Military Review

Missile defense of Moscow. Part II

32
A-135 Amur


In 1972, the USSR and the United States signed an agreement on limiting missile defense systems. In accordance with this document, countries had the right to build only two missile defense systems: to protect the capital and the positions of strategic missiles. In 1974, an additional protocol was signed, according to which the Soviet Union and the United States could have only one missile defense system. In accordance with this protocol, the USSR continued to build its defense systems for Moscow, and the United States surrounded the Grand Forks base with antimissiles. The agreements allowed us to simultaneously hold stationary positions up to 100 interceptor missiles.

Missile defense of Moscow. Part II
Monument with an electric-weight rocket model 51Т6 Pos.Sofrino-1 near Moscow, 28.12.2011 g. (Dmitry, http://da-ck9.livejournal.com)


The signing of an agreement on the limitation of missile defense systems has affected the further development of such systems in two countries. It should be noted that this document had a minimal impact on the plans of the Soviet leadership. The complexity and high cost did not allow the construction of several anti-missile systems other than Moscow, and the treaty completely prohibited their creation. At the same time, since the beginning of the seventies, Soviet scientists and designers have been actively working on the modernization of the Moscow ABM A-35 system.

Preliminary design of the new A-135 ABM Amur was ready at the end of 1971. The project developed by Vympel under the guidance of A.G. Basistova, meant the construction of three shooting systems "Amur", equipped with anti-missile and a set of radar stations. The complexes should have been located at a distance of more than 600 km from Moscow, which would allow timely interception of ballistic targets. In addition, close to the capital, it was proposed to place the C-225 missile systems, designed to become the second echelon of the missile defense system.


The TM-112 transport vehicle with TPK 81Р6 of the rocket 51Т6 of the A-135 missile defense system is installed as a monument to the settlement of Sofrino-1 near Moscow, 28.12.2011 (http://4044415.livejournal.com)


The terms of the agreement on limiting missile defense systems have affected the appearance of the new project. Now it was required to place all system components in a circle with a radius of 50 km centered on Moscow. Until the end of 1973, Vympel prepared the new version of the draft with the corresponding changes. For example, in the updated project it was proposed to abandon the C-225 missiles, and to assign all the tasks of hitting targets to other interceptors. A year later, Vympel employees had to re-finalize the project in connection with the additional protocol to the contract.

As a result of all the improvements, the A-135 project has acquired its final look. The following components are part of the prospective missile defense system:
- The command and computing point 5K80, combining computing facilities and control systems of the anti-missile complex. The basis of computing systems were four Elbrus-1 computers (later upgraded to Elbrus-2);
- Don-2H radar, intended for detecting and tracking targets, as well as for targeting missiles;
- firing complexes with mine launchers for interceptor missiles;
- 51Т6 and 53Т6 rockets.

Perhaps the most well-known component of all missile defense systems in Moscow is the radar station Don-2Н. The structure in the form of a truncated pyramid contains part of the main electronic components of the missile defense system. On each of the four faces of the building are located a rectangular transmitting and a circular receiving antenna. The design of the antennas provides a circular view in azimuth. Radiation power up to 250 MW allows the detection of ballistic targets at a distance (according to various sources) from 1500 to 3500 kilometers. The maximum detection height of a space target is up to 900-1000 km. According to some reports, the Don-2Н radar can accompany more than a hundred complex ballistic targets, the detection of which is hindered by false targets. Radar is also used to control missiles. According to various sources, the number of simultaneously controlled antimissiles varies from a few dozen to 100-120.


Radar "Don-2N" / PILL BOX PRO system A-135, pos.Sofrino-1, 28.12.2011 (author of the photo - Leonid Varlamov, http://mmet.livejournal.com)


The basis of the command-computing point 5K80 was originally a computer "Elbrus-1". This system made it possible to process information from the Don-2 radar, track ballistic and space targets, and determine their priority. The command-computing point is capable of automatically performing all operations, incl. launch anti-missile systems and control their guidance.

As a means of hitting targets in the A-135 “Amur” complex, two types of missiles were used: 51Т6 and 53Т6. The first of them was built on a two-stage scheme and equipped with engines of various types. At the first stage a solid-fuel engine was used, at the second - a liquid engine. According to some information, the second stage of the 51Т6 rocket used the same engine as the А-350 rocket of the А-35 complex. The anti-missile 51Т6 had a total length of about 20 meters and a starting weight of 30-40 tons (in different sources different figures are given). The range of the rocket is estimated at 350-600 kilometers. For reliable destruction of the target, the 51Т6 rocket was equipped with a nuclear warhead. The task of this interceptor missile was to destroy ballistic targets at high altitudes.

