Military Review

Iron Chromets and his empire

118
680 years ago, 8 April 1336, born Tamerlane. One of the most powerful world rulers, famous conquerors, brilliant generals and clever politicians. Tamerlan-Timur created one of the greatest empires in stories of humanity. His empire stretched from the Volga River and the Caucasus Mountains in the west to India in the south-west. The center of the empire was in Central Asia, in Samarkand. His name is shrouded in legends, mystical events and still inspires interest.


“Iron Lame” (right leg was struck around the kneecap) was an interesting personality, in which cruelty was combined with great intelligence, love of art, literature and history. Timur was a man very brave and restrained. It was a real warrior - strong and physically developed (a real athlete). A sober mind, the ability to make the right decisions in difficult situations, the foresight and talent of the organizer allowed him to become one of the greatest rulers of the Middle Ages.

The full name of Timur was Timur ibn Taragay Barlas - Timur is the son of Taragay from Barlasov. In the Mongolian tradition, Temir means "iron." In the medieval Russian chronicles it was called as Temir Aksak (Temir - “iron”, Aksak - “chromets”), that is, Iron Chromets. In various Persian sources, the iris nickname Timur-e Liang is often found - “Timur Lame”. It turned into Western languages ​​like Tamerlane.

Tamerlan was born on April 8 (according to other data - April 9 or March 11) 1336 of the year in the city of Kesh (later named Shakhrisabz - “The Green City”). The whole area was called Maverannahr (in translation - “what is beyond the river”) and was located between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers. It had been part of the Mongol (Mughal) empire for a century. The word "Mongols", in the original version of "Mogul" comes from the Korneslova "could, we can" - "a husband, a powerful, powerful, powerful." From this root comes the word "Mughal" - "the great, powerful." A representative of the Turkic Mongols, the Mughal was also the family of Timur.

It is worth noting that the Mongol Mongols of that time were not Mongoloids, like the modern inhabitants of Mongolia. Tamerlan himself belonged to the so-called South Siberian (Turanian) race, that is, a mixture of Caucasians and Mongoloids. The mixing process then took place in the south of Siberia, in Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Mongolia. The Europoids (Aryans-Indo-Europeans), who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, and gave impetus to the development of India, China and other regions, mixed with the Mongoloids. They will completely dissolve in the Mongoloid and Turkic ethno-massifs (the Mongoloid genes are dominant), transferring to them a part of their traits (including militancy). However, in the XIV century, the process has not yet been completed. Therefore, Timur had light (red) hair, a thick red beard, and anthropologically related to the South Siberian race.

Timur’s father, a small feudal lord, Taragai (Turgai), was descended from the Barlas tribe, who at one time was among the first united by Temuchin-Genghis Khan. However, he did not belong to the direct descendants of Temuchin, so that later Tamerlan could not claim the khan's throne. The founder of the Barlas family was considered to be the great feudal lord Karachar, who at one time was an assistant to the son of Genghis Khan Chagatai. According to other sources, Tamerlan's forefather was Yardamcha-Barlas - allegedly the nephew of Habul-Khan, great-grandfather of Genghis Khan.

Little is known about the childhood of the future great conqueror. Timur's childhood and youth passed in the Kesh mountains. In his youth, he loved hunting and horse racing, javelin throwing and archery, and he had a penchant for war games. There is a legend about how once a ten-year-old Timur drove the sheep home, and with them managed to drive the hare, not allowing him to fight off the herd. At night, Taragay, frightened by his too fast-moving son, cut the tendons on his right leg. Allegedly then, Timur and became lame. However, this is only a legend. In fact, Timur was wounded in one of the clashes during his stormy youth. In the same fight, he lost two fingers on his hand, and all his life Tamerlane suffered from severe pain in a crippled leg. Perhaps this could be associated with flashes of rage. Thus, it is precisely known that the boy and the lad were distinguished by great dexterity and physical strength, from the 12 years he took part in military clashes.

The beginning of political activity

The Mongolian empire was no longer a single state, it broke up into ulus-fiefdoms, there were constant internecine wars that were not spared by Maverannahr, which was part of the Chagatai ulus. In 1224, Genghis Khan divided his state into four ulus, according to the number of sons. The second son Chagatay went to Central Asia and nearby territories. Ulus Chagatay covered first of all the former power of the Karakitas and the land of the Naimans, Maverannahr with the south of Khorezm, most of the Seven Rivers and East Turkestan. Here, since 1346, the power actually belonged not to the Mongol khans, but to the Turkic emirs. The first head of the Turkic emirs, that is, the ruler between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, was Kazgan (1346 – 1358). After his death, serious unrest began in Maverannahr. Mongolian (Mogul) Khan Toglug-Timur, who in 1360 seized the region, invaded the region. Shortly after the invasion, his son Ilyas-Khoji was appointed governor of Mesopotamia. Part of the Central Asian grandee took refuge in Afghanistan, the other - voluntarily submitted to Toglugu.

Among the latter was the leader of one of the detachments - Timur. He began his activity as an ataman of a small detachment (a gang), with whom he supported one or the other side in the strife, robbed, attacked small villages. The squad gradually grew to 300 riders, with whom he entered the service of the ruler of Kesh, the head of the Barlas tribe, Haji. Personal courage, generosity, ability to understand people and choose their assistants and pronounced leadership qualities brought Timur wide popularity, especially warriors. Later, he received support from Muslim merchants who began to see the former gangster of the protector from other gangs and the true Muslim (Timur was religious).

Timur was approved by the commander of the Kashkadarya tumen, the ruler of the Kesh region and one of the assistants of the Mogul prince. However, he soon fell out with the prince, fled after the Amu Darya to the Badakhshan mountains and joined with his own forces the ruler of Balkh and Samarkand, Emir Hussein, the grandson of Kazgan. He strengthened his union by marrying the daughter of the Emir. Timur and his warriors began to raid the land of Hoxha. In one of the fights, Timur was crippled, becoming “the Iron Chromez (Aksak-Timur or Timur-Leng). The fight against Ilyas-Khoji ended in 1364, with the defeat of the latter’s forces. The uprising of the inhabitants of Maverannahr helped, which was dissatisfied with the brutal uprooting of Islam by pagan warriors. The Mughals were forced to retreat.

In 1365, the army of Ilyas-Khoji defeated the forces of Timur and Hussein. However, the people again revolted and expelled the Moguls. Headed the Serbedar uprising (Persian "hanged", "desperate"), the dervish supporters who preached equality. In Samarkand, a national government was established, the property of the rich strata of the population was confiscated. Then the rich turned to Hussein and Timur for help. In the spring of 1366, Timur and Hussein put down an uprising, executing Serbedar leaders.

"Great Emir"

Then there was a rift in the relationship between the two leaders. Hussein nursed plans to occupy the post of high emir of the Chagatai ulus, like his grandfather Kazagan, who seized this post by force during the times of Kazan Khan. Timur was on his way to sole authority. In turn, the local clergy acted on Timur’s side.

In 1366, Tamerlane rebelled against Hussein, in 1368, he reconciled with him and received Kesh again. But in 1369, the struggle continued, and thanks to successful military actions Timur strengthened in Samarkand. In March 1370, Hussein was captured in Balkh and killed in the presence of Timur, albeit without his direct orders. Hussein ordered one of the commanders to be killed (because of blood feud).

10 On April, Timur took the oath from all the commanders of Maverannahr. Tamerlane said that he was going to revive the power of the Mongolian empire, declared himself a descendant of the mythical ancestor of the Mongols Alan-Coa, although, being a non-Genesis, he was content with the title only of the “great emir”. During his time there was a “zits-khan” - a real Chingisid Suyurgatmysh (1370 – 1388), and then the son of the latter Mahmoud (1388 – 1402). Both "Khan" did not play any political role.

