Khrushchev launched large-scale reforms in industry. In 1957, the course was set for the decentralization of the national economy. Branch ministries, allied and republican, were liquidated. Instead, they began to create economic councils (councils of the national economy) on a territorial basis. In one or another area, factories and plants, which often belonged to different departments and branches, began to be united under general management.
This led to chaos, disruption of supply and financing, severing of industry connections and other negative processes. As a result, economic councils began to be enlarged, republican, and then all-union, regional governments were created over regional ones. However, the situation is not straightened. After the resignation of Khrushchev, it was decided to abandon economic councils and return to the sectoral management system. Industrial ministries restored.
There were other "imbalances." Under Stalin, during industrialization and post-war reconstruction, priorities were given to heavy industry, the production of means of production. Then it was justified. However, under Khrushchev, the bias in favor of heavy industry even exceeded that of Stalin. If in 1954, heavy industry accounted for 70% of products, by the beginning of 1960-s, the list reached 75%. Consumer goods simply began to disappear from the shelves. And this while the destruction of agriculture.
Khrushchev's experiments in the sphere of national economy led to an outflow of gold from the country. By 1965, the government sold over 3 thousand tons of gold. Most of it was sold in 1963 — 1964, when the economic reform of 1957 of the year gained its full force. In 1964, there was a significant shortage of bread, the country was on the verge of starvation, and for the first time the Soviet leadership stories countries went to the purchase of grain abroad. In 1920-1940-ies the Soviet peasantry was very hard, but the bread was exported. Earned currency. Under Khrushchev, Soviet gold flowed to the West.
Khrushchev laid a few "mines" and under the administrative-territorial division of the USSR. On his initiative, in 1954, the Crimea region from the RSFSR was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Crimea never belonged to Ukraine, but it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. It remains unknown who from advisers suggested this idea to Khrushchev, but it turned out that this case was implemented with his hands. An interesting fact is that the idea of transferring Crimea to Ukraine was advanced by American President Wilson and his advisor House in 1919 year. They promoted it at the Paris Peace Conference. Thus, Khrushchev, apparently unwittingly, realized the strategic plan of the Anglo-Saxons.
In addition, in 1957 — 1958. national autonomies of previously deported peoples — Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingushes, Karachays, and Balkars — were restored. These peoples have the right to return to their historical territories. As a result, the educational effect was disrupted. Moreover, the deported peoples received benefits, benefits. In January, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was restored 1957. Moreover, in the republic, the Naursky and Shelkovsky districts with the predominant Russian population remained in 1944 from Stavropol Territory to the Grozny region. Previously, the republic included several Cossack districts of the Terek right bank; they had the status of “national autonomies”. Now they were returned to the CIASSR, but without autonomy.
Kizlyar district, inhabited by the Cossacks, was cut off from Stavropol and transferred to Dagestan. Chechens who were returning from exile were prevented from settling in their former places, in the highlands. Sent to the flat land, which had previously been mastered by the Cossacks. An increase in the number of Chechens began in Naursky and Shelkovsky districts. The return from the deportation of Karachai, Balkarians, Ingushs led to hidden moves of the Ossetian, Circassian and Kabardian peoples, who expanded their possessions in 1944 year. Now they were relocated, expelled. As a result, numerous “mines” of interethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus were laid, which will work during the collapse of the USSR.
The blow to the reproduction of the population and the church
As already noted, Khrushchev’s experiments in agriculture caused great harm to the Soviet countryside, leading to its bleeding. Another blow to the people was the decree that allowed abortion. In 1936, due to a difficult demographic situation, abortion operations were banned under the penalty of criminal responsibility. Decree of the CEC and SNK of the USSR on June 27 1936 "On the prohibition of abortion ..." The resolution also increased material assistance to women in childbirth, established state assistance for multi-families, expanded network of maternity homes, nurseries and kindergartens, etc. At the same time, abortions could be carried out for medical reasons.NOVEMX November 23, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council C SSR "On the abolition of the prohibition of abortion," the operation of the abortion was allowed to all women in the absence of medical contraindications.
It should be noted that the USSR was an advanced country in this matter. In all developed Western countries, abortion was still banned. In 1920, the Soviet Republic became the first country in the world to legalize termination of pregnancy at the request of a woman. It should be noted that in the 1920 year, the Trotskyists prevailed in the Soviet government. In 1955, the course that led Russia-USSR to destruction again prevailed. For comparison, a similar law in Great Britain was adopted only in 1967, in the USA - in 1973, in France - in 1975, etc.
