Military Review

Saber kick of Svyatoslav on the Khazar "miracle-yuda"

93
The Khazar Khaganate in the 10th century was a fairly strong state, influencing world politics. An interesting fact is that such "canonical" sources, like the Tale of Bygone Years, rather sparingly inform about the powerful neighbor of Russia. Although according to other sources, the war with Khazaria constituted the main occupation of the first princes of the Varangian dynasty, who began the struggle for the liberation of the Slavic tribal alliances in the South from the Khazar yoke.


In Kiev, have not forgotten the events associated with the defeat of the mission of Adalbert ("Coming on you!" Educating the hero and his first victory), and already new news excited the townspeople. Prince Svyatoslav and his team defeated Christian missionaries, effectively removing Mother Olga from power, firmly taking over the reins of government. A short but eventful reign of a prince-warrior begins. Kiev in this period was filled with the spirit of a druzhny, which the prince actively supported. Next to him were the gray-haired commanders Sveneld, Asmud, and others who had gone through the war with Byzantium and the eastern hikes. Squad replenished and young warriors. Warriors from tribal unions, "hunters", arrived in Kiev. The city was filled with rumors of new hikes. The question was - where will the young knight direct his shelves?

Svyatoslav decided to complete the work of his ancestors and crush the parasitic state of the Khazars, who lived at the expense of trade duties, holding in his hands all the exits from Eastern Europe to the east and southeast. The Khazars took huge duties from merchants' caravans, and at a convenient opportunity they simply robbed Russian merchants. Under the rule of the Khazars were Slavic lands, which paid tribute to the Khazars. The Khazar elite replenished their wealth at the expense of the slave trade. Thousands of Slavs were sold to eastern countries. In addition, there is an assumption that Svyatoslav wanted to avenge the death of the Prophetic Oleg. According to one version, it was the Khazar "snake" (symbol of betrayal) that caused the death of Prince Oleg. In the period of 912 / 914, the Russian army went on a campaign in Transcaucasia and Persia, on the way back it was ambushed and the Khazars almost completely destroyed it with a long bloody battle (Caspian campaign Rus 912 year). Even if Oleg did not fall in this battle, the blood of Russian soldiers appealed for revenge, as well as thousands of other Rus killed in fights with Khazars or captured and sold into slavery. The Ruses then lived on the principle of blood for blood, responding to a blow with a blow.

Saber kick of Svyatoslav on the Khazar "miracle-yuda"

Tribute to the Khazars, the miniature of the Radziwill Chronicle, 15th century.

In the spring of 964, the roads barely dried up, the Russian army marched. The squads did not go the usual way along the Dnieper, in boats, but on horseback and on foot to the east. Later, the chronicler will note: “I give the idea to the River Oka and the Volga, and the Vyatichi go to hell, and to the recipe of the Vyaticha:“ To whom do you give tribute? ”They decided (said):“ We’ve given Kozarom from ral (plow) ”. In this short phrase is covered a whole page of Russian stories - the epoch of the liberation of the Eastern Slavic lands from the Khazar yoke and their unification into a single Russian state. Khazar Khaganate was a traditional opponent of Russia, the enemy stubborn, cunning and cruel. Wherever it was possible, the Khazars opposed Russia, closed the road to the East, creating a powerful anti-Russian alliance as part of Volga Bulgaria, Burtases, some tribes of the Volga region and the North Caucasus. The Khazars did not rejoice at the fact that a powerful Varangian dynasty appeared in Russia, which began to work hard to unite the Eastern Slavic lands into a single whole and seriously reduced the influence of the Khazars on the Russian lands. Now, the Vyatichi, a strong tribal alliance that occupied lands in the basin of the Desna, the Upper and Middle Oka, the tributaries of the Oka, on the Don (in Arab sources, the country Vantit), stopped paying tribute to the Khazars and became part of the Russian state.

For more than a century, Russia, step by step, ousted the Khazar Khaganate from Slavic territory. In addition, the Khazar Khaganate was weakened by the civil war, when the Jews seized power, drowning their rivals in blood. The Crimean Goths came under the rule of Byzantium. The steppes between the Volga and the Don began to occupy the Pechenegs. Guzes appeared on the eastern borders. Volga Bulgaria began to show more independence. Now refused to pay vyatichi. But in the middle of the 10 century, Khazaria was still a serious opponent and the main enemy of the growing Russian state. The Khazar Khaganate represented a serious military threat to Russia. Archaeologists have discovered a whole system of stone fortresses on the right bank of the Don, North Donets and Oskol. One white-stone stronghold was located at a distance of 10-20 kilometers from the other. Cemeteries were found near the walls, and mercenary soldiers were buried in them. The fortresses were located on the right, western and northwestern banks of the rivers. An important role in the construction of these fortresses was played by Byzantine engineers. So, Sarkel (Belaya Vezha) on the bank of the Don was built by Byzantine engineers led by Petron Kamatir. “Since there were no stones suitable for building a fortress on site, he built furnaces and burnt a brick into them, he made a fortress building of them, making lime from small river shells,” wrote Konstantin Bagryanonny in his work “On Empire Management”. Sarkel became the main fortress of the Khazars on the northwestern border of the country. It housed a permanent garrison of 300 warriors.