The capital of Samarkand became the capital of the new ruler, for political reasons Timur moved the center of his state, although initially he was inclined to the Shahrisabz variant. According to legend, choosing a city that was to become a new capital, the great emir ordered the slaughter of three sheep: one in Samarkand, the other in Bukhara, and the third in Tashkent. Three days later, the meat in Tashkent and Bukhara was rotten. Samarkand has become "the home of the saints, the birthplace of the purest Sufis and a gathering of scientists." The city has really turned into the largest cultural center of a huge region, “Shining Star of the East”, “Pearl of Great Price”. Here, as well as in Shahrisabz, the best architects, builders, scientists, writers from all countries and regions conquered by the emir were brought. An inscription was written on the portal of the beautiful Ak-Saray palace in Shakhrisabz: “If you doubt my power, see what I built!” Ak-Saray built 24 of the year, almost until the death of the conqueror. The arch of the entrance portal Ak-Saray was the largest in Central Asia.

Iron Chromets and his empire


Ak-Saray

In fact, architecture was the passion of a great statesman and commander. Among the outstanding works of art that were supposed to emphasize the power of the empire, the Bibi Khanum Mosque (aka Bibi-Khanym; built in honor of Tamerlane’s wife) has been preserved and amazed. The mosque was erected by order of Tamerlane after his victorious campaign in India. It was the largest mosque in Central Asia, in the courtyard of the mosque 10 thousands of people could pray at the same time. Also noteworthy is the Gur-Emir mausoleum - the family tomb of Timur and the heirs of the empire; the architectural ensemble of Shakhi Zinda - the ensemble of the mausoleums of the Samarkand nobility (all this in Samarkand); Dorus-Siadat mausoleum in Shakhrisabz - a memorial complex first for Prince Jahongir (Timur loved him and prepared him as heir to the throne), later he began to act as a family crypt for a part of the Timurid dynasty.


Bibi-Khanym Mosque

Mausoleum Gur-Emir

The great commander did not receive a school education, but he had a good memory, he knew several languages. A contemporary and captive of Tamerlane Ibn Arabshah, who knew Tamerlane personally from 1401, reports: "As for the Persian, Turkic and Mongolian, he knew them better than anyone else." Timur liked to talk with scientists, in particular, to listen to reading historical writings, at the court there was even a position of “reader of books”; tales of valiant heroes. The great emir rendered honor to Muslim theologians and hermits-dervishes, did not interfere in the management of the property of the clergy, mercilessly fought with numerous heresies - he attributed to them philosophy and logic, which he forbade to do. Christians of the captured cities were to rejoice if they remained alive.

A special cult of Ahmed Yasawi, a Sufi teacher, was introduced into Timur’s reign in his subordinate territories (primarily Maverannakhr). The commander claimed that he introduced special worship to this outstanding Sufi, who lived in the 12th century, after seeing at his grave in Tashkent, in which Teacher appeared to Timur. Yasavi allegedly appeared to him and ordered him to memorize a poem from his collection, adding: “In a difficult moment, remember this poem:

You, who are voluntarily free to turn a dark night into a day.
You, who can turn the whole earth into a fragrant flower garden.
Help me in the difficult task ahead of me and make it easy.
You who make everything easy. ”

Many years later, when, during a fierce battle with the army of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid, Tamerlane's cavalry rushed into the attack, he repeated these lines seventy times, and the decisive battle was won.

Timur was concerned about the observance of religion by his subjects. In particular, this led to the emergence of a decree on the closure of places of entertainment in large trading cities, although they brought large incomes to the treasury. True, the great emir himself did not deny himself pleasures, and only before his death he ordered the destruction of the accessories of feasts. For his campaigns, Timur found religious reasons. So, it was necessary to urgently teach the heretics in the Shiite Khorasan, to revenge the Syrians for the insults inflicted on the family of the prophet, then to punish the population of the Caucasus for drinking wine. Vineyards and fruit trees were destroyed in the occupied lands. Interestingly, afterwards (after the death of the great warrior), the mullahs refused to recognize him as a devout Muslim, as he "honored the laws of Genghis Khan above religious".

Tamerlane devoted all 1370s to the struggle against the khans of Dzhent and Khorezm, who did not recognize the power of Suyurgatmish Khan and the great Emir Timur. It was restless on the southern and northern frontiers of the border, where anxiety brought Mogolistan and the White Horde. Mogulistan (Mogul Ulus) is a state that formed in the middle of the XIV century on the territory of South-Eastern Kazakhstan (south of Lake Balkhash) and Kyrgyzstan (coast of the Issyk-Kul lake) as a result of the collapse of the Chagatai ulus. After the capture of Sygnak by Urus Khan and the transfer of the capital of the White Horde to him, the lands subject to Timur were in even greater danger.

Soon, the authority of Emir Timur was recognized by Balkh and Tashkent, however, the Khorezm rulers continued to resist the Chagatai ulus, relying on the support of the rulers of the Golden Horde. In 1371, the governor of Khorezm attempted to capture southern Khorezm, which was part of the Chagatai ulus. Timur made five trips to Khorezm. The capital of Khorezm, the rich and glorious Urgench, fell in 1379. Timur waged a stubborn struggle with the lords of Mogolistan. From 1371 to 1390, the emir Timur made seven trips to Mogolistan. In 1390, the Mogulistan ruler Kamar ad-din was finally defeated, and Mogolistan ceased to threaten the power of Timur.

Further gains

Having established itself in Maverannakhr, Zhelezny Khromets embarked on large-scale conquests in other parts of Asia. Timur's conquest of Persia in 1381 began with the capture of Herat. The unstable political and economic situation in Persia at the time contributed to the invader. The revival of the country, which began during the Ilkhanov rule, again slowed down with the death of the last representative of the Abu Said (1335) clan. In the absence of an heir, the rival dynasties took turns taking over the throne. The situation was aggravated by a clash between the dynasties of the Mongol Jalayrids, who ruled in Baghdad and Tabriz; the Persian-Arabic tribe of Muzafarids, who were in power in Fars and Isfahan; Harid Kurtami in Herat. In addition, local religious and tribal alliances, such as the Serbedars (rebelled against the Mongolian yoke) in Khorasan and the Afghans in Kerman, and small princes in the border areas participated in the civil war. All these warring dynasties and principalities could not jointly and effectively oppose the army of Timur.

Khorasan and all of East Persia fell under its onslaught in 1381 – 1385. In the western part of Persia and the adjacent areas of the conqueror made three large campaign - a three-year (from 1386 year), five-year (from 1392 year) and seven-year (from 1399 year). Fars, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Armenia were conquered in 1386 – 1387 and 1393 – 1394; Mesopotamia and Georgia came under the rule of Tamerlane in 1394, although Tiflis (Tbilisi) resigned as far back as 1386. Sometimes the vassal oaths were brought by local feudal lords, often at the head of the conquered areas became close commanders or relatives of the conqueror. Thus, in 80, Timur’s son Miranshah was appointed the ruler of Khorasan (later the Transcaucasus was transferred to him, and then the west of his father’s power), Fars was ruled for a long time by another son, Omar, finally, in 1397, Timur appointed his youngest son - Shahrukh.

It is not known what pushed Timur to conquest. Many researchers are inclined to the psychological factor. They say that the emir was driven by irrepressible ambition, as well as mental problems, including those caused by a leg wound. Timur suffered from severe pain and they caused outbursts of rage. Timur himself said: "The whole space of the inhabited part of the world is not worth having two kings." In fact, this is a call for globalization, which is also relevant in the modern world. Also acted Alexander of Macedon and the rulers of the Roman Empire, Genghis Khan.

It is worth noting such an objective factor as the need to feed and maintain a large army (its maximum number reached 200 thousand soldiers). In peacetime, it was impossible to maintain a large army, tens of thousands of professional warriors. The war fed itself. The troops ravaged all the new areas and were pleased with their ruler. A successful war allowed to channel the energy of the nobility and the warriors, to keep them in obedience. As Lev Gumilev wrote: “Having started a war, Timur had to continue it - the war fed the army. Having stopped, Timur would have remained without an army, and then without a head. ” The war allowed Timur to receive great wealth, take out the best craftsmen from various countries and equip the heart of his empire. The emir brought not only material booty into the country, but also brought prominent scientists, craftsmen, artists, architects with him. Timur cared primarily for the prosperity of his native Maverannahr and for raising the splendor of his capital, Samarkand.

Tamerlane, unlike many other conquerors, did not always seek to create a strong administrative system on the conquered lands. Timur's empire rested exclusively on military power. He chose civilian officials apparently much worse than commanders. At least, numerous cases of punishment for the extortion of the highest dignitaries in Samarkand, Herat, Shiraz, and Tabriz can testify to this. As well as the uprising of the local population, caused by the arbitrariness of the administration. In general, the inhabitants of the new conquered areas of Tamerlane were extremely interested in it. His armies smashed, crushed, robbed, killed, leaving a bloody trail of tens of thousands of dead people. He sold into slavery the population of entire cities. And then he returned to Samarkand, where he brought the treasures of the whole world, the best masters and played chess.


Empire Timur

To be continued ...
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 8 2016 05: 50
    +1
    For me it’s the best commander in world history.
    1. Xpyct89
      Xpyct89 April 8 2016 08: 16
      +18
      But what about Suvorov, who did not suffer a single defeat?
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 8 2016 08: 27
        -2
        Suvorov was never a sovereign commander in chief and held not many companies
        1. baudolino
          baudolino April 8 2016 08: 42
          +8
          The commander and ruler of the state are different functions.
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 8 2016 08: 55
            0
            When you send troops to the attack, it does not matter.
            1. Chiropractor
              Chiropractor April 8 2016 12: 14
              +1
              Well, and what is his genius commander?
              then he beat, then him ...
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon April 8 2016 12: 30
                -1
                Who beat him?
                1. Days
                  Days April 22 2016 01: 38
                  0
                  Battle of Djangi Loy (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mud_Battle)
          2. user
            user April 8 2016 10: 35
            +3
            Tamerlane, unlike many other conquerors, did not always strive to create a strong administrative system on conquered lands. The empire of Timur rested solely on military power.


            He is only a commander, but Great.
    2. Mangel olys
      Mangel olys April 8 2016 09: 58
      +23
      The power of Timur rested absolutely on the strength of arms, violence and terror, for which there is plenty of evidence in the sources. To do this, he always had to keep, as the sources say, a “selective” army. But such an army cannot be inactive: inside the state, despite the terror, it must adhere to a certain framework. Unquestioningly subordinate population cannot be destroyed and everything should be taken away from him, i.e. resources for maintaining a huge army within the state are limited. The elite lived in a big way. It is enough to read the descriptions of Rui Gonzalez about the life of the court of Timur. To support the soldiers, funds were needed, therefore the state system created by Timur could not help but conquer, otherwise this parasitic system could not function. Timur’s army was to not only fight, but also to capture and rob, because she lived this, she received such a setup. Therefore, the state of Timur was a chimera, and all the chimeras are temporary, at first glance it seems that they have tremendous strength, but are absolutely unpromising, and history has clearly proved this to us.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 8 2016 10: 30
        +1
        In general, the state of Timur was no different from other Muslim nomadic formations, the Ghaznavids, Seljukids, Khorezmshahs, and even after the Timur dynasties were the same, only the Ottomans were able to create the State
        1. ver_
          ver_ April 8 2016 15: 34
          -2
          ... in those days, Islam did not exist .. By the way, about the birds: Timur was red ..
          1. Talgat
            Talgat April 8 2016 19: 50
            +6
            Quote: ver_
            in those days, Islam did not exist.


            Not this way. already existed


            Quote: Cartalon
            the state of Timur was no different from other Muslim nomadic entities



            Not so either. The steppe nomads were all wars. therefore it was not necessary to feed the army of "parasites" - the people were the army. The so-called "steppe military democracy"

            Timur, on the other hand, led the civilization of sedentary southern peoples - where peasants cultivated the land, and hundreds of them fed one "gulyam" - war - like in Europe. That is, the army consisted of either feudal lords or mercenaries

            This, and as many probably read, lies in the secret of the victories of small steppe inhabitants over numerous settled peoples at that time - all the people of the steppe had wars

            Quote: Mangel Olys
            The power of Timur rested absolutely on the strength of arms, violence and terror, for which there is plenty of evidence in the sources. To do this, he always had to keep, as the sources say, a “selective” army. But such an army cannot be inactive: inside the state

            Quote: Mangel Olys
            the state system created by Timur could not but engage in conquest, otherwise this parasitic system could not function. Timur’s army was not only to fight, but also to capture and rob, because she lived this


            I completely agree with the respected Mangel Alys
            1. Pomeranian
              Pomeranian April 8 2016 20: 50
              0
              Quote: Talgat
              Not this way. already existed

              Ver_ has some special outlook on things. We mortals cannot understand him ...
            2. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 8 2016 21: 14
              0
              If Timur’s ghouls were fed from the ground, like the Timar Osmanovs and local cavalry in Russia, then he simply couldn’t constantly fight, his ghouls are nomads employed in the regular army, he couldn’t feed them without war, about which you write, in the next generation, the combat effectiveness of the Timurid army is falling, a completely typical case for the Middle East
          2. Razvedka_Boem
            Razvedka_Boem April 9 2016 11: 53
            0
            Before leaving a comment, read the article.
          3. moskowit
            moskowit April 9 2016 15: 04
            0
            Hello to you. For half a century, Islam has been ...
            1. Atash
              Atash April 23 2016 00: 18
              0
              Khorezmshah, whom Genghis Khan had defeated, was already a Muslim ruler and called himself the Shadow of Allah on earth.
          4. Alex
            Alex April 10 2016 14: 35
            +3
            Quote: ver_
            ... in those days, Islam did not exist ..

            There was, and in full growth. Just the period of its formation and gaining a place in the world.
        2. DMB_95
          DMB_95 April 8 2016 18: 49
          0
          And, judging by the map, his empire was not so big. Perhaps I think so because I was born, raised and live in the largest state of the planet.
        3. DMB_95
          DMB_95 April 9 2016 17: 44
          0
          That's just the Ottomans and lost all the battles on land to Suvorov, and at sea - to Ushakov. It is only in the 18th century. Then they were beaten by Nakhimov, Skobelev, Yudenich .... All and not remember.
      2. Black
        Black April 8 2016 12: 21
        +2
        Quote: Mangel Olys
        and chimeras are all temporary

        .... one night with such a "chimera", you remember then all your life ...
        What is a chimera in this world ?? ....
      3. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy April 8 2016 22: 08
        0
        That's right, why only him?
        The potential energy of an avalanche transforms into kinetic energy and sweeps away everything in its path. But an avalanche reaches the foothills and ... the end.
        Under favorable external and internal circumstances, a strong army is created, it sweeps away the weaker armies of its neighbors and, as a result, strengthens. She becomes able to solve more complex problems. The impression of the invincibility of the army and the everlasting empires. But everyone reached the bottom in their own way, and in due time.
        And Tamerlane, and Genghis Khan, and Alexander, and Napoleon, and Hitler.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. xetai9977
      xetai9977 April 8 2016 11: 14
      0
      A very strong scene from the film "Nasimi". Dialogue between Timur and the poet Nasimi
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_r58OyV9Hg
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. RUSS
      RUSS April 8 2016 14: 43
      -3
      Quote: Cartalon
      For me it’s the best commander in world history.

      On the one hand, we should be grateful to Tamerlan for the defeat of the Horde, but on the other hand, he robbed southern Russia after the Mongol.
      1. ver_
        ver_ April 8 2016 15: 29
        -3
        ..Do not have fables .. Mongolia was founded in 1920. They could not be by definition. It should also be noted that not a single Khan was injured .. In addition, in his headquarters there were also Khans - the legitimacy of his actions .. He himself was in the Horde .. Between the parties - a common thing of that time ..
    7. moskowit
      moskowit April 9 2016 15: 06
      0
      The master-master ... Do you want it to be, let it be ... Who is against ... And let the rest line up ...
  2. iv-nord
    iv-nord April 8 2016 06: 13
    +7
    Jawaharlal Nehru - Timur was the greatest commander, but an absolute savage.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  3. ovod84
    ovod84 April 8 2016 06: 29
    +11
    We have a legend dedicated to the Timur era

    Heaven darkened in alarm
    Puffs of smoke roll like packs,
    Timur feasts the lame
    Comes our grief, our torment.

    With springs that flow from ancient times
    Blood mixed, but pity disappeared:
    Woe to mothers - water is cheaper
    The honor of the brides with river sand is equal.

    Is it possible for the highlanders of Dagestan
    Reconcile with a bitter year?
    Is it possible for the highlanders of Dagestan
    Do not join the struggle as a single family?

    Fate, like an arba, has wheels,
    Timelessly whirling,
    High Timur the lame ascended
    Now his fall has begun.

    Though in the villages of the mountains it’s empty now,
    Though Timur’s troops are at the top, -
    There are no forests for enemies to hide
    There are no keys to drink to foes.

    Tough smoke enveloped the roads
    The scorching heat presses unbearably,
    A drop of moisture - gold is more expensive,
    The life of invaders is cheaper than smoke.

    Scattered along the mountain valley
    Foes tents, burning like poppies,
    And in the tents burned with black thirst
    With inflamed skin, warriors!

    “Hey messengers,” said Timur the cruel, “
    Seek out the mountain streams
    Hey, send the camels to the springs,
    Deliver the army in water in the wineskins! "

    If there were no sadness in the world,
    Tears in my eyes would not shine
    If there were no priceless water,
    There would be no life in the universe. .

    There is no life for the soldiers of Timur,
    A moan in the tents, the ruler sits gloomily,
    No water! Camels - in front of the tents!
    With the dead came back in wineskins!

    Kneeling before a formidable check
    Pal Wazir said, seized with fear:
    “Have mercy, O Shah, the inexorable,
    We did not find anyone in the gorges!

    Just under the giant cliff
    We met with a stupid little boy.
    The boy grazed the last lamb,
    And we asked the shepherdess:

    “Where is the road to the spring? "
    He was silent - our eyes crossed
    He only lifted his head sternly,
    Like these centuries-old mountains. "

    “Hey Wazir,” Timur said, boiling, “
    You forgot that your head is bad
    A smart sword is always afraid.
    You didn’t open where the spring lurks,
    Why is the boy evil
    Didn’t you make us say a word? "

    “O lord, have mercy on us,
    Listen about this boy!
    We talked with him whips
    And his shepherd’s stick,
    But we were talking in vain:
    He fell, but his head is bad
    He still held high
    He did not say a word about water! "

    “Oh, wazir,” said Timur, getting up,
    You forgot that your head is bad
    A smart sword is always afraid.
    You would burn the boy’s feet with fire
    To immediately remember the mind,
    Where the coveted water flows! "

    “Have mercy, master with a powerful camp!
    We had a conversation with a little boy
    With flame, red-hot iron, -
    He did not answer with a tear or a moan.
    Maybe he’ll say a word to you,
    Gold will untie his tongue? "

    Before the tent of Timur the padishah
    The boy stood, not knowing fear.
    He exclaimed, not looking down:
    “Ladies, I don’t need gold!
    If a foe offers gold,
    A son cannot sell his mother
    People cannot sell their homeland! "

    The boy’s defiant eyes shone, -
    The ruler ordered them to poke
    The boy’s impudent speech sounded, -
    The language was deprived of his ruler.

    Not water clogged the key, -
    This hot blood boiled
    And it seemed proudly dying
    Dagestan staining the land,
    The spring says brightly and boldly:

    “Let the fog and clouds erupt,
    So that the enemies do not come out of the gorges,
    May our cliffs become steeper
    So that the enemies could not get through!
    May I become a rock in the gorge, -
    I’ll close the way back to the enemy! "
    ________
  4. ovod84
    ovod84 April 8 2016 06: 29
    +4
    “Let the fog and clouds erupt,
    So that the enemies do not come out of the gorges,
    May our cliffs become steeper
    So that the enemies could not get through!
    May I become a rock in the gorge, -
    I’ll close the way back to the enemy! "

    If there is a desire in your soul
    Hotter than a flame dust
    That will always come true desire -
    And faster than flame dust:
    The shepherd’s rock became in a gorge, -
    That rock stands with us today!

    It’s not allowed to kill enemies forever,
    Extinguish a living heart flame, m
    Not given to the enemies to blame forever
    A boy that turned to stone.
    If you are connected with your native land,
    You, perishing in battle, become a rock!
    ________
  5. Chisayna
    Chisayna April 8 2016 07: 07
    +4
    Where is ver? Now he appears and writes that Tamerlan, in fact, is the brother of Alexander Nevsky.
    1. ver_
      ver_ April 9 2016 03: 12
      +2
      ..if you strain your gyrus and remember 90 years, you will get an understanding of everything .. Roads, watching, tribute for travel, tribute for trade, ... murder, theft .. It has always been and will always be .. The name does not matter .. but A thief in the Law, a lone thief, ... - all these are parasites and bloodsuckers .. and no comparisons are needed who has "soaked" more and stole more .. Any coin has 2 sides .. and there is no need to interweave national issues .. -theft is theft ..
  6. parusnik
    parusnik April 8 2016 07: 36
    +2
    In fact, Timur was wounded in one of the skirmishes during his turbulent youth.
    His youth is known from three sources. The first is the rumored story of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, ambassador of the Spanish king Henry III of Castile, who visited the great conqueror in Samarkand. The second is the notes of an Arab from Damascus Ibn Arabshah. The third is the messages contained in the Russian Nikon Chronicle. Tamerlane started out as a simple robber. While trying to steal sheep, he was wounded in the leg and shoulder, after which his right leg stopped bending and his right arm raised, hence his nickname "Lame".
    1. Kombrig
      Kombrig April 8 2016 10: 57
      +1
      Quote: parusnik
      after which his right leg stopped bending and his right arm rose, hence his nickname "Lame".

      ..for as far as I know, Timur’s right hand, as a result of a wound, remained slightly bent at the elbow, but he continued to use it, as the studies of forensic scientists showed ....
  7. Rus86
    Rus86 April 8 2016 07: 52
    +4
    Outstanding commander. probably can be put on a par with Alexander the Great, Atilla, Svyatoslav Igorevich. Genghis Khan, Ivan IV, maybe William the Conqueror is a step higher, they have different scales of conquest, maybe not comparable with the first three players, but after them the states and the Empire remained. after Timur Samarkand remained
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 8 2016 08: 24
      -2
      This is the place where Ivan, the fourth loser of the Livonian War and generally not very fond of hiking, is a great commander.
      1. Rus86
        Rus86 April 8 2016 08: 30
        +5
        Kazan took, Astrakhan took. He beat the Nogai horde, subjugated Western Siberia. quite successfully did not like.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 8 2016 08: 56
          -1
          Polotsk passed, Narva passed, Moscow allowed to burn
          1. Rus86
            Rus86 April 8 2016 09: 02
            +7
            and Macedonian was hit on the ears in India. And Napoleon had Waterlow. and there was a battle at the Catalunian fields. but this does not diminish the significance of the figures for History.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 8 2016 09: 05
              -2
              Do you appreciate the figure in history and the talent of the commander? Ivan the Terrible was not a general from the word at all
              1. Rus86
                Rus86 April 8 2016 09: 10
                0
                I agree, it may not be correct to compare the generals - rulers and rulers.
                although then the trace in History is not at all in favor of the former.
            2. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 8 2016 09: 07
              0
              And they didn’t give Alexander the ears in India
            3. Free wind
              Free wind April 8 2016 15: 27
              -1
              In India, Alexander the Great defeated the Indian troops, in fact there was only one fighting elephant fiercely defending his master, the Indian Raj, Alexander ordered them to be alive. Later, Macedon bargained for an elephant for all of India. The elephant was called Ajax and later on he was always next to the commander.
              1. ver_
                ver_ April 8 2016 15: 52
                +1
                ... this is not Shahrazada’s tales for an hour ..?
              2. Alex
                Alex April 10 2016 15: 03
                +2
                Quote: Free Wind
                In India, Alexander the Great defeated the Indian troops, in fact there was only one fighting elephant fiercely defending his master, the Indian Raj, Alexander ordered them to be alive. Later, Macedon bargained for an elephant for all of India. The elephant was called Ajax and later on he was always next to the commander.

                Well, that's in your version of the story. But in reality, he defeated only the tribes of Northern Pakistan (modern geography) and Punjab. The last to be defeated was Por, Raja of East Punjab. If you take the trouble to look at the map, you will easily see that these territories are no more related to India as such than Konigsberg is to Russia: for example, the far outskirts. But it was there that Alexander's invincible soldiers grumbled and demanded peace. What was decisive: fatigue from long-term campaigns and tropical diseases or a banal fear of hundreds of thousands of warriors and hundreds of war elephants (according to rumors, 300 thousand people and 5 thousand elephants) - it's hard to say, but the fact remains: Alexander the Great stopped the campaign and returned home according to Hydasp and Indus. On the way, he tries to conquer at least some lands, but the locals showed quite tangible resistance. During the storming of one of the cities of the Mallow tribe, Alexander receives a severe wound in the chest, which almost cost him his life. After that, the army continues to move down the Indus, never leaving its valley. If honey agarics turn to the quarry, then dreams become obvious that no "conquest of India" was even close: the border war, which had little effect on the state of the country.

                Having reached the coast, Alexander turns to Persia, finally leaving Indian territory. When crossing the deserts of Gedrosia, he lost a significant part of the army, which had already thinned in the Indian campaign, along the way losing all his Indian acquisitions.

                Where you saw the "great conquests" is not clear. Although, everyone sees the situation from their side, perhaps in your vision this is a great victory.
          2. Pomeranian
            Pomeranian April 8 2016 10: 18
            +1
            Sometimes, in order to save Russia, it is necessary to burn Moscow ...
            1. Kombrig
              Kombrig April 8 2016 10: 58
              +11
              Quote: Pomoryanin
              to save Russia it is necessary to burn Moscow ...


              ..It is still relevant)))
        2. Alex
          Alex April 10 2016 14: 40
          +2
          Quote: Rus86
          Kazan took, Astrakhan took.

          ... Shpaka did not take! .. (c) wink
  8. redcod
    redcod April 8 2016 07: 55
    +4
    Timur caused the fall of the Golden Horde. After the defeat of Khan Tokhtamysh, the Horde was no longer able to recover.
    1. baudolino
      baudolino April 8 2016 08: 52
      -1
      The Golden Horde could not exist on its own without "Greater Mongolia". And there the "economic crisis" just began - climatic changes that reduced pastures by an order of magnitude and undermined the "economy of the country."
      Timur only finished off the weakening giant. Just as Sanya of Macedon conquered lands, and then everything fell apart.
      1. ver_
        ver_ April 8 2016 15: 42
        -4
        Stop shaking Mongolia was not her, was founded in 1920 .. Open at least Vick ..
        1. ver_
          ver_ April 9 2016 03: 19
          0
          .. to some scribblers even with .. in the eyes - all the same, God's dew - obstinacy is a characteristic feature of the DONKEY ..
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 9 2016 05: 48
            0
            Very true you described yourself
      2. Atash
        Atash April 23 2016 03: 33
        0
        "Greater Mongolia" became known as such only in the 17th century. And the Mongols of Genghis Khan are today's Kazakhs.
  9. Yereke
    Yereke April 8 2016 09: 11
    +1
    Of course, he is the best for the Europeans, since he acted against his own .. if he didn’t hit the Ottomans in the rear, the Turks completely bent Geyrope with cancer, all because his papal envoys had persuaded, so he was left with nothing. Also, Toktamysh’s not hit from the rear, also the Türks went to Geyropu from the East through Moscau .. As a result, due to his tactical acquisitions, the Türks lost the strategic one. Now Europe would be different, if he had been sitting quietly in his harem and would have been greedy for influence.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 8 2016 09: 16
      -1
      Well, yes, of course, you better know what Timur needs to do, Tokhtamysh first attacked, but I leave you fantasies about the Turks in Europe
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 8 2016 20: 55
      +2
      Ereke "Also not a strike from Toktamysh from the rear, also the Türks went to Geyropu from the East through Moscau."
      The Turks wouldn’t go anywhere.))) These are all empty dreams.))) There is no unity in the Turkic world and never was. Actually, as in the Slavic world. And so it happened, what happened.))) The Tatar nobility subsequently changed the ministry to the khans to the ministries of the kings.))) That's all.))) And who would the Turks in Europe bend down?))) They barely managed to cope with Serbia then. )))
      1. Atash
        Atash April 23 2016 03: 36
        0
        The fall of Constantinople was postponed for half a century. And Europe managed to prepare for its own defense.
  10. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys April 8 2016 09: 27
    +3
    In the Mongol tradition, Temir means "iron."

    Strange ... request Shaimiev’s name is Mintimer (I’m iron) - does that mean he is also a Mongol? what
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 8 2016 10: 17
      +1
      The author has a fad on linguistic and racological research.
    2. saruman
      saruman April 8 2016 10: 55
      +1
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      In the Mongol tradition, Temir means “iron.” Strange ... Shaimiev’s name is Mintimer (I’m iron) - does he also mean a Mongol?


      Modern Mongols, neither ethnically nor in language, have nothing to do with the then Mongols. The overwhelming majority of medieval "Mongols" are Turkic-speaking tribes, like the modern Kazan Tatars. There are Turkic-speaking peoples close to the modern Mongols - they are Tuvinians and Altaians. And there are related peoples to the modern Mongols in language and ethnically, for example, Kalmyks and Buryats.
      1. ver_
        ver_ April 8 2016 19: 06
        -1
        ..Buryats = expelled .. These Mongols expelled for something from the ancestral territories, Transbaikal and Irkutsk regions of their place of residence .., and the language of the Chita and Irkutsk Buryats varies greatly ..
        1. marshes
          marshes April 8 2016 19: 15
          +1
          Quote: ver_
          ..Buryats = expelled .. These Mongols expelled for something from the ancestral territories

          Well, for the Kazakhs that Buryat Kalmyks one-Dzhungara.
          Quote: ver_
          and the language of the Chita and Irkutsk Buryats is very different ..

          But what, is the Manjurian dialect present?
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Atash
      Atash April 23 2016 03: 37
      0
      Genghis Khan is simply not a Mongol.
  11. alexej123
    alexej123 April 8 2016 09: 30
    +1
    Thank you for the article. We are waiting for the 2 part.
  12. guzik007
    guzik007 April 8 2016 09: 55
    0
    The empire of Timur rested solely on military power. Apparently, he chose civil servants much worse than military leaders.
    -------------------------------------------------- ------------
    Interesting parallels loom.
  13. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian April 8 2016 10: 16
    +1
    Nice article, somewhat spoiled by linguistic and racological considerations. And what the hell is Timur's invasion? After all, "what did they feed the horses in the deserts" ?? belay
  14. Alex_T
    Alex_T April 8 2016 11: 38
    +7
    Been in Samarkand. The size of the Bibi-Khanym mosque is more clear from these photos.
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem April 9 2016 12: 03
      0
      Now perhaps it does not make an impression. But consider the antiquity of the structure and the conditions in which it was erected.
  15. Prager
    Prager April 8 2016 11: 39
    +2
    An interesting article, correctly written, I read it with pleasure.
    1. ver_
      ver_ April 8 2016 15: 47
      +1
      ..cannot agree with you - too much fiction ..
      1. Spnsr
        Spnsr April 9 2016 17: 52
        +1
        Quote: ver_
        ..cannot agree with you - too much fiction ..

        support!
        no matter how Tamerlane turned out to be an ordinary emir - a military governor (prosecutor, if you want) throughout that territory ...
        mind you, not a khan, not some kind of ruler of a separate small territory, namely the emir ...
        laughing
        laughing
        laughing
  16. Alex_T
    Alex_T April 8 2016 11: 41
    0
    Interior, fenced area under the open sky.
  17. Neobag
    Neobag April 8 2016 11: 42
    +5
    This "talented savage" Tamerlane had a beloved grandson Ulugbek, a great scientist, astronomer who compiled the "Starry Sky Catalog" recognized throughout the scientific world.
    But, unfortunately, as the ruler of the country, he was weak, and died from the conspiracy of his son.
    So, was Tamerlane a "savage" if such a center of civilization was created under him ..
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 8 2016 11: 45
      0
      Quote: NeoBag
      So, was Tamerlane a "savage" if such a center of civilization was created under him ..

      King Philip was the leader of the semi-wild tribes, somehow having made a state out of them and created a small combat-ready army. On this his merits end. But his son, Alexander Filippovich, became the greatest commander and conqueror who reached the outskirts of Samarkand from the Balkans.
      1. Neobag
        Neobag April 8 2016 11: 57
        +2
        This is the difference between King Phillip and Tamerlane: Phillip created a small state and a small army, and his talented son, the Great Commander, conquered a large territory, but did not create a state. Tamerlane, in addition to being the greatest commander, was also a statesman - he rebuilt his capital, brought craftsmen and scientists from the conquered territories, which Iskander the Two-Horned did not.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Vitwin
          Vitwin April 8 2016 12: 12
          +4
          Quote: NeoBag
          The great commander, conquered a large territory, but did not create a state. Tamerlane was, in addition to the greatest commander, but also a statesman

          Remember the age of Alexander? He died on take-off so that he simply did not have time.
          1. Atash
            Atash April 23 2016 04: 24
            0
            Everyone would be so "unable to keep up"
        3. Glot
          Glot April 8 2016 13: 12
          +1
          Tamerlane, in addition to being the greatest commander, was also a statesman - he rebuilt his capital, brought craftsmen and scientists from the conquered territories, which Iskander the Two-Horned did not.


          Alexander actually did the same.
          Created the State, gathered scientists and artisans. The mere fact that he introduced a single monetary system throughout the vast territory he conquered from Central Greece to Egypt and throughout Asia, already speaks of his desire to form a single State. A postal service. When a letter sent from Maracanda or Babylon came a month to Pella. If he hadn’t died so quickly, the Empire would have been even more powerful. I did not have time ... And since everything rested on him, after his death, it began to crumble into enclaves.
        4. The comment was deleted.
      2. Glot
        Glot April 8 2016 13: 03
        +1
        King Philip was the leader of the semi-wild tribes, somehow having made a state out of them and created a small combat-ready army. On this his merits end. But his son, Alexander Filippovich, became the greatest commander and conqueror who reached the outskirts of Samarkand from the Balkans.


        Well, no, it’s not so simple with Philip.
        He made the best war machine of those times from shepherds. With the help of this machine, Greece was thoroughly bent, crushing under itself all the isolated city-states and unions. He paved the way for a throw to Asia by ferrying the expeditionary force of Parmenion. And if it were not for the murder, no one knows how it would have turned. So Alexander got a prepared army, a mass of allies (both voluntary and not) and a springboard on the Asian coast in the form of the Parmenion corps. In general, Alexander competently ordered that his father leave him, and he left a lot. But the creation of the Empire, stretching from Egypt to the Hindu Kush, this is of course the merit of Alexander.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 8 2016 11: 56
      0
      The private whim of one person is not a hotbed of civilization
  18. thinker
    thinker April 8 2016 12: 44
    +2
    In the homeland of Amir Temur, his birthday is celebrated on April 9th.
  19. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 8 2016 13: 57
    +8
    In the spring of 1366, Timur and Hussein crushed the uprising, executing the Serbadar leaders.
    This is categorically wrong. According to the descriptions of contemporaries in Serbedar cities, after the suppression of the uprising, almost all residents were executed. The "pyramids of heads" were 20-25 meters high.

    Quote: Cartalon
    For me it’s the best commander in world history.
    Already comrades have figured out what is not at all. There is still such a name - Subaday.

    Quote: Rus86
    and Macedonian was hit on the ears in India.
    I would really like to know who? fellow

    Quote: NeoBag
    This "talented savage" Tamerlane had a beloved grandson Ulugbek, a great scientist, astronomer who compiled the "Starry Sky Catalog" recognized throughout the scientific world.
    But, unfortunately, as the ruler of the country, he was weak, and died from the conspiracy of his son.
    Just rule in a state created by force could only be brute force. The great scientist refused mass executions and was killed by his own ...

    Quote: Aspeed
    "Civilized Western Europeans" at this time wore animal skins, survived by catching game in the forests and eating weeds in half with manure, and there was not enough manure - cattle were rare.

    Oh-oh, why hate Europe so ardently? All countries have their disadvantages, but they also have advantages. Here, for example, is an example of architecture and artistic culture of those who "ate weeds in half with dung." Early Middle Ages, 6th century, by the way.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian April 8 2016 14: 01
      +1
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Middle Ages, 6 century, by the way.

      Excuse me, but what is shown in the photo?
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. RUSS
      RUSS April 8 2016 14: 52
      0
      Quote: Warrior2015
      Quote: Rus86and Macedon was hit on the ears in India. I would really like to know who?

      After the Battle of Gidasp won by the Macedonians in India, Alexander gave a month of rest for his army, founded the city of Nicaea at the site of the battle, and then moved further east. Some princes obeyed him voluntarily, he took the cities of others with an attack. Alexander gave the conquered lands under the rule of Pore. However, on the way to the Ganges River, the Macedonians, having heard of the huge armies and thousands of elephants fighting behind the Ganges, refused to follow their king. Thus the battle on the Gidasp River, the first battle of the Macedonians with elephants, stopped the advance of the great conqueror to the east. Now Alexander conquered the tribes on his way back to Persia.

