"Khrushchev" as the first restructuring
However, the facts suggest otherwise. “Perestroika”, organized by Mikhail S. Gorbachev, which led to enormous geopolitical, territorial, economic and demographic losses (they cannot be compared with the invasion of the Hitlerite hordes), was not the first. The first “perestroika” in the Soviet Union was headed by N. S. Khrushchev, who essentially implemented the strategic plans of the American and British intelligence services. It is enough to recall the 20 / 1 memorandum of the US National Security Council (“Tasks for Russia”) of 18 in August 1948 (sometimes referred to as the “Dulles Plan”). The first "perestroika" in the USSR was not completely completed. Khrushchev could neutralize. However, he brought a lot of evil with his business.
Khrushchev's poisonous trail stretches from his affairs in Ukraine. The organization of the assassination of Stalin and Beria allowed Khrushchev to lead the USSR and make a radical reversal of the country. The USSR abandoned the former civilization and state policy. No wonder that Lyndon LaRouche, an American economist and political activist who was a candidate in eight presidential elections in the United States, accused Khrushchev of a number of his speeches in the direct betrayal of the people of the USSR and the political line of his former leadership.
Often, modern publicists and researchers, including those of a socialist nature, shield Khrushchev, make him a fool, a jester with a “tyrant” who can only knock on the podium and promise to show the Americans “fucking mother”. Like, the jester pea, worked and did not give himself a report on what and why. However, this is a mistake or a conscious deception. The nearness and a certain simplicity were just an image, a kind of cover, behind which was the true nature of Khrushchev.
It must be said that Khrushchev even Stalin was able to convince that he was a kind of “shirt-guy”, a man from a plow, and many political subtleties are inaccessible to his understanding. Therefore, Stalin did not notice the threat from Khrushchev. He deceived Beria too. Lawrence Pavlovich did not understand Khrushchev, even for a long time considered him a friend. Beria comradely helped the “simple guy”. When Beria figured out the true essence of Khrushchev, it was already too late. "Jester" held all and reached the top of the Soviet Olympus, eliminating all competitors.
In this case, it is not necessary to consider Khrushchev and the "genius" who won all the court struggle. He was a cunning man, but he did not have the mind of Stalin or Beria. If you take his biography, it seems that he was "led" by others, much smarter and more powerful, forces and people. They needed such a person at the throne or on him. With the help of Khrushchev, it was possible to deliver a mortal blow to the Stalinist empire. It was a man-destroyer.
Khrushchev at the beginning of his career was a repentant Trotskyist. At the beginning of the 1920s, he was nearly wiped out of the party because he was “moved”, that is, he got carried away with personal enrichment. Khrushchev repented of his sins before Kaganovich, who became his first patron. Then his career was promoted by Stalin's wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva. The rise of Khrushchev took place against the backdrop of the purges of the Trotskyists and Zinovievists. In 1935, Khrushchev led the Moscow party organization and fully manifested his brutal nature in the campaigns of the “big terror” in Moscow, and then in Ukraine. In January 1938, Khrushchev was appointed first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. Khrushchev was not a sadist or a pathological killer, like some members of the Leninist Guard, but he was a soulless careerist who was ready to go after their heads for personal gain. An interesting fact is that many of these figures, who in those years "bent the stick," paid for it and became the "victims" of Stalinist repression. However, Khrushchev passed this fate.
And in the future Khrushchev was distinguished by a strange "unsinkability." Thus, in the 1942 year, Khrushchev, being a member of the military council of the front, along with Marshal Tymoshenko, suggested attacking near Kharkov from the Barvenkovsky bulge. The General Staff objected, considering that the offensive from the ledge, an almost ready "boiler", was dangerous. However, Khrushchev insisted on his own, convinced Stalin. It all ended in a catastrophe of the entire southern strategic direction. The German armies were stopped only in Stalingrad and in the North Caucasus. Others paid for such mistakes with their heads, with their careers, at least with reductions in rank. Khrushchev did not suffer at all. In 1943, he even got the rank of lieutenant general.