If fortresses were to solve defensive tasks, they should have been located on the east bank, making an additional, natural defensive line from the river. On the right bank, these were outposts, actually advanced to the enemy shore, necessary as springboards for attacking, covering the crossing of troops and their withdrawal. Of these, small detachments committed predatory raids. Close to this line of the Khazar fortresses came Slavic lands. Arab geographer Al-Idrisi reported that Khazar vassals regularly made raids on the Slavs, in order to steal people for sale into slavery. These were not just spontaneous raids, but long-term, targeted and regular robbery (“sucking blood”) from the state of the parasite. As noted above, in the last period of the Khazars, the power in it was seized by the Jews representing the caste of rakhdonites (radhonites or radanity). These were merchants who controlled trade between the Islamic East and Christian Europe along the Silk Road and other trade routes, a huge permanent trading network stretching from China and India to Western Europe. One of their main "goods" were people. It was a caste of people acquiring enormous riches on the mountain, suffering and death of thousands and thousands of people. The Rakhdonites controlled Khazaria, and were also one of the main "pushers" (the second was Rome) of the military-political process, known as the "rush to the East." In Europe, knights and mercenaries killed the Slavic civilization on the lands of modern Germany and Austria. Slavic men in their mass died in battles, and Jewish merchants drove children and young women to markets in the Middle East. From the east, the same role was played by well-armed detachments of mercenaries from Khazaria.

Russian epics have preserved the memory of the Khazar attacks, so the epic “Fedor Tyarin” reports:

From the east was
From the king was Jewish,
From his power Yiddish
Arrived Kalena arrow.

Many Slavic unions of tribes and tribes paid tribute to the Khazars for a long time. Glade, according to the Tale of Bygone Years, was paid homage with swords. Given what the sword meant for the warrior of the northern peoples, and the complexity of its production, the high cost of living, it was a heavy tribute. But even harder and more terrible were paying tribute to other lands - northerners, Viatichi and Radimichi. They not only paid tribute with silver (shlyag - Khazar coin, the word comes from the word shekel, according to another version - from the European "shilling"), but also according to the information of the Laurentian and Ipatiev chronicles they took from "smoke" (household, family) veveritse ". Historians have long argued what it means and agreed on a "squirrel." However, as early as the 15 century in the Moscow principality (formerly the land of the Vyatichi), the penalty for a bruise was 15 (!) Squirrels. Thus, Russians from Russians, and not from a family, a community, but from one person, not as a tax, but just a fine for a petty offense (a fight) took 15 squirrel pelts. Everything becomes clear if we compare the data with another chronicle. The Radziwill Chronicle reports that the Khazars took: “according to the white girl with smoke”. And next to it in miniature, so that there was no mistake, they didn’t take it for a slip of hands, a group of girls and an elder are shown, bowing before Khazarin. This is fully consistent with the data that are known about the Khazar Kaganate. In the Khazaria rules of the clan of slavers, alien to the norms of morality and who measured everything in gold. Perhaps it is this shameful and disgusting phenomenon that will become the basis for fairy tales and byli “miracle yudah the shit”, “snake” demanding red maidens. In a somewhat later historical period, the Crimean Khanate, living on plunder and selling people into slavery, would be the same parasitic state. By the time of Svyatoslav’s rule, people almost did not pay this tribute, the military successes of the former princes had an effect. However, the Khazars continued to take people in full for sale into slavery during their military raids.


Khazaria.

Pogrom of Khazaria

In the spring of the 965 regiment of Svyatoslav I will move to Khazaria. The prince spent the winter in the lands of the Vyatichi, convincing their elders of the need to submit to Kiev. Vyatichsky warriors joined the army of Svyatoslav. They were skillful forest warriors and scouts. Russian commanders loved to ask unexpected and daring riddles to their opponent. Even the experienced and sophisticated Greeks, who had well-developed intelligence, were at a standstill during the lightning and unexpected attacks of the Russian troops on Constantinople. Svyatoslav also chose an unusual way. He decided to strike the capital of the Kaganate not from the west, from the north. The Khazars, on the other hand, usually waited for the arrival of the Rus by water from the Don and the Sea of ​​Azov.

The Russian army went along the old trade route leading to the banks of the Volga, to the city of Bulgar - the capital of the Volga Bulgars. From Kiev, Russian trade caravans went to the area of ​​modern Voronezh, then through the forest-steppe lands to the Penza region and south of Tambov, then through the Mordovian lands to the right bank of the Volga. It was on this path that Svyatoslav subjugated the Vyatichi and moved on. He struck at the permanent allies of the Khazars - the Bulgars and Burtases. Svyatoslav defeated the Allies of Khazaria, depriving Kagan of part of military contingents. The Burtas were broken and scattered, the cities of the Volga Bulgars were captured, their capital was devastated. The enemy did not expect a strike from the north, so the resistance was small. Burtasy and Bulgars preferred to flee and wait out the thunderstorm.

Russ went down the Volga and entered into the possession of the Khazar Kaganate. Infantry moved on lodyah, and the Russian and allied Pechenezh cavalry along the coast. The Khazars, having learned about the approach of the regiments of Svyatoslav, were made in battle. Somewhere in the lower reaches of the Volga, near the capital of the Kaganate, Itil, a decisive battle took place. Khazar King Joseph managed to gather a large army. The king (bek) was the head of government, who had real power, and the kagan with the Jews retained only sacral functions. The Khazars marched towards the Russian troops.

The Khazars adopted Arab tactics, and in battle lined up in four battle lines. The first line - skirmishers, consisted of horse archers, "black Khazars", mainly from poor families. Among the Arabs, the first line was called "Dog Barking Morning". These warriors were not constrained by heavy weapons, the basis of their weapons made bows and light throwing spears-darts. They began the battle first, showered the enemy with projectiles, trying to upset his ranks and force him to a premature and poorly organized attack. The second line, supporting horse archers, consisted of heavy cavalry. These were the "White Khazars" - the squads of the Khazar nomadic nobility. The warriors were well-armed - iron breastplates, leather armor and chain mail, helmets, shields, long spears, swords, sabers, clubs, axes. It was a selective cavalry, striking at the enemy’s disrupted ranks, breaking his line. For Arabs, the second line was called “Day of Help”.

If the second line did not reach full success, and the enemy continued to resist, the third line entered the battle. The heavy cavalry parted ways and went on the attack (or took the enemy's blow upon themselves) another line - “Shock Evening”. It consisted of numerous infantry, including the militia of the capital. The basis of infantry weapons were spears and shields. The infantrymen, to repel the attack of the enemy, lined up a protective wall, hiding behind shields and bristling with spears. The first row was kneeling down. The shafts of the spears rested against the ground and with their points directed towards the enemy. To overcome such a wall without serious losses was difficult. While the third line was fighting, the Khazar cavalry could regroup and strike a new blow at the enemy who was stuck in the infantry.

In case of emergency, the fourth line could be entered into battle - in Arabic “The Sign of the Prophet” (the Khazars called it the “Sun of the Kagan”). It was the thousands of selected guards from the mercenary warriors. The line was equestrian, chained into iron, professional Muslim mercenaries. This line was taken to the battle personally by the king. The appearance of the Russian army near the walls of Itil puzzled the Khazar elite, before that the Slavs were limited to border raids. Therefore, King Joseph carried out a full mobilization of all combat-ready inhabitants of Itil. The arsenals of the capital were enough to arm everyone. The Khazar army significantly surpassed the army of Svyatoslav.

Russian troops were the usual "wall". In the front ranks, the most well-armed and protected warriors of Svyatoslav are the elite of the Russian army. The advanced warriors were protected by metal armor and chain mail covering even the warrior's legs, with shields. They were armed with spears and axes. They were followed row by row by the rest of the infantry. The cavalry - the prince's squad and the Pechenegs covered the flanks.

Khazar king ordered to give a signal to attack. The Khazar lines one after another broke on the Russian “wall”. The Khazars could not do anything with the soldiers of Svyatoslav. Russian army continued to attack, knocking over enemy forces time after time. Russ boldly went into battle, smashing the enemy with spears, swords and axes. The field was littered with the corpses of the Khazars. In the end, the Khazars could not stand it and ran. Some researchers believe that the kagan also fell in this battle, who left the capital to cheer on the soldiers with his sacred figure. King Joseph with the remaining Guardsmen went on a breakthrough and was able to break out of the encirclement, at the cost of killing most of the detachment. Itil had no one to defend. The remaining troops fled.

Russian squads entered the deserted Khazar capital. The townspeople fled to the steppe or took refuge on the numerous islands of the mouth of the Volga. The fate of Itil can be understood only by the fact that archaeologists have not yet discovered its traces. Sacred revenge took place. It seemed that you can move to Russia - the main goal is completed. The Khazar Khaganate suffered a terrible defeat, his army was destroyed, its remnants scattered, the capital was wiped off the face of the earth. Kaganate received a mortal wound. But the campaign was continued. Gadinu had to finish. Svyatoslav led the retreats along the Caspian coast to the south, to the old capital of Khazaria, Semenderu. It was a large city on the territory of the Caspian Dagestan. Semender was ruled by its own king, who had his own army and fortresses. It was an autonomous region. Semenderskoe army was crushed and scattered over the surrounding mountains. King Salifan (from the Arab family) and the nobles fled. Semender taken without a fight. Further south Svyatoslav did not go.

From Semender, Svyatoslav's army marched through the lands of the Kasogs and Alans. Alan-Kasozhsk rati regiment Svyatoslav also swept. Another major clash with the Khazars occurred at the fortress of Semikar, built to protect the land route to the mouth of the Don. The garrison refused to surrender to the mercy of the winner. The fortress was taken by storm. The movement of the troops was swift. While some regiments were resting, others moved forward, carried out reconnaissance, cleared the way, shot down enemy barriers, captured herds of horