When Timur was 68 years old (in the autumn of 1404), he began to prepare the invasion of China. Another fortification was built, on the 10 days east of the fortress, erected at one time by Mohammed Sultan on the border of the present Syrdarya region and Semirechye. A new outpost was located somewhere near the Issyk-Kul lake. In January, 1405, Tamerlane and his army arrived in the city of Otrar.
Timur has long been making plans for the conquest of China. This was his great dream. Asian countries have long maintained contacts with China, had political and economic ties. There were sea routes along the Silk Road by land. The Mongol Mogul invasion of China expanded knowledge of China. The Yuan Dynasty, founded by the grandson of Genghis Khan, the Mongol khan Kubilai, ruled China until the 1368 year. The Ming Dynasty, the heiress of the Yuan, considered herself the heir of the Mongolian dynasty. Accordingly, all lands previously belonging to the Mongol Empire should have recognized the sovereignty of the Chinese emperors.
Timur formally considered himself a vassal of the Ming dynasty. Chinese sources report on the embassies of Timur and his gifts. He had long cherished the dream of finally ceasing to be a vassal. For this it was necessary to defeat the overlord - the Chinese emperor. In addition, there was an economic goal - the seizure of the remaining part of the Great Silk Road, to maximize profits and ensure the prosperity of the native Maverannakhr and its capital Samarkand. But as usual, Timur gave a religious color to the war with China, asserting that he had already reached the age in which they thought about forgiveness for the mistakes made and that “holy war” with “infidels” was the best way to save the soul. Tamerlane said: "I will take with myself those people who have become the instrument of my sins, so that they become the instrument of my repentance."
Once Timur said: “To wage war with China, one must have enormous power.” Therefore, the preparation for the war was comprehensive. A large army was formed, in which there were 100-200 ths. Only horsemen. Prepared infantry and vehicle fleet. By his order, inventories were drawn up of the roads, climate, and resources of the areas along which the army was to pass. Timur sent the peasants in advance, under the protection of the soldiers, so that they would grow wheat along the edges of the roads where the troops were to pass. In some cities, including Otrar, food stocks have been created. Hundreds of wagons were loaded with tents, other supplies and equipment necessary to overcome the vast desert and snow-covered spaces. Thousands of camels had to follow the troops, providing soldiers with milk and meat. Never before has Timur's army been so well prepared for the march.
Timur's army made at the end of December 1404, that is, in the middle of winter, as he liked to do. The troops crossed the Syr Darya on the ice. The great emir planned to go through Central Asia in three months and deliver a sudden blow to China. True, rumors about the preparation of Timur’s army reached China and measures were taken there to repel the attack. But the Chinese hardly expected that the fighting would begin at an unfavorable time of year.
Timur made a stop in Otrar and no longer left the fortress. The great commander fell ill. Timur has long been in poor condition. Serious attacks had already happened to him and many were expecting Hromz’s death. But he was cheating death. In recent years, he has not shown his extraordinary physical strength. In Damascus, his servants carried him out of the tent and put him in the saddle. However, during the last festivities dedicated to the marriage of grandchildren, Timur was awake, eating and drinking more than others. The ambassadors noted with surprise that at night he continued the feast, which began during the day, when they themselves left the feast to have a little rest. The next day, the emir, as if nothing had happened, continued to lead the feast. However, lack of sleep, excessive consumption of meat and wine by this usually temperate man, undermined his health. Although the mind remained strong until his death.
Timur suffered greatly, but he endured the disease steadfastly. A messenger arrived from Tokhtamysh with a plea for forgiveness and help. Timur gave the first and promised the second. He asked his scouts about the road. Snow in the mountains fell more abundant than expected: the height of two copies. The road had to be cleared. The great emir was preparing for a feast, which was timed to the farewell to the princes of his house. They accompanied him to Otrar and were about to return to Samarkand. Timur could not stand it and fell down. He was delirious and, in moments of enlightenment, he listened to readings about relatives and troops. Timur 18 of February 1405 died (on the gravestone of Timur - 15).
According to Arabshah, before his death, he addressed his grandchildren with a speech: “My children, I leave you still very young ... Do not forget those rules that I told you to calm the nations. Be interested in the state of each. Support the weak, tame greed and pride of the nobles. Let the sense of justice and virtue constantly guide your actions ... Always remember the last words of a dying father. ” The body was embalmed, placed in a black wood coffin upholstered in silver brocade, and brought to Samarkand. Tamerlane was buried in the mausoleum of Gur Emir, at that time still unfinished.
The heirs of Timur did not heed the words of justice and virtue. Timur appointed Pir-Mohammed, the son of his son Jahangir, as his heir, and commanded the commanders to take an oath of allegiance to him. However, against his will, the throne was captured by another of his grandsons, Khalil-Sultan. Pir-Mohammed at this moment was too far in the south, in his possessions, and Khalil-Sultan, who had been wintering in Tashkent, was the first to visit Samarkand. In 1406, Pir-Mohammed gathered an army and moved north to fight the invader, but Khalil-Sultan defeated him. A year later, the “faithful” emirs conspired and killed Pir-Mohammed. Khalil-Sultan himself controlled only Maverannakhr, and even then he had to constantly fight rebellious feudal lords. In 1409, rebel warlords deprived him of the throne. The youngest son of Timur Shahrukh ascended to the throne.
Timur's mausoleum in Samarkand
Man of iron
The great commander corresponded to his name. Timur means "iron." The wounded body of the great Emir had amazing strength and endurance. He tolerated cold, heat, fatigue, thirst, hunger, long feasts and sleepless nights. Timur possessed unprecedented will power. Timur was rarely ill. And when he was sick, he did not lose his presence of mind. If he could not walk, he ordered himself to be carried on a stretcher, just not to stop. When the old and maimed he could not independently mount his horse, squires planted him in the saddle.
Timur was brave and was not afraid of death. In this case, without the benefit of the case did not set up. If you took a sword, then by necessity. In 1375 or 1376, in Tien Shan, he was ambushed from which he “wielded with a spear, club, saber and lasso”. In 1395, during the battle on the River Terek, he fought like a simple warrior, "with a saber, as the arrows ran out and the spear broke."
This iron man did not allow the weaknesses of themselves and anyone else. He knew human nature well and demanded a lot, but he knew the capabilities of his subordinates. The soldiers understood him, obeyed and followed him in enterprises that seemed impossible. Timur has always acted with the confidence of a genuine chess player. He was rarely contradicted. When someone complained, he would become enraged, all the more terrible, because it rarely happened to him. Behind him had the reputation of a sober, but if necessary, organizing feasts, Timur could drink a lot, while maintaining clarity of mind and controlling himself. In difficult moments he loved to play chess. The infinite love of this game, which he had been fascinated with since childhood, and of which he was considered a master, distracted him from worries, relieved nervous tension.
Timur was sure that he was right. He believed that he was an instrument of fate, in his mission. In this opinion he was convinced by everything: victory; hazards that have been avoided; that he managed to impose his will on everyone. In the shamanist, Turkic-Mongolian and Chinese traditions, the sovereign maintained with God the special relations that exist between the main shaman and Heaven. The sovereign is regarded as the Son of Heaven, as a being "who appeared from Heaven, similar to Heaven and manifested by Heaven." At the same time, Timur had the so-called. parapsychic properties. With a sharp look, almost unbearable, he pierced interlocutors, anticipating their reaction and responses. He penetrated into the thoughts of others, the secret intentions of the enemies and, with astonishing inerrancy, foresaw the development of events. His intuition sometimes literally performed miracles. On it found insights. Often, taking this or that decision was made by Timur not his mind, which he was not denied, but something else, “divine pressure”. The great Emir had night visions that forced him to take one decision or another. His enemies said that he was ruled by Satan, and his friends were an angel, referring to those spirits who were previously worshiped by the Turks and the Mughals.
Timur himself was sure that he was acting on behalf of God and in accordance with his will. He often showed his piety. He uttered hot prayers in moments of great joy and under the influence of intense experiences. Having won the victory over Tokhtamysh, Timur fell to the ground to thank God for the victory given. Chromets respectful of the sheikhs, priests and descendants of the prophet, often talked with them. Since childhood, maintained relations with dervishes. Timur was well aware of the Muslim laws, although he interpreted them freely. So, he alternated the ban on drinking wine with the organization of booze, which corresponded to the shamanic rite.
On the other hand, the traditions of shamanism (paganism) were still strong. The ancient religion, despite the brutal repression, still held in the people. Ibn Arabshah saw in Timur a “bad Muslim” who “preferred Chinggiskhan’s law to the law of Islam”. In the empire of Timur, especially Khorasan and Mogulistan, there were still many genera that adhered to old traditions. No wonder that Timur’s empire and pagan roots can be noted in its behavior. Tellingly, Timur and his descendants tried to associate themselves with the genus of Genghis Khan. Timur’s propaganda proved that he acted according to tradition and, to some extent, followed the will of Genghis Khan himself.
In the tomb of Timur Gur Emir in Samarkand on a large dark green jade gravestone in Arabic script in Arabic and Persian languages was written: “This is the tomb of the great Sultan, the gracious hakan of Emir Timur Gurgan; the son of Emir Taragay, the son of Emir Bergul, the son of Emir Aylangir, the son of Emir Anjil, the son of Kara Charnuyan, the son of Emir Sigunchin, the son of Emir Irdanchi-Barlas, the son of Emir Kachulaya, the son of Tumnay Khan. This is the 9 generation. Genghis Khan comes from the same kind from which the grandfathers of the venerable Sultan, buried in this sacred and beautiful tomb, are descended: Hakan-Chingiz-son. Emir Maysukai-Bahadur, son of Emir Barnan-Bahadur, son of Kabul-Khan, son of the aforementioned Tumnay-Khan, son of Emir Baysungara, son of Qaidu-Khan, son of Emir Tutumtin, son of Emir-Buk, son of Emir-Buzandzhar. Who wants to know further, let it be known to him: the mother of the latter was called Alankuva, who was distinguished by honesty and her impeccable morality. She once became pregnant by a wolf, who came to her in the opening of the room and, taking the form of a man, announced that he was a descendant of the ruler of the faithful Aliya, son of Abu Talib. This testimony given by her is taken as true. Well-off descendants of her will own the world forever. "
Legend of Tamerlane's grave
Until now, a lot of people sincerely believe that the beginning of World War II is related to the fact that in 1941 in Samarkand the eternal peace of “Sultan of Peace of Timur Gurgan” was disturbed, as the inscription on the mausoleum says. Indeed, the remains of the great conqueror were removed from under the huge tombstone of the jade plate (which the famous Ulugbek once brought from Mogulistan to his grandfather) in order to reconstruct the appearance of an ancient eastern warrior.