The 53Т6 rocket is intended for hitting ballistic targets after they enter the atmosphere. The high-speed rocket 53Т6 has an original design: its body is made in the form of an elongated cone. The rocket is equipped with a solid-fuel engine that provides flight speed at the level of 3500-4000 m / s (according to other data, at least 5 km / s). The launch mass of the 53Т6 rocket exceeds 9,6 tons. Total length - about 12 meters. According to various sources, the anti-missile system is capable of destroying targets at a distance of up to 100 km and an altitude of up to several tens of kilometers. Warhead - high-explosive fragmentation or nuclear.

The missiles of both types were completed with a transport and launch container, with which they were placed in the launch shaft. To control the missiles in flight, the radio command system is used. In this case, the on-board equipment of the products allows you to continue flying with the loss of a control signal, although in this case the effectiveness of the attack of the target significantly decreases.

In 1976, the construction of a prototype A-135 system began at the Sary-Shagan test site. As before, it was proposed to test the operation of the systems with the help of the complex in a reduced configuration. The Amur-P range test station included the Don-2NP radar, the command-computing point 5K80P and a missile firing complex. Installation of all components of the complex continued until the 1978-79 year. Soon after the work was completed, the tests started. Testing of the A-135 test site system continued until the 1984 year, and from the 82, work was carried out as part of factory test sites. In total, several dozen launches of interceptor missiles were conducted. In addition, tests were conducted radar "Don-2NP", during which the station monitored ballistic targets and artificial satellites of the earth.

At the end of the factory tests at the test site, the installation of new systems began, primarily the Elbrus-2 computer. From the autumn of 1987 to the end of the summer of 1988, the Amur-P missile defense system monitored conditional targets and carried out test interceptions of ballistic missiles. This stage of testing confirmed its characteristics.


Installation of the 51Т6 rocket in TPK 81Р6, Moscow Region (http://www.ljplus.ru)


Construction of new facilities in the Moscow region began in the mid-eighties. By the end of the decade, all the necessary facilities were ready. In 1989, state trials began. According to some information, state tests of antimissiles at the same time were conducted at the Sary-Shagan test site. The A-135 system confirmed all its characteristics and at the very end of 89 was recommended for use. Trial operation of the complex began in about a year.

At the beginning of 1991, the A-135 system took over experienced combat duty, and within a few months the deliveries of the required number of interceptor missiles were completed. Over the next few years, due to the difficult situation in the country, Moscow’s missile defense system experienced serious problems of a different nature. The official adoption of the A-135 system took place only in 1996 year.

The A-135 “Amur” ABM system has been in operation up to the present. The details of her work for obvious reasons are not covered. It is known that in the middle of the last decade the 51Т6 rocket was decommissioned, which is why the only means of defeating the complex are products of the 53Т6 type. In recent years, there have been repeated reports of 53Т6 missile test launches at the Sary-Shagan test site. The purpose of these tests is to check the performance weapons. The exact number of missiles in service is unknown. According to various estimates, after the cessation of mass production (1993 year), several hundred interceptors remained on the bases.

A-235

At the end of the seventies, shortly after the end of the main design work on the A-135 project, the Council of Ministers issued a resolution on the creation of a new system of a similar purpose. The document required to develop and build a promising missile defense system capable of supplementing, and then replacing, obsolete complexes. The head company of the program was again appointed by the Vimpel Central Scientific Industrial Association, and later this status was transferred to the Scientific-Research Institute of Radio Instrument Engineering (NIIRP). Unfortunately, there is very little information about this project. In addition, some of the information is the assumptions of specialists on the basis of available information. However, it is possible to get a rough idea of ​​the A-235 system being created now.

According to some information, a new missile defense system called A-235 was supposed to be built according to a two- or three-echelon scheme using several types of interceptor missiles. When creating a new ammunition should have been used developments in previous projects. Work on this version of the project, most likely, was in the first half of the eighties.