In 1946-1947 Khrushchev again in Ukraine, led by the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR. By his ill-considered actions, he worsened the work of agriculture and seriously aggravated the situation. At the time, and so was a poor harvest. Hunger began. Khrushchev seemed to fall into disgrace, but immediately became the head of agriculture. Here, too, he screwed up his experiments and "reforms." However, Khrushchev is not only not punished, but also appointed the first secretary of the Moscow regional party committee and secretary of the Central Committee.
Khrushchev took part in the conspiracy against Stalin. It is clear that he himself could not invent this thing. But he took advantage of the general mood. During this period, the “old guard” (except Beria) feared a new “purge”. The USSR and the party was on the verge of a grandiose change. Stalin planned to “refresh the blood” of the party and state elite. The process of change of personnel was gaining momentum and threatened the “old guard” with the loss of warm places and feeding places.
In fact, the death of Stalin and then the murder of Beria were the first steps of the “first perestroika”. At the October 1952 Plenum, Joseph Vissarionovich expressed the opinion that tentatively in 1962-1965, if the economic growth rates in the Soviet Union remain the same, the transition from socialism to communism will become possible. And this transition will begin with the elimination of money. They will remain only for trade with other countries. Stalin challenged the entire "backstage of the world", so its Soviet periphery was activated and did everything to prevent it. The Stalinist course threatened the masters of the West with complete defeat. The very basis of their power was undermined - the monetary system with its loan (usurious) interest.
It was also necessary to get rid of Stalin because Joseph Vissarionovich put forward the idea of a gradual reorganization of the Communist Party. She was the governing body was to become a kind of forge of management personnel ("the Soviet Order of the Sword"). The party was planned to be removed from real power, it had to focus on educating people and society. Management was to pass into the hands of elected Soviet bodies. This perspective greatly frightened most of the “old guard”. In its depths and was born a conspiracy that led to the elimination of Stalin and Beria.
The second terrible blow to the future of the USSR was Khrushchev's report on the personality cult of Stalin at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR in February 1956 of the year. This report became a kind of reference point for the “restructuring” of the USSR, the abolition of the Stalinist course, which led to the construction of a qualitatively different society, a society of creation and service. Anti-socialist and anti-people reforms began, which ultimately destroyed the USSR in 1991. In addition, the anti-Stalinist campaign in the country undermined the credibility of Moscow by members of the socialist camp. So, relations with China were spoiled, where respect for Stalin was very great.
Khrushchev's “perestroika” dealt a powerful blow to the Soviet armed forces and security agencies. It should be noted that Khrushchev initially used the generals for their own purposes. First to eliminate Beria. In this case, he was greatly helped by Zhukov. Beria was dangerous because he planned to continue the Stalinist course and uncovered an anti-Stalinist conspiracy. True, I did not have time to do anything. He was simply killed, without trial. The appearance of the investigation and the court organized after the murder. At the same time, under the cover of the “Beria case”, a wave of terror swept among diplomats, intelligence officers and in the scientific institutions supervised by Beria.
Khrushchev and his masters struck at the Soviet security system. Dekanozov and Kobulov were shot as “executioners of Beria”. Although they had nothing to do with punitive bodies, they were engaged in diplomacy and intelligence. Cleaned up scientific institutions. The strategic intelligence system was deliberately crushed, which helped us win the Great Patriotic War and get ahead in the field of advanced technologies. The best specialists in this field — Reichman, Sudoplatov, Eitingon, Meshik, Zarubin, Korotkov, and others — fell under the roller of repression. Some were liquidated, others were planted, others were dismissed. Those who survived, then long bothered about rehabilitation.
Gradually removing the former allies, Khrushchev was able to get the full power. Malenkov was removed from his post as chairman of the Council of Ministers. He was also helped by the military. Minister of Defense Bulganin received the post of head of government, and Zhukov became Minister of Defense. Then the “anti-Party group” lost its posts - Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich and their supporters. Again Khrushchev supported Zhukov. However, he soon paid for his short-sightedness. Khrushchev feared a popular and strong-willed marshal, who could become an obstacle in the "optimization" of the armed forces. Just four months after the victory over the "anti-Party group," when the Minister of Defense went abroad, Khrushchev made a decree "on the cult of Zhukov’s personality and his penchant for adventurism, opening the way to Bonapartism." Marshall fired from all positions and dismissed. Then Khrushchev dismissed Bulganin, becoming the head of the government.
