with a pack of cigarettes. And the height of the front sight is all from the boxes .. even from the boxes sideways. So .. if you just turn the loopholes, without any stretching, then you could aim ... and the sector would expand greatly.
                    Quote: Curious
                    so you broke through with the battle ..................................... and more than once.

                    Not at all!! What is there .. It's just a word forgot add - "academic." Training fight. What kind of "secrets" can there be?
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 13 May 2018 16: 52
                      +4
                      Oh, well that's another matter. It’s you who (I don’t remember which) did the training shooting exercise. To be honest, in my opinion, firing through the embrasures of armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles in motion is mainly of a psychological nature of the impact on the enemy, as well as from standard weapons, which are not stabilized. Especially in armored personnel carriers, where manual guidance drives.
                      1. ammunition
                        ammunition 13 May 2018 19: 23
                        +1
                        Quote: Curious
                        This is what you (I don’t remember how much) the practice of shooting practice was performed. To be honest, in my opinion, shooting through the embrasures of the armored personnel carrier and infantry fighting vehicles in movement is mainly psychological.


                        Eight.
                        The armored personnel carrier writes out the eight, and in the course rise growth targets. First for the left side, then for the right.
                        -------------
                        Psychological (bullshit) is obtained solely because the narrow vertical loophole does not allow the machine gun to shoot at the target. Again .. commanders terribly dislike such an exercise -)) and select only reliable soldiers for such an exercise .. plus platoon lieutenants.
                        Quote: Curious
                        as well as from standard weapons, which is not stabilized.

                        ------------
                        Everything depends on the training. And the skill is rare and expensive. One MSR was brought to the ability to constantly issue no less than 90% of targets hit at any RTU. But really ... it cost a lot.
        3. John22
          John22 14 May 2018 19: 27
          +2
          Regarding the "comb" - the Germans had a different tactic for the use of machine guns. They mainly used flank fire, which they came up with in 1 MV. With the same Maxim MG-08.
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 12 May 2018 23: 46
    +6
    Quote: Curious
    Excellent article.
    "Maxim's machine gun played an extremely important role in promoting the British in Africa. If not for him, they would never have succeeded in their African expansion."
    In short, in 1893, a colonial conflict broke out between the British South African company and the kingdom of Ndebele (today it is the territory of Zimbabwe). The first major skirmish occurred near the Shangani River, where a British expeditionary force of 700 people was attacked by a 4-strong native army. The British deployed five machine-gun calculations - and the battle turned into execution: 1500 attackers were destroyed.


    I want to add one small detail to the story of the first use of a machine gun against Lobengula troops. The fact is that in the white detachment (according to other sources, 500 people) there was not a single member of the British army. There were only white "volunteers" whom none other than Cecil Rhodes recruited. He, having a good idea of ​​how many Loben warriors would have to deal with, at his own peril and risk, bought Maxim’s machine guns, which were completely unverified in the case. According to my information there were six of them. Machine guns were mounted on a pair of carriages and could fire immediately, which in those conditions was an important factor. So Makhno and Budyonny are resting, the tachanka is not their creation. Well, and then ... colleague Victor described everything perfectly, nothing to add. Well, probably, besides the fact that with the help of these cars Rhodes, so simple, took and created a new country - Rhodesia. hi
    1. Curious
      Curious 13 May 2018 00: 13
      +4
      The book "Robert I. Rotberg & Miles F. Shore, The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power, Oxford University Press, New York, 1988" states that the squad was assembled by Major Forbes, deputy chief of the British South African Police Force. He also led the detachment, armed, among other things, with five machine guns.
  12. ARES623
    ARES623 13 May 2018 14: 14
    0
    "The very first machine gun had a unique trigger that allowed you to adjust the rate of fire - from 600 rounds per minute or to make 1 or 2 shots"
    Talking about the machine gun Hiram Maxim, as about the very first machine gun, is probably not entirely correct. After all, before him there were Gatling's card cases. In 1867, two card cases appeared in Russia, in calibres of 25,4 mm and 12,7 mm. By the way, Maxim's machine gun was also for some time called the "automatic gambler." This device became a machine gun in 1889 after the need to "isolate" a separate type of quick-firing guns with an elastic gun mount. In general, the second half of the 19th century can be called the time of the most rapid evolution of small arms thanks to the birth of a metal sleeve and smokeless powder. IMHO
    1. Curious
      Curious 13 May 2018 17: 14
      +1
      GOST 28653-90 (current)
      STATE STANDARD OF THE USSR UNION WEAPONS SHOOT
      Terms and definitions
      Machine gun - Automatic small arms for continuous continuous firing, the design of which provides for the use of support for firing.
      Automatic weapons - small arms with full automation of reloading.
      In turn, the term full automation means the complete liberation of a person from participation in the processes of obtaining, converting, transmitting and using energy. So everything is correct. Maxim the first.
      1. ARES623
        ARES623 13 May 2018 18: 27
        0
        Quote: Curious
        GOST 28653-90 (current)