Presumably on the frame, either full-scale BRUTS-B field work with the 51Т6 rocket or, possibly, one of the prototypes of long-range missiles of the A-235 / ROC Samolet-M system, October-November 2007 (a frame from the film Vadim Starostin, http://video.mail.ru/mail/vaducha61/)


At the very beginning of the nineties, development work began on the subject “Samolet-M”, the purpose of which was the profound modernization of the newly constructed А-135 system. According to some data, in the future, the staff of NIIRP and related organizations were engaged in the development of promising systems, and also used the existing facilities at the Sary-Shagan test site. Details of the work are unknown.

From the available information, it follows that the main objective of the “Samolet-M” project is to upgrade existing types of interceptor missiles in order to improve their characteristics. This assumption can be confirmed by a test launch of the 53Т6 rocket at the end of the 2011 year. According to media reports, this rocket was equipped with a newly manufactured engine, and the launcher and ground equipment of the Amur-P test range underwent some modifications.

If the assumption of creating a layered missile defense system is true, then in the future new types of interceptor missiles may appear (or have already appeared, but this has not yet been announced). In addition to the existing 53Т6 antimissiles, a product with a large firing radius can be created to replace the decommissioned 51Т6 missile. In addition, it is possible to develop a short-range missile, the task of which will be the destruction of targets that have managed to break through the previous two defense echelons.

It is safe to talk about the upcoming modernization of the existing ground elements of the A-135 system. After upgrading, the existing radar station Don-2Н and the command-computing center will be able to get new opportunities corresponding to the updated weapons. Do not exclude the possibility of building new facilities of similar purpose.

All work on the subject "Samolet-M" / A-235 is conducted in an atmosphere of strict secrecy and to date only a few pieces of information have become publicly available. For this reason, the current status of the project remains unknown. The project may be terminated or is ready to conduct field tests. It is possible that over the next few years or even months, developers and the military will publish the first information about the latest project, which will allow to make sufficiently fair estimates.

***

The development of domestic missile defense systems started in the fifties of the last century and continues to the present. During this time, scientists and engineers have created and built several dozen different components of missile defense systems: radio-electronic systems, interceptor missiles, various structures, etc. In addition, a separate mention worthy of experienced systems at the Sary-Shagan test site. All these titanic efforts led to the emergence of a unique missile defense system protecting Moscow.

Since 1971, the Soviet Union and then Russia have a system that allows them to detect an enemy ballistic missile in a timely manner and destroy it on the way to the capital of the state and the surrounding areas. Over the past forty years since then, three systems with different types of equipment and weapons have been on duty - А-35, А-35М and А-135. In the future, the new A-235 complex with even higher performance should appear. The emergence of this system will allow maintaining an effective antimissile “umbrella” over Moscow for the next few decades.


On the materials of the sites:
http://pvo.guns.ru/
http://priozersk.com/
http://old.vko.ru/
http://militaryparitet.com/
http://popmech.ru/
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-354.html
Author:
Photos used:
http://militaryrussia.ru/
Articles from this series:
Missile defense of Moscow. Part I
Missile defense of Moscow. Part II
32 comments
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  1. Baikal
    Baikal April 24 2014 08: 09
    +7
    According to some reports, the warranty period 53Т6 (PRS-1) has already expired. In December 2011, a test launch was made at a training ground in Kazakhstan with the aim of extending the service life.

    Good going. The sound is just super wink


    Curious features:
    Length: 10 m (according to other sources - 12 m; 12,02 m)
    Diameter: 1 m (1,7 m; 1,72 m)
    Weight: 10 t (9693 kg)
    Type of warhead: special (nuclear)
    Warhead Power: 10 CT
    Shooting range max .: 60 km (50 km)
    Firing range min .: 10 km
    Height of the affected area max .: 30 km (45 km)
    The height of the affected area min .: 5 km
    Rocket speed: 5 km / s (3600 m / s) belay
    Flight time: no more than 12 seconds