Having received the full power, Khrushchev showed himself in all its glory. The military was "optimized." Priority was given to ballistic missiles, nuclear arms. The remaining types and types of troops underwent a serious reduction. Moreover, they cut them alive, massively reduced the most experienced combat personnel. Destroyed the Stalinist program for the construction of the most powerful ocean naval fleet. Even the ships already ready or at various stages of construction were safely sent for scrap. The rest remained on paper.
A powerful blow was dealt to the Air Force. Khrushchev believed that a certain number of ballistic missiles were enough. Under Stalin, a tremendous amount of work was done to create the aircraft industry. The most important industry, without which the country's full sovereignty is impossible, was created practically from scratch. More than a dozen different design bureaus appeared, in which excellent domestic fighters, attack aircraft and front-line bombers were designed. The best scientists and engineers of the country worked in these design bureaus. After the war, strategic bombers began to be created. Dozens of people worked in the Union aviation factories, engine-building enterprises and plants for the smelting of aircraft alloys. It was on this magnificent legacy that Khrushchev struck. Many pilots then, with tears in their eyes, recalled how hundreds of excellent machines were scrapped. A number of promising programs were closed. Thus, Khrushchev's "military reform" is well reminiscent of the "reforms" of Gorbachev and Yeltsin, when the "excess power" of the Soviet superpower was reduced.
Khrushchev's “reforms” were chaotic and disorderly, and at the same time they were systematic. The essence of this system is destruction. With all their apparent confusion and irregularity, with all the broadest spectrum of Khrushchev inventions, one can always single out one common pattern. All reforms led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Khrushchev's transformations shook the Soviet system, weakened the USSR. In order for the Soviet people to disbelieve and become disillusioned with socialism, in the government's course, Khrushchev at once destroyed the basic socialist principle: "To each according to his work." Everywhere in the USSR introduced equalization. No matter how hard you work, you won’t get more of your bet. Labor devalued. Under Stalin, a professor or designer could receive more than a minister. Under Khrushchev, a high-class specialist could receive less than an ordinary worker. At the same time, labor standards were raised, and wage growth was frozen. In fact, Khrushchev ended Stalinist socialism. Under Stalin, how much you earned, and received so much. The output standards did not increase monthly. The output standards increased depending on the introduction of new capacities, technologies and equipment in production.
The violation of the basic socialist principle unleashed the party and the state from the people. The party-bureaucratic nomenklatura began to degenerate rapidly, to separate from the common people. The top of the nomenklatura began to turn into a new class of exploiters. It is clear that it was a long process, invisible to most people. But by the 1980 years, the process of decay became irreversible and led to the death of the USSR. New "masters of life" wanted to become official "boyars." For this, Gorbachev's “perestroika” was launched. Khrushchev socialism gradually turned into a form of capitalism - state capitalism. And the constant rise in prices for essential goods, which began under Khrushchev, was the main feature of a capitalist society.
Blow to agriculture
Khrushchev, considering himself a great specialist in the field of agriculture, launched several destructive projects at once. At the end of the Stalin era and in the first years after his death, agriculture developed successfully. However, the successful rise of agriculture quickly came to an end. Khrushchev suddenly ordered the liquidation of state machine-tractor stations (MTS). These state-owned enterprises on a contractual basis with agricultural collective farms carried out their production and technical services. Most of the collective and state farms did not have enough money to independently buy complex agricultural machines, tractors and ensure their uninterrupted work, to train the corresponding personnel. In addition, the technology in the first stages was not enough, and there was a need for its concentration and centralized distribution. The concentration of large-scale agricultural equipment in the MTS gave in such conditions a great economic gain. In addition, the MTS played a significant role in the general rise in the cultural and technical level of the peasantry. In the USSR, a large stratum of rural technically literate population appeared - skilled tractor drivers, drivers, combiners, repairmen, etc. In total, there were about 1958 million people by the 2 year.
Khrushchev also liquidated the MTS and ordered the collective farms to buy out tractors, combines and other equipment. And the prices were set high. Collective farms had to spend all the savings that were left over for 1954-1956 for the purchase of equipment. Collective farms could not immediately create an appropriate base for the storage and maintenance of equipment. In addition, they did not have relevant specialists. They could not massively attract former employees of MTS. The state could afford to pay MTS workers a bigger salary than collective farms. Most workers found a different use. As a result, many cars turned into scrap metal. Continuous losses. This greatly undermined the economic potential of the Soviet countryside.