Khrushchev's “Thaw” was marked by a new wave of persecutions against the Russian church. The party was led by the main ideologist of the party, M. A. Suslov. Across the Soviet Union, churches began to close again. They were given as warehouses, warehouses, clubs, etc. If under Stalin, mutual understanding was established between the state and the church, and the number of active temples reached 20 thousand, and many churches were rediscovered, then under Khrushchev, just over 7500 remained. The arrests of priests and believers resumed.
A powerful blow was inflicted on the Old Believers. Old Believers who did without priests (besopovtsy), were declared "sectarians." They closed the prayer houses of the Old Believers, destroyed their communities. From the territory of the Old Believer settlements, the masses exported ancient icons of the XVII — XVIII centuries, ancient church books and manuscripts. Many of them were invaluable, as they contained information about the true history of Russia and the Russian people. A significant part of these artifacts was lost, died (as in the vaults of the Grozny Museum, the repository of the Grozny University), or disappeared in private collections, leaked abroad.
Back in the period when Khrushchev did not have full power, he visited China in the fall of 1954 with Mikoyan and Bulganin. The outcome of the trip was the concession to China of all Soviet rights in Manchuria, the loss of Port Arthur and the Far. Stalin was also going to give Port Arthur to the Chinese, but in view of Beijing’s response. It was planned to create joint ventures. Now all the military bases, ports and railways built by Russian and Soviet hands were handed over immediately and unconditionally. Moreover, all previously created joint ventures were destroyed, their assets transferred to the exclusive ownership of China. In addition, Beijing has also received new large loans. The USSR continued to create the industrial and scientific-technical base of China.
In the 1955 year, almost simultaneously with the creation of the Warsaw bloc, the Soviet Union concluded an agreement with the Western powers on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Austria. This serious concession was also made without any reciprocal concessions from the Western powers, without an expression of readiness for compromise. On the contrary, during this period the West continued the course of confrontation. In 1954, the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) was established. At the initiative of the United States, a military-political bloc of countries in the Asia-Pacific region was created, which included Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, and Western powers that have possessions in the APR — the United States, Great Britain, and France. In 1955, the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) was established. The military-political grouping in the Middle East includes: Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. In addition, West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1955. Not so long ago, defeated Germany was recognized as a full ally of the Western powers and quickly armed.
And at this time, when the West was actively arming and building military-political groups in various regions of the world against the USSR and its allies, Moscow unilaterally gave the most important strategic bridgehead in Central Europe - Austria. And the Austrians themselves were sympathetic to the Soviet people. Provocations and protests did not suit. There were no reasons for withdrawing troops from Austria - neither external nor internal.
We did not have time to digest these Khrushchev initiatives, as new ones appeared. In the spring of 1955, Khrushchev, Mikoyan and Bulganin visited Yugoslavia and restored "friendship." They unilaterally apologized, the blame for the gap was completely laid on Moscow. The Soviet delegation yielded to Tito on all issues and agreed to considerable economic assistance, in which Yugoslavia, which was then in international isolation, was in dire need. In exchange, the Soviet Union, as in China, received nothing. In addition to assurances of "deep friendship" and "cooperation". The Stalinist foreign policy course, when Moscow firmly defended its interests and knew how to take its own, was forgotten. Belgrade, however, retained its “special position”, not joining either the Warsaw Pact or the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. Yugoslavia preferred to conduct a “flexible policy”, benefiting both from cooperation with the Western powers and from the support of the Soviet Union.
In the summer of 1955, in Geneva, for the first time after Potsdam, a conference of great powers was held. It ended in complete failure. All proposals of the Moscow delegation on collective security, on the "German issue", the Western powers together and unequivocally shoals. However, in the USSR and abroad, the Geneva Conference was presented as the greatest success. They spoke about the possibility of peaceful coexistence, the cooperation of the spirit of systems, the continuation of negotiations, etc. Khrushchev, who represented Moscow, also received his share of fame. It should be noted that he, despite a number of his quirks, created in the world an image of a great statesman, a man fighting for peace and progress. Later, the same methodology will be applied to Gorbachev. The more Khrushchev and Gorbachev "broke firewood" inside the USSR and surrendered to the position of the Soviet state abroad, the more brilliance and attention they fell in the West.
Khrushchev continued to take the position of Moscow. In September, West German Chancellor Adenauer visited Moscow 1955. During this visit, Moscow recognized and established diplomatic relations with Germany. And again, unilaterally, without concessions from the Western powers. The Western world did not even think of recognizing the German Democratic Republic (GDR), which was under the influence of the USSR. The Western powers did not want to consider the Soviet proposals on West Berlin either. So, among the Soviet proposals, the idea was to give West Berlin the status of a free city. However, in favor of the "friend" Adenauer Khrushchev made concessions. A broad gesture of “good will” was made - the German prisoners still remaining in the Union were released and returned to Germany. At the same time, they conducted a broad amnesty among collaborators (“Vlasovites”).