    Acceleration to maximum speed (according to various sources) - 3 — 4 with
    Launcher exit time from launch - 0,2 — 0,4 s
    Maximum overloads:
    - longitudinal - 210 g; transverse - 90 g
    Missile deflection angle after launch: up to 70 degrees
    Type of launcher: mine.
  2. zmeigavrila
    zmeigavrila April 24 2014 09: 11
    +3
    He began his service in 2000 at the Don-2N radar. The structure itself is very impressive. The truth is, in those days there was serious devastation. Everything worked solely on the enthusiasm of the officers. Now, they say, it has become better.
  3. clidon
    clidon April 24 2014 09: 55
    +1
    The complex according to modern requirements is seriously outdated. Nuclear part, fairly low number of intercepted warheads, short range. It is necessary to do something on the basis of modern long-range missiles. Let's see what the S-500 can do in this field.
    1. Baikal
      Baikal April 24 2014 10: 11
      +1
      Isn't the nuclear part an advantage? Well, it seems, that ... guarantees request
      1. clidon
        clidon April 24 2014 10: 25
        -1
        For the population of the protected goal and the state as a whole, on whose territory precipitation then falls out - no.
        1. clidon
          clidon April 24 2014 14: 12
          +2
          Judging by the minus, there are many fans of induced radiation here?) Well, let's estimate a simple example, a fairy tale - from the territory of Pakistan (Iran, Israel, China, India, etc.), some Islamic terrorists launch a captured rocket and fly to Nerezinovsk. The government of the country wringing its hands shouts that the missile "according to some information" is non-nuclear, the terrorists claim that they have installed a nuclear warhead there. Well? Are we launching rockets (one at a time, the probability of interception is less than one) with vigorous heads that will explode in the sky over the Kremlin and fall into the region with radioactive fallout? Or we believe on the word of the government of that country, which in a time pressure mode is trying to understand (together with domestic intelligence officials) whether the bandits could actually put nuclear warheads there and cancel the launch, recommending that the population "take cover just in case."
          1. Lugansk
            Lugansk 19 September 2014 14: 28
            0
            Quote: clidon
            Judging by the minus, there are many fans of induced radiation here?) Well, let's estimate a simple example, a fairy tale - from the territory of Pakistan (Iran, Israel, China, India, etc.), some Islamic terrorists launch a captured rocket and fly to Nerezinovsk. The government of the country wringing its hands shouts that the missile "according to some information" is non-nuclear, the terrorists claim that they have installed a nuclear warhead there. Well? Are we launching rockets (one at a time, the probability of interception is less than one) with vigorous heads that will explode in the sky over the Kremlin and fall into the region with radioactive fallout? Or we believe on the word of the government of that country, which in a time pressure mode is trying to understand (together with domestic intelligence officials) whether the bandits could actually put nuclear warheads there and cancel the launch, recommending that the population "take cover just in case."
            1. Induced radiation is another.
            2. the warhead is not nuclear, but thermonuclear, there will be very few radioactive isotopes, see the explosion on Novaya Zemlya.
            3. in an explosion at high altitude, above 30 km, half of the release will go into space.
            4. It is better to increase the weak background of radiation from which almost no one will suffer than to get huge damage, from which by the way more people will die.
          2. Lugansk
            Lugansk 19 September 2014 14: 28
            0
            Quote: clidon
            Judging by the minus, there are many fans of induced radiation here?) Well, let's estimate a simple example, a fairy tale - from the territory of Pakistan (Iran, Israel, China, India, etc.), some Islamic terrorists launch a captured rocket and fly to Nerezinovsk. The government of the country wringing its hands shouts that the missile "according to some information" is non-nuclear, the terrorists claim that they have installed a nuclear warhead there. Well? Are we launching rockets (one at a time, the probability of interception is less than one) with vigorous heads that will explode in the sky over the Kremlin and fall into the region with radioactive fallout? Or we believe on the word of the government of that country, which in a time pressure mode is trying to understand (together with domestic intelligence officials) whether the bandits could actually put nuclear warheads there and cancel the launch, recommending that the population "take cover just in case."
            1. Induced radiation is another.
            2. the warhead is not nuclear, but thermonuclear, there will be very few radioactive isotopes, see the explosion on Novaya Zemlya.
            3. in an explosion at high altitude, above 30 km, half of the release will go into space.
            4. It is better to increase the weak background of radiation from which almost no one will suffer than to get huge damage, from which by the way more people will die.
      2. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 30
        0
        the nuclear part does not guarantee anything :))) only if total destruction :)
        just have a means of guaranteed delivery of this YABCh :)
    2. pavel_SPB
      pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 29
      -1
      Do you know what are the current requirements and are competent in this?
      1. clidon
        clidon April 24 2014 15: 32
        0
        Modern requirements are non-nuclear interception and long range.
        1. pavel_SPB
          pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 37
          +1
          what are you ????
          and where is it written ??? you won’t tell me ??? what textbook ??? I probably didn’t teach me that way at the Space Academy ... and the teachers were mistaken giving me other information ....
          1. clidon
            clidon April 24 2014 16: 12
            0
            It is written in logic. Or do you think the worst characteristics are the future?
            1. Lugansk
              Lugansk 19 September 2014 14: 32
              0
              Kinetic interception is for single purposes only, it is not suitable for a massive strike, the Soviet developers of the missile defense system were not fools.
            2. Lugansk
              Lugansk 19 September 2014 14: 32
              0
              Kinetic interception is for single purposes only, it is not suitable for a massive strike, the Soviet developers of the missile defense system were not fools.
              More precisely, kinetic interception is effective only until the separation of the warhead, that is, it is effective only at the initial stage.
  4. Saburo
    Saburo April 24 2014 10: 51
    +2
    I have quite a short distance from the mine’s missile defense mine. Hiding from prying eyes behind the Metro hypermarket building. I once went there, from the side everything looks pretty sad, but it seems that the object is functioning.
    1. pavel_SPB
      pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 21
      +1
      it's a disguise :)))))))) from the outside and from the outside, everything should look like this from the most curious .... all the fun inside :)
    2. podpolkovnik
      podpolkovnik April 24 2014 15: 24
      -1
      Quote: Saburo
      I have quite a short distance from the mine’s missile defense mine. Hiding from prying eyes behind the Metro hypermarket building. I once went there, from the side everything looks pretty sad, but it seems that the object is functioning.


      After reading this material, very polite people in suits from one well-known office will come to you so as not to tell too much ...... hi
      "Shast GPU to Aesop
      And grab him for ... oops!
      The moral of this fable is chsen -
      No more fables ... "
      1. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 33
        +1
        unlikely .... because 2 V / H with such missiles are in summer cottages :) therefore he did not say anything new here :)
      2. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 40
        0
        podpolkovnik and you also have a direct relationship to HF and East Kazakhstan ????
  5. pavel_SPB
    pavel_SPB April 24 2014 11: 07
    +2
    and I was on one such launch last year !!!!!! it's really cool !!!!

    Quote: clidon
    The complex according to modern requirements is seriously outdated. Nuclear part, fairly low number of intercepted warheads, short range. It is necessary to do something on the basis of modern long-range missiles. Let's see what the S-500 can do in this field.


    and what else can you say ??? have you ever seen the whole thing alive ??? what would you say?


    Quote: zmeigavrila
    He began his service in 2000 at the Don-2N radar. The structure itself is very impressive. The truth is, in those days there was serious devastation. Everything worked solely on the enthusiasm of the officers. Now, they say, it has become better.


    better ... and much better))))))) and Sofrino rises a little there))))))))
    1. clidon
      clidon April 24 2014 11: 30
      0
      I can say this from completely open information. The range of the complex is 300 kilometers (according to the agreements), the warhead is nuclear.
      1. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 20
        +1
        well, so be content with open information :) and don’t make yourself an expert .... no offense :) but you don’t even know a small part :))) 300 km range - is that all you know ???
      2. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 25
        -1
        yes, you comrade judging by the comments above .... not just a couch warrior))) you are the whole know-it-all general on missile defense systems, SPRN and KKP))) where are we to you
      3. pavel_SPB
        pavel_SPB April 24 2014 15: 27
        +1
        and if I write in open information that there the warhead is not nuclear but PF ... you will believe this too and will prove to everyone with mouth that it is so and you are so smart here ???
        1. clidon
          clidon April 24 2014 15: 55
          0
          Information about the nuclear part was confirmed from many sources, and not "just someone wrote in Wikipedia", including the official ones. The figure for 300 kilometers is also official.
          In the meantime, in the role of a mysterious connoisseur "I know a lot of things, but I won't tell you", you are the ones who play here.
      4. Dentist
        Dentist 22 August 2014 08: 16
        0
        this is nonsense for NATO - no one will even give old information on old missiles as China, Korea and the rest of the camps can do the same anti-missiles! In air defense, we are in the first place, based on the fact that even the old S-300 punch cards are still able to shoot down the American F-22! Do not underestimate our weapons, even if they are not numerous, but they are the best! A long time ago they launched a satellite - supposedly 2 sun to illuminate those areas of the earth where the polar winter travels, it did not open and forgot about it a supposedly unsuccessful launch, but in reality it could be a weapon and put lenses on it and reflect sunlight! who in childhood didn’t burn or burn through a magnifying glass ?? In orbit, a half-meter lens can actually burn cities!
  6. Mareman Vasilich
    Mareman Vasilich April 24 2014 11: 12
    +1
    The main thing is to go forward. The old and tested is a kind of guarantor, the key to success on a new one. A new one is always pleasing to the eye.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. salamandra2826
    salamandra2826 April 24 2014 14: 57
    0