        Something tells me that in 1884-1889, neither in the United States nor in England, where automated rifle systems were developed and first adopted, they could not even think of naming their systems according to the document you provided. If we are talking about the birth and development of PM, it seems to me that the conversation should be conducted in the context of that time, despite the fact that some parts cannot be discarded from the dialectic of the development of the system, hanging the topic in a void. After all, Hiram Maxim did not invent his machine gun from scratch, he worked on the basis of the experience worked out before him. And this does not detract from his genius, since his product lives on today. But still, before Maxim, a patent for the invention of rapid-fire weapons was received in 1862 by Richard Gatling. This is a historical fact.
        1. Curious
          Curious 13 May 2018 19: 30
          +3
          You probably went to school and remember that the same phenomenon cannot be simultaneously considered in different coordinate systems. Rather, it is possible, but the relativistic effect is affecting. In addition, automatic weapons and rapid-fire weapons. - things are different. Automatic weapons, according to the same GOST, can be a single and continuous fire, that is, it can be quick-fire. And for systems like Gatling, there is the term mechanized automatic weapons.
          In general, if it is approached very accurately, G. Bessemer is considered the inventor of automatic weapons.
          But one can look at the point of view of that time in the Military Encyclopedia (Sytin, 1911-1915), which, in fact, is not very different.
          1. ARES623
            ARES623 13 May 2018 20: 01
            0
            Quote: Curious
            In addition, automatic weapons and rapid-fire weapons. - things are different

            At school, I was taught to answer the question. It was claimed that the "Maxim" - the first machine gun in the world. My assumption is that since the original name of Maxim's machine gun was "automatic gambler", it is reasonable to consider Gatling's gambler as the first invention. There are many people who agree with me. At VO two years ago, this topic was already considered. You do not agree - on health. But to apply modern terminology to the questions of centuries ago is absurd.
            1. Cat
              Cat 13 May 2018 20: 09
              +4
              By the way, like Gatling's card cases in the army of the Russian Empire, they were often called machine guns !!!
              So the "absurdity" has two sides and your arguments according to formal logic are void.
              1. ARES623
                ARES623 13 May 2018 20: 21
                +1
                Quote: Kotischa
                By the way, like Gatling's card cases in the army of the Russian Empire, they were often called machine guns !!!

                Well, who is the "first"? laughing It’s a pity that it’s not Fedorov, not Mosin, not Gorlov with Gunius.
                Interesting detail: A random phrase, once thrown to H. Maxim by an American interlocutor in Vienna, sunk into his soul. “Throw this chemistry and electricity! - said his friend. “If you want to make a ton of money, think of something that will help these Europeans cut each other's throats with greater efficiency.” The eternally monetary theme in Europe is to invent murder weapons.
            2. Curious
              Curious 13 May 2018 20: 17
              +2
              And you health! But your arguments are completely childish. There is such a thing as replacing one name with another. This is caused by various social reasons: the influence of other languages ​​that bear a new name, fashion, the spread of scientific terminology, the change in the functions of the subject itself, the expansion of knowledge about it, the more expressiveness of the new name, etc. Potatoes were called "earth apples" in the XNUMXth century, but because he was not ranked among apples either then or now.
  13. Curious
    Curious 13 May 2018 20: 24
    +1
    ammunition,
    When performing this exercise, an armored troop-carrier moves on a directrix along the years of a flat road. A native training center where all targets are studied - re-studied and even somehow you feel when and where they will appear. And that is the problem. And you will launch an armored personnel carrier at speeds along the field, along the ditches, in short - along the real battlefield. There is not something to shoot, there, as it were, not to be killed about something. Or are you just going to smash the adversary on asphalt? Then only on foreign territory. We also have the same asphalt.
  14. Catfish
    Catfish 13 May 2018 22: 54
    +4
    Quote: Curious
    The book "Robert I. Rotberg & Miles F. Shore, The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power, Oxford University Press, New York, 1988" states that the squad was assembled by Major Forbes, deputy chief of the British South African Police Force. He also led the detachment, armed, among other things, with five machine guns.