      The Battle of Gidasp was the last major battle in the biography of Alexander the Great.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind April 8 2016 15: 32
        -1
        Do you remember the Ajax war elephant? The Macedonian bargained for it from the Indian Raja Pore, promising not to fight against India anymore.
      2. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 8 2016 15: 34
        0
        Well, where does the ears come from? You walk on foot from the Bosphorus to the Indus, and go rebel.
    4. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 8 2016 15: 39
      0
      Subedei got an ear from the Bulgarians and if we consider just the skill of the commander, then Scipio African is the coolest of all, as they say in boxing forums on a broken opposition
    5. Atash
      Atash April 23 2016 04: 29
      0
      This beauty became possible thanks to the Turks. And Arab science.
  20. marshes
    marshes April 8 2016 15: 46
    0
    Yes, Timur’s descendants are alive, represented in the Barlas clan, the Kazakhs have it, the Uzbeks don’t know. Of course they are not isolated as TORE, the Kazakh clan of Chengizids.
    From the campaigns, it is now clear why the related Dulat clan, Tabyn, ended up in western Kazakhstan.
    According to linguistics, Temir-iron is of Turkic origin.
    That Tamerlan was red smile So Kazakhs children are red. But the bright sun makes the gene that is responsible for melanin connect. And so skin cancer would mow out half the world's population.
  21. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 8 2016 15: 59
    0
    [quote = Ratnik 2015]
    [quote = Cartalon] For me it’s the best commander in world history. [/ Quote] Already comrades have figured out what is not at all. There is still such a name - Subaday.
    I did not see the analysis of the shortcomings of Timur as a commander
  22. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk April 8 2016 16: 09
    +1
    Such an article. Yes, with the continuation.
    Only too many grammatical errors, as if machine translation.
    ..
    Ah, Timur, Timurleng, Iron Chroma.
    Borodin wrote "Stars over Samarkand" very romantically about him.
    And in general, a lot has been written.
    And in real life - there was a strong PAKHAN, who was able to make a gangster state out of bandits and cattle theaters and with their help.
    The fact that science, art and crafts flourished in this state does not practically mean anything.
    It is impossible to dig up all the prey. This will obviously be in bandyugan style.
    And so - the appearance of an empire.
    Chimera, as the respected Mangal Alys correctly noted.
    And after the death of the founder Pakhan, this whole empire smoothly fell into pieces, pieces and pieces. From one piece, then Babur tore. To India.
    ...
    I have been to Samarkand several times. I saw all these buildings. Registan - went, examined.
    With bewilderment, I’ll say frankly.
    The photo looks much more interesting than in life.
    How great value is presented by the framing of tiles of all these buildings. Well, tiles. glazed clay plates.
    But the one who prepared them obviously suffered from some kind of color anomaly. Blue color. And the color is green. At the same time, they are not bright, but rather not of a pure spectrum.
    Well, imagine a bunch of portals opposite each other, Registan - designed in a dull blue-green color scheme.
    And such a gamut for all buildings.
    Not impressive.
    Compare similar, say, with the Taj Mahal, with Sofia in Turkey, with Sofia in Kazan, but you never know what you can compare with - like heaven and earth.
    ...
    And poets in Asia are almost all Iranians and Tajiks (the same far-speaking). Nizami when aaaaa will appear ...
    ..
    Such are the thoughts.
    1. marshes
      marshes April 8 2016 16: 27
      +2
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      obviously suffered from some kind of color anomaly. Blue color. And the color is green.

      This is Turquoise, a little yellow blotches, sun and sand, -Turk flag laughing At Kazakhstan in GOS.flag represented.
      Article 3. The national flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a rectangular cloth of turquoise color with the image in its center of the sun with rays, under which is a soaring eagle. The pole has a vertical strip with a national ornament. Images of the sun, rays, eagle and ornament - the color of gold. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 1: 2.

      At first, we had artists who suffered in the depiction of state symbols, then they drew a dark blue or green flag, then they learned to mix colors. laughing
    2. Atigay
      Atigay April 9 2016 00: 06
      0
      Blue and green do not fade in the sun. And Timur drove the builders of all this out of the Saraichik destroyed by him. Subsequently, this architecture spread to Mughal conquered countries.
  23. Chisayna
    Chisayna April 8 2016 16: 53
    +1
    The only thing missing is vera. With its fantastic versions.
  24. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 8 2016 17: 04
    0
    Quote: Aspeed
    Basilica of San Vitale. Byzantine work, the Byzantines built the same.
    Yes, it's from there. But aren't Byzantines Europeans? They considered themselves to be just such, and their neighbors also considered them - both Europeans and Christians. wink

    And let me remind you that the palaces of the caliphs in the Middle East and Moorish Spain were also built not by anyone, but byzantine architects and stone-cutters.

    Quote: Cartalon
    Subedei got an ear from the Bulgarians and if we consider just the skill of the commander, then Scipio African is the coolest of all, as they say in boxing forums on a broken opposition
    If we take "all commanders" wholesale and "by broken positions" - then Wellington, for example, becomes a leader - he was noted on almost all continents + he defeated Napoleon himself. request

    Quote: Aspeed
    To stupid, wild and brainless German Eurobarbarians in animal skins
    I do not like the Italian "Ostrogothic Revival" - this is the classic Romanesque early medieval style. German Catholic Abbey of St. Virgin Mary on the Lake near Koblenz. It seems to me that the barbarians in animal skins would hardly have built this? laughing
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 8 2016 17: 38
      0
      For me Zama is cooler than Waterloo, Ganibal is still the best tactic of antiquity, and the late Napoleon didn’t show any special frills on the battlefield and that’s all, well, the help of an army of equal size is more solid than the barbarian prince with a cavalry detachment, and in Spain Wellington, everything was not going smoothly, I don’t remember, but somewhere he barely took his feet))
  25. Chisayna
    Chisayna April 8 2016 20: 13
    +2
    So ver appeared. And tell ver how Tamerlan-Timur Aksak fits into your version. Who is he, whose son, brother.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 April 8 2016 20: 53
      +3
      Quote: Chisain
      So ver appeared. And tell ver how Tamerlan-Timur Aksak fits into your version. Who is he, whose son, brother.

      Goblin, ver_ is Faith. Too lazy to look into the profile, or tired, guarding the taiga? fellow
  26. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 9 2016 01: 47
    +1
    Quote: Cartalon
    late Napoleon did not show any special frills on the battlefield

    Then his campaign to defend the borders of France is considered perhaps the most masterpiece, comparable only to the Italian one! wink

    Quote: Cartalon
    Wellington didn’t have everything smoothly in Spain, I don’t remember as a memory, but somewhere he barely took his feet))
    Remember well. I remember only the constant routs of Napoleonic marshals.

    And Wellington’s masterpiece of military art is not Waterloo at all (in his own opinion, although this too) - but the forgotten battle of Assay in 1803, where he, having 5.000 people, defeated 50.000 Indians. By the way, they were the same age as Napoleon, and Wellington himself evaluated this particular battle as the most bloody one (30% loss). wink


    In continuation of the same theme of Central Asia, the state of Timur, masterpieces of architecture and barbarism. Here is a picture of the great Russian battle-artist, as well as the explorer of Asia and military topographer-intelligence officer V. Vereshchagin "Triumph.", Dedicated to one of the episodes of Russia's conquest of Central Asia. It seems to me that all 4 factors under consideration have come together in it.

    Pay attention - the round objects on the poles on the square in Samarkand, where the mullah preaches about the need for gazavat against the "kafirs", are the severed heads of Russian soldiers. Vereshchagin himself was a participant in those campaigns and painted what he saw.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 9 2016 06: 13
      0
      [quote = Ratnik 2015] [quote = Cartalon] late Napoleon didn’t show any special frills on the battlefield [/ quote]
      Then his campaign to defend the borders of France is considered perhaps the most masterpiece, comparable only to the Italian one! wink

      [quote = Cartalon] and Wellington didn’t have everything in Spain, I don’t remember, but somewhere he barely took his feet)) [/ quote] Remember well. I remember only the constant routs of Napoleonic marshals.

      And Wellington’s masterpiece of military art is not Waterloo at all (in his own opinion, although this too) - but the forgotten battle of Assay in 1803, where he, having 5.000 people, defeated 50.000 Indians. By the way, they were the same age as Napoleon, and Wellington himself evaluated this particular battle as the most bloody one (30% loss). wink
      Well, let's continue, Napoleon’s company of 1814 is good, but I talked about tactics, I have nothing against operational management.
      Wesley’s exploits in India passed the box office, in Kotlyarevsky we defeated the Persians in the worst conditions, in Spain the defeats began in 12g and thanks to Jerome, they ended under Toulouse which can be considered Wellington’s defeat.
    2. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem April 9 2016 12: 14
      0
      It’s such a war .. Without roses, it smells bad.
  27. moskowit
    moskowit April 9 2016 18: 37
    +1
    Quote: moskowit
    Hello to you. For half a century, Islam has been ...