According to the legend, the source and time of occurrence of which is not possible to establish, there is a prediction that if Timur’s dust will be disturbed, a great and terrible war will begin, which she did not know equal история. The inscription on the jade tombstone reads: "Anyone who disrupts my peace in this life or in the next will suffer and will perish." In principle, such an inscription is not surprising. From ancient times, such curses frightened tomb raiders, and very few people paid attention to such things (almost all tombs and burial mounds were looted in ancient times).
In the forties of the 20th century, when searching for the burial of Timur, there were long debates about where exactly his dust should be searched for. Some scholars insisted that the great conqueror, along with his treasures, rest in his native village of Kesh, others claimed that Gur-Emir was in Samarkand in the mausoleum. After lengthy disputes, it was decided to start a search in the capital of the empire Timur. The excavations began on 16 June 1941, by a group of Soviet scientists, accompanied by experts from the Leningrad Hermitage under the leadership of anthropologist M. M. Gerasimov. One of the main tasks of the expedition was the documentation of the authenticity of the burial of Timur, because despite the initiatory inscription, which itself did not prove anything, many researchers continued to doubt whether Chromets rested in Gur-Emir. The guardian of the memorial, eighty-year-old Masud Alaev, having been horrified, showed the group to the inscription inscribed on the tomb of Tamerlane, and explained that according to legend, invisible forces protect it from all sorts of touches. Those who disobey this warning and disturb the peace of the dead, will release the Spirit of war and unleash terrible disasters on the world. Just in case, for reinsurance, they reported this to Moscow. In response, an order came: arrest Alaev for spreading false and panic rumors, the tomb must be opened immediately.
After they lifted the slab closing the grave, and the weight of these jade plates reached several tons, and in order to move them, special winches were made and the first coffin was unpacked, wonderful aromas soared in the air. This can be explained by the use of aromatic oils and incense in the burial. However, immediately after this event, there was talk of “Spirit of Timur” among local residents. The first remains found belonged to Tamerlan’s son and grandson. The remains of Shahrukh, the son of Timur, were poorly preserved, the bones of the grandson of Ulugbek were in much better condition. The body of the latter was decapitated, which proved: it was Ulugbek, who was beheaded for betraying his faith for the sake of science, namely, for his passion for astronomy. So, 21 June 1941 of the year, less than a day before Hitler's Germany attacked the Soviet Union, the burial of the great Asian warrior was revealed.
At the opening of the grave of Timur himself under a green jade plate was found a wooden coffin no different from the modern ones. And here begins a series of no less mysterious phenomena, which themselves, of course, could hardly be called mysterious, if not to associate them with the name of the commander and his posthumous "curse." With the help of special measuring devices in the tomb of Tamerlane an extremely strong magnetic field was recorded. Locals said that they had repeatedly observed the strange glow of the tomb in the dark. At the opening of the coffin the winch broke, the researchers had to move it with their hands; searchlights were constantly going out. The pleasant aromas that filled the tomb after opening the graves of the son and grandson of Timur, replaced the fetid caustic stench from which the respirators did not save and hurt the eyes. All these small and meaningless in any other circumstances, the details most negatively affected the state of the members of the working group, whose nerves were already extremely tense. It is not surprising that as soon as all this began to occur, rumors about Tamerlane’s curse immediately spread. At night, unfamiliar old people approached the working group, who begged to close Tamerlane’s coffin and not touch his ashes, otherwise something terrible would happen: “There will be a massacre so bloody and terrible that the world has never seen forever.”
After opening the coffin, scientists discovered a very poorly preserved embalmed body. The remains, which lay in the coffin, once belonged to a man of considerable growth for the inhabitants of Central Asia (approximately 170 cm, and possibly higher), with a large head, high forehead and broad shoulders. One of the dorsal vertebrae was severely deformed, as was the case with all of the Timurid family. Scientifically confirmed Gerasimov's lameness and dry-wittedness complemented the portrait. There was no doubt - before the scientists lay the body of the greatest commander Timur. Joy archaeologists had no end. And in the morning they announced on the radio that the Great Patriotic War had begun ...
The remains of Tamerlane and his descendants - Shah Rukh, Ulugbek, Mohammed, Miranshah, as well as Timur’s spiritual mentor of the Muslim sheikh from Medina Mir Seyid Bereke and Shah Hoxha - were returned to their tombs on December 19 of the year 20.
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