    He was in 82-83 years in Sary, served in another department. He went out into the air [from the building] after the flight of the rocket, but such a tangle in the sky he had never seen again in the sky which she left unforgettable [fantastic maneuverability].
  9. dawn
    dawn April 24 2014 16: 08
    +1
    It is clear that the nuclear warhead was not delivered from a good life — an ordinary warhead did not guarantee the defeat of the target. Hopefully, a hundred modern level of technological development will allow to hit the target with fragmentation fields with a conventional warhead or direct hit by a missile
  10. 52
    52 April 24 2014 17: 21
    +2
    A nuclear warhead will be present in every way in any air defense system, no matter S-75 or S-500, 600, ... 900. This is an all-overwhelming club, and there will never be a dilemma for any head of state: to lose a city or a certain number of radionuclides scattered in different territories that are not always densely populated.
    1. clidon
      clidon April 24 2014 19: 43
      +1
      Then we have all the air defense systems are exclusively with nuclear munitions? ) A missile defense should protect the country both in peacetime and in case of limited use by the enemy of long-range missiles. Therefore, I certainly understand that in the war of the apocalypse, the extra hundred nuclear warheads blown up over Moscow will not do anything special. Those who cover up will sit in bunkers underground.
      1. Dentist
        Dentist 22 August 2014 08: 28
        0
        nuclear warheads are the last frontier of defense, for a missile or warhead in space, a missile defense from a nuclear b / h should be something like poplar! How much poplar do you need to build money ??? I assume a billion rubles based on the fact that a wasp or a needle costs several million rubles - so decide for yourself which is cheaper and faster to build! Based on the fact that even Israel cannot completely protect itself from launching unguided missiles worth $ 150), you look at Israel when they have money or missiles they always send troops in Gaza - to at least somehow limit launches - imagine 14 grad aimed at israel i can cram in a hail of 40 rockets ?? if 40 then 14 degrees is 560 missiles in 1 minute, even if Israel drops 200-300 missiles, then the rest will get where you need to! In the gas clearly multiplied by zero Jews by anti-missile)) This is an economic war!
    2. Dentist
      Dentist 22 August 2014 08: 03
      0
      You are all 100% mistaken. We have 3 air defense systems, Troops, naval, civilian. And they are developed by different design bureaus! If you take into account the factors of their use, they will be equipped with different military units: nuclear, high-explosive, shrapnel and ballistic! Against airplanes and cruise missiles, you can use a sharpener or high-explosive b / h, ballistic b / h will be used against warheads and satellites in space, and if a rocket or warhead breaks into a 200-kilometer zone, then nuclear b / h will be used to completely destroy it. . All this is regulated by the laws of physics - launching an anti-ballistic missile from a nuclear b / h into orbit - this is about how to launch a satellite - it’s tender like poplar, bulova, or the like rockets! Much easier to go Americans with their cm-3! Typically hypersonic rockets are still at a speed of 15-20 km / s, I think this is nonsense, at these speeds in the atmosphere these missiles will burn, not to mention maneuvering, I think the permissible speed for the atmosphere is a maximum of 10 km / s, but I I think based on the fact that American shuttles at a speed of 23km / s burn up to hell without even entering the 30km zone of the stratosphere! Therefore, it is not worth saying that everything will be nuclear! In all reports, no one will tell the truth about pro and air defense even by 15%! They will lie in speed, range and control! By the fact that all this info under the bar is secret !! and those who are here or on other sites spreads it is a traitor! I personally shot those who sell such data!
  11. Bongo
    Bongo April 25 2014 02: 48
    +3
    Satellite image of Google earth: "Don-2N" radar station, near antimissile silos.
  12. The comment was deleted.