In October 1955, Khrushchev made visits to India, Burma and Afghanistan. These states did not join the USSR, but they did not support the West, remaining neutral. However, they also received large loans for economic development. Only for one construction of a metallurgical complex in India 135 million dollars were allocated. A similar system will be installed with many other neutral or “friendly” states. It will develop after Khrushchev. As a result, it turned out that even neutrality was rewarded at the expense of the USSR. It is clear that Moscow has received versatile contacts in these countries and certain benefits. However, often huge amounts of money and the efforts of Soviet specialists were wasted. The resources that needed to be directed to internal development were simply thrown to the wind. Moscow produced parasites that believed that the USSR was obliged to support and help them.
In 1950-1960-ies. the old colonial system was falling apart. The Western powers began to build a new system of control - through finance, economics, education, access to new technologies, culture, etc. The era of neo-colonialism began. Moscow tried to pull new states to its side. Here Khrushchev launched unprecedented in its scale financing, support for regimes that were declared "friendly." It is clear that various African and Asian regimes willingly expressed "friendship" in order to get help from the USSR in the development of the economy, infrastructure, science, education and culture. However, future events have shown that in most cases, huge folk remedies flowed abroad in vain. For example, Egypt was assisted against the aggression of England, France and Israel, allocated a huge loan in the construction of the Aswan hydroelectric station. However, Egyptian President Nasser continued the "flexible" policy. A similar picture could be seen in Iraq.
Nikita Sergeevich continued his activities to "defuse tensions". Summit meetings were held with the heads of the Western powers. In 1959, the first visit of the Soviet leader to the United States took place. Shine of American cities made a tremendous impression on the tradesman of Khrushchev. The Secretary General visited Washington and Camp David, as well as New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Des Moines and Ames. Khrushchev met with the president and vice-president of the United States - D. D. Eisenhower and R. M. Nixon, with the UN Secretary-General D. Hammarskjold, with the American governors and senators, with many journalists and trade union leaders. Speaking at the UN General Assembly, Khrushchev called for disarmament. Then the Paris Conference was convened, a meeting was held with the American President Kennedy in Vienna (4 June 1961 of the year). All these activities ended in nothing. The West did not compromise, trying to impose its will on the USSR.
However, Khrushchev continued to unilaterally take steps that were supposed to show the peacefulness of Moscow. Khrushchev agreed to the point that he proposed to carry out complete disarmament in the future, to disband the national armed forces, retaining only the police formations. In the future, Gorbachev will act in the same spirit. Only for some reason only the USSR will disarm. Western "partners" will pat on the shoulder, praise, while they themselves will continue the policy of covering their bases with the USSR-Russia.
Khrushchev imposed a moratorium on nuclear testing weapons and made a large-scale reduction of the Soviet armed forces - from 5,8 million to 2,5 million. And everything was done in a big way, for several years. The most experienced officers who went through the Great Patriotic War and the war with Japan were reduced by tens of thousands. Disbanded the compound schools. Under the knife, a number of important military technical developments were launched that could give the USSR the opportunity to be ahead of the whole world by 20-30 years. Cut new ships and aircraft. However, the West was in no hurry to support the initiative of Khrushchev. The North Atlantic Alliance did not reduce its armed forces, and the Western powers continued their nuclear tests.
Moscow under Khrushchev radically dispersed with Beijing. Mao Zedong was displeased with criticism of Stalin. In addition, he immediately felt the weakness of Khrushchev. The system “elder brother (USSR) - younger brother (China)” collapsed. The USSR and China have become competitors. Including the struggle for liberated countries from colonial oppression. As a result, the socialist system began to disintegrate.
These and many other failures did not discourage Khrushchev. He was ready to continue the reforms. But his "perestroika" activity was coming to an end. Discontent matured not only among the people, who began to respond to Khrushchev's experiments with spontaneous speeches, but also among the Soviet elite. Even the party nomenklatura, which had recently been its main support, rallied against him. Khrushchev did a lot for her. He strengthened the position of the nomenclature, its right to a privileged position. However, with his constant reforms, continuous changes and breaks in the already established order, he did not let the nomenclature live in peace. And the popular uprisings, while continuing the destruction of the national economy, threatened with a large-scale popular uprising.
The plot was organized by his own comrades, Mikoyan, Suslov and Brezhnev. To prepare a plot was not difficult. Khrushchev was constantly traveling around the country and around the world. The October plenum of the Central Committee 1964, which was organized in the absence of Khrushchev, freed him from party and government posts "for health reasons."