    Excuse me generously, the mistake came out ... Not half a century, but half a thousand years ...
  28. Igor K-grad
    Igor K-grad April 10 2016 01: 43
    +1
    The author correctly noted: “Later he (ie Timur) received the support of Muslim merchants, who began to see the former bandit as a protector from other gangs and a true Muslim (Timur was religious) ... The Great Emir honored Muslim theologians and hermits -dervishes, did not interfere in the management of the property of the clergy, mercilessly fought against numerous heresies - to them he included philosophy with logic, which he forbade to engage in. Christians of the captured cities should have rejoiced if they remained alive. "

    At one time I read that it was precisely on the instructions of Timur that all Christians in Central Asia were massacred, and that his army destroyed Alania, the state of the Ossetian ancestors in the North Caucasus. On the plateau, all Alans were carved or captured, and only those clans that went into the mountains and took refuge in the valleys of 4 rivers survived.
  29. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 10 2016 13: 57
    +2
    Quote: Igor K-grad
    it was on the instructions of Timur that all Christians in Central Asia were slaughtered, and also that it was his army that destroyed Alania - the state of the ancestors of Ossetians in the North Caucasus

    Yes, that’s exactly it. If in Uzbekistan Tamerlan is considered one of the greatest leaders of the people, then in Ossetia, Armenia and Georgia they hate him, and they do not like to put it mildly in Russia.

    He almost went down in the history of Russia as the "second Batu" and "new Tokhtamysh"; after the defeat of Khan Tokhta, Tamerlane's army began a campaign against Russia.

    Unfortunately, the Russians after 1382 were even forced to supply military contingents to the Tokhtamysh army - after Moscow was burned and its population was brutally massacred, and the most severe level of dependence of Muscovite Russia on the Golden Horde was restored.

    Therefore, the detachments of Russian warriors as vassal contingents participated in the unsuccessful battles of Tokhtamysh with Tamerlan on the Volga in 1391 and in 1395 on Terek. But after that, a huge army of Timur-Leng came to Russia, as part of the Tokhtamysh Horde, which had lost its troops, and had already taken and burned several Russian cities.

    “Temir-Aksak has been standing in one place for two weeks. And on the very day and hour at which the Vladimir Icon of the Most Pure Virgin was brought to Moscow, he was seized by fear and horror, as if from some army coming from Russia. He got scared and went to his own land. "


    In fact, the salvation of Russia at that time was directly connected by people with the intercession of the Mother of God. Both Russian and Asian annals report that Timur saw in a dream a great mountain and from the top of it many saints walking with golden wands, and above them in the air a magnificent and magnificent Woman, with thousands of lightning-like warriors who all rushed to Timur. Almost for the first time in my life I found a terrible fear at the brave Iron Khromts and he was “afraid to fight the Russian land”, and, telling his commanders about the night vision, he decided to stop the campaign.

    Since then, one of the great holidays of Orthodox Christians in Russia - August 26 (September 8), the day of the Vladimir image of the Virgin - is celebrated in memory of salvation from Tamerlane's invasion in 1395.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 10 2016 19: 49
      0
      All the same, it is more reasonable to assume that Timur did not consider it reasonable to start a company in the not too rich northern country in the fall
  30. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 April 11 2016 16: 57
    0
    Quote: Cartalon
    it is more reasonable to assume that Timur did not consider it reasonable to start a company in a not too rich northern country in the fall

    And here it is not necessary to assume anything! There is a clear written story! Before that, Vladimir Russia was torn apart by the struggle with Mamai, then the invasion of Tokhtamysh, and then - after sending almost all the combat-ready forces to the Tokhtamysh army and its defeat by Tamerlan - AT ALL, THE TROOPS WERE ALMOST PRACTICALLY DEPRIVED.

    For example, do you think why many heroes of the Battle of Kulikovo left to live and serve in Lithuanian Rus shortly after it? but they did not want to go to serve "to the nasty Hagarian king Tokhta."

    And again - the military campaign against Muscovite Russia HAS ALREADY STARTED. The border line has already been broken and several cities have been taken! HAPPY MILITIES in any significant quantities before the army of Timur-LENG NOT!

    If you look at the map above, you can see that the army of the next "shaker of the Universe" did not have much left before Moscow and the main Russian cities.

    The Russians had only one thing - to die heroically, trying to resist, or try to surrender on terrible conditions - exactly like Baty’s invasion.

    AND THERE IS A MIRACLE! The already begun campaign is abruptly curtailed and the invincible huge army is returning! how to explain this, if the "Iron Lamer" himself told about his dream and, on the basis of this, announced to his state council that he would not be successful in the campaign, and decided to deploy an army ?!

    As a result, Vladimir Russia received (thanks to the defeat of the Golden Horde) again a weakening of its dependence and a respite from major invasions for 40 years.
  31. Atash
    Atash April 23 2016 00: 41
    0
    Quote: RUSS
    Quote: Cartalon
    For me it’s the best commander in world history.

    On the one hand, we should be grateful to Tamerlan for the defeat of the Horde, but on the other hand, he robbed southern Russia after the Mongol.

    He defeated Tokhtamysh and thus received the Horde and Russia for himself. The Horde was the capital of the entire continent until the Atlantic. Who steered in the East, the West obeyed automatically. Therefore, they all butted among themselves: Timur, Tokhtamysh, Mamai, Ottomans. Europe was a political periphery, the Ottomans wanted to crush it purely for themselves. Because Timur and heaped them. Why would he have to - defend Europe? And then, that they are his vassals. And after the Horde, Russia became the lord of Europe, because the Europeans did not give rest to Russia. And economically, all this revolved around the Silk Road. With the development of maritime communications, the Silk Road became irrelevant and the political center finally shifted to the west.
  32. Atash
    Atash April 23 2016 04: 48
    0
    Quote: Cartalon
    And they could not plow the land, but the Arabs were directly noble tillers, however Türks did not plow the land in 11 or 14, nor forged the iron, even though they were originally blacksmiths

    The Turks also taught the Europeans to cultivate the land. Therefore, in Russian, agricultural. words of Turkic origin: plow, barn, barn, etc. That the Bulgarians or the Khazars did not engage in agriculture? And how could this happen: at first they were blacksmiths, and then "did not forge"?
    Before the Gulf Stream, Europe was the tundra, and the lands of modern Russia were already fertile, so agriculture should have come to Europe from the center of the continent.
  33. natelka
    natelka 11 May 2018 15: 12
    0
    Tamerlane was in the implementation of the Lightbringer Lucifer, the younger Angel Hercules from divided Perun into Seven Bible Angels in violation of the Agreement between the gods:

    1 And when He removed the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven, as if for half an hour.
    2 And I saw seven angels that stood before God; and they were given seven trumpets. Rev. Ch. 8

    Hercules was in the realization of Jesus at Calvary, who was Risen and became Immortal with his divided angel brothers.
    In the 20th century, Hercules was in the implementation of the slandered Leader of the Nations Joseph Stalin.
    The fact that Lucifer was in the implementation of Tamerlane explains his education, literacy and craving for culture and the arts, since he was always a great poet, writer and musician.
    The cruelty of Tamerlane’s “barbarian” is explained by the genetic slavery of Satan the hermaphrodite, who is at the same time the devil, and in whom Lucifer has long been a prisoner of war. For this reason, Tamerlan was a “chrome”, as Stalin was a chrome at one time, since Satan was genetically connected in the thigh with Adam-Zeus, who, after cutting off his head, became a Satyr on hoofs with goat horns. Thus, Satan has one leg with fused toes in the form of a hoof. This genetic property was transmitted in this historical incarnation to the prisoner of war Lucifer-Hercules. The three circles on the flag of Tamerlane are the symbol of Lucifer, about which there is a drawing of Nostradamus and an explanation in the Urantia Book, a link to the Lucifer Manifesto: http: //urantia.ru/book/Paper53.asp#p603 Figure Nostradamus image of Lucifer-Hercules with a symbol : three rings in a hand. At the feet of Lucifer is the image of the Messenger in armor. In the background the Lion, - the symbol of the Herald "nibbles on the bones" of the Horse-Satan