Nikita Khrushchev launched a campaign to consolidate collective farms. Their number was reduced from 83 thousand to 45 thousand. It was believed that they would unite into powerful "collective farm unions". As a result, Khrushchev hoped to implement his old project on the creation of "agro-cities". However, this project required large investments, which the collective farms did not have. Collective farms and so have spent the last funds for the purchase of equipment. As a result, the enlargement campaign failed.
At the same time, Khrushchev struck another blow to the Russian countryside. Moscow took course on the elimination of "unpromising villages." The “experts” who came from where they began to evaluate which villages could be left and which had no prospects. Top descended instructions to search for "unpromising" villages. Residents of "unpromising" villages were resettled, villages and farms were empty throughout the Soviet Union. This campaign has caused terrible harm to the Russian countryside. First of all, the indigenous Russian regions suffered. The damage was multifaceted - from damage to agriculture to a demographic attack on the Russian people. After all, it was the Russian village that gave the main increase to the superethnos of the Rus.
All this took place against the backdrop of investing huge amounts of money and effort on development of virgin and fallow lands of the Volga region, South Siberia, Kazakhstan and the Far East. The idea was correct, but it was necessary to conduct the case rationally, gradually, without a constant race and work in hand. The program was supposed to be long-term. However, everything was done in a hurry. The development of virgin soil gave rise to several misfortunes. On the one hand, this hasty and ill-considered project has invested a lot of money, money and effort. This money could be used more profitably. Thousands of specialists, volunteers and equipment threw themselves on the “virgin front”. According to the Komsomol assignments, young people were driven into the Kazakh steppes, they sent technical specialists, sent whole issues to teachers, doctors and agronomists. They also sent young collective farmers from "unpromising" places. In fact, it was a massive deportation of Russians from their indigenous lands, which at that time were deserted. On the other hand, after a few years, vast areas of developed lands began to turn into desert and salt marshes. There was an environmental problem. Again, we had to invest a lot of money and effort, now for rescue activities, such as forest plantations.
Added "corn fever", "meat campaign" and "dairy records", which finally knocked down agriculture. In the Soviet Union, there was the problem of forage crops, and Khrushchev declared corn a panacea for all ills. In many ways, it was influenced by a trip to the United States, where corn was one of the main crops. In 1955 — 1962 The area under corn has doubled. Had to reduce the crops of other cultures. Moreover, corn was sown even in those regions that did not fit this agricultural crop due to its natural and climatic conditions. So, there are even jokes on this subject: “Well, Koryak brothers, we sow corn?” “We sow,” answered the Koryaks, putting on fur coats. About crop failure Khrushchev did not want to hear. Those managers who could not ensure the corn harvest were removed from their posts. Therefore, many executives, in order to maintain their posts, wrote about high yields, went for fraud, registry.
In 1957, the “meat campaign” began. Khrushchev called for three years to triple the production of meat. The first secretary of the Ryazan regional committee Larionov promised to triple the production in a year. The idea was supported by some other areas. Larionov received for this the promise of the Hero of Socialist Labor. In the region, in order to fulfill this promise, they began to slaughter all the young stock and buy meat from the population and outside the Ryazan region. The purchases had to spend funds that were allocated for construction, health care and education. Plan fulfilled. However, next year the region was obliged to raise the bar even more. The region was unable to give almost anything, the funds were spent, and all the cattle were beaten. Larionov committed suicide.
Began and so-called. "Second collectivization". In 1959, all personal livestock were ordered to be redeemed from the population, and household plots and household plots were prohibited. They say that household farms prevent collective farmers from giving up all their labor for the benefit of the Motherland. Household farms gave the collective farmers considerable support, supplied products to the markets. Now the already living poor peasants were ruined. The flight from the Soviet villages began: many left for the cities, others to the virgin lands, where there were decent earnings and it was possible to "break out into people."
To be continued ...
- Alexander Samsonov
- "Khrushchev" as the first restructuring
"Khrushchev" as the first restructuring. Part of 2
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