    Good evening, Victor!
    I do not argue, and to nothing. I meant that there were no military personnel in the squad, i.e. soldier. And the deputy. You must admit that a police chief who does not even have an army rank can be considered such. I am, in fact, all of what: All this adventure was organized exclusively by one civilian “office”, namely, the company De Beers and S. Rhodes personally. And machine guns drove him "secretly", they were not allowed to sell them to private companies. As for the number of people and trunks, then what is the difference in different sources give different data. And so on any event. The end result is important, and Rhodes achieved it. Although, frankly, this figure does not cause sympathy. hi

    But the author of the articles thanks a lot. Interesting to read. good
    1. Curious
      Curious 13 May 2018 23: 27
      +3
      Good evening, Konstantin. You know, as a child, I remember how in the newspapers, on the radio and on television they talked about the apartheid regime. I really felt sorry for the poor blacks and Mandela. Then, as a student, I got to know the Negroes better and this acquaintance sowed some doubts in my soul. And then I visited South Africa, looked at apartheid close by and I really liked it. But it was not possible to visit after the victory of Mandela, but colleagues say that it has become very worse and continues to deteriorate, which I, knowing the shoe pollers not by hearsay, believe. They will ruin the country. So Rhodes must also be treated with caution, it’s right there.
  15. Kibb
    Kibb 14 May 2018 17: 29
    +1
    Quote: Curious
    And then I visited South Africa, looked at apartheid close by and I really liked it. But it was not possible to visit after the victory of Mandela, but colleagues say that it has become very worse and continues to deteriorate, which I, knowing the shoe pollers not by hearsay, believe. They will ruin the country. So Rhodes must also be treated with caution, it’s right there.

    I’m not a racist, but I didn’t see such a collapse as in South Africa, the Nazis and others are not interesting to me, but in 5 years I’ve seen how “Africans” turned a beautiful city into a garbage dump ... beyond my strength !!!
    1. Curious
      Curious 14 May 2018 17: 59
      +2
      You know, I observed blacks in their natural habitat - normal people with their culture and customs. But as soon as they get into the cities of a white man and settle compactly - a disaster.
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 14 May 2018 20: 13
        +2
        Well, apparently you saw the degradation of Johannesburg, if not visually, then at least according to the stories of friends, and I saw her on three business trips - you can call me a Jewish Nazi. I have all normal people, just had a "cultural shock." However, everything calmed down a little, but without a gun you can’t go to the former business center.
        1. Curious
          Curious 14 May 2018 20: 45
          +2
          Yes, I agree with you, I’m saying, as soon as the shoe polis leave their natural habitats, the pi ... sez begins. And wherever there are areas of compact residence in cities, it’s not like a gun, it’s better than a tank.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 15 May 2018 18: 17
      +1
      "see how the" Africans "turned the beautiful city into the trash" ////

      That's for sure. I lived in the early 90s in Beria near the famous round
      Ponti Skyscraper - Pride of Johannesburg (Jobburg). And been in it - there lived a friend.
      Recently I saw U-tube - what Ponti has turned into now: belay shock, piles of garbage,
      broken glass. I could not believe it.

      Here Ponte is now crushed and crap. I lived behind him in one of the skyscrapers a little to the right. Further to the right is Hillbrow. Before Ponti - a quiet Jewish district of Yuval, went there to the pool. Left behind Ponti City, the city’s business center.

  16. Crimea26
    Crimea26 14 May 2018 19: 02
    +2
    Such a Pom-Pom on the balcony is good to keep ... For night motorcyclists ....
  17. Catfish
    Catfish 14 May 2018 23: 11
    +3
    Quote: Curious
    Good evening, Konstantin. You know, as a child, I remember how in the newspapers, on the radio and on television they talked about the apartheid regime. I really felt sorry for the poor blacks and Mandela. Then, as a student, I got to know the Negroes better and this acquaintance sowed some doubts in my soul. And then I visited South Africa, looked at apartheid close by and I really liked it. But it was not possible to visit after the victory of Mandela, but colleagues say that it has become very worse and continues to deteriorate, which I, knowing the shoe pollers not by hearsay, believe. They will ruin the country. So Rhodes must also be treated with caution, it’s right there.


    Good evening, Victor.
    That's all for the same reason: my friend from the army service left to work in the mines all in the same De Beers. When he came on vacation, I did not recognize him - such racists still need to be searched. But before that there was a normal Soviet peasant, such as all people are brothers. What he said about Mandela, I will not repeat here, they will be banned right away. Because he didn’t have any other words in addition to the whole company that came to power. And I believe him, they served in one regiment for almost three years. hi
  18. serge siberian
    serge siberian 28 July 2018 18: 19
    0
    The article and the author are plus. Just without “cleverness” and special understanding of the technical terms of the story a particle of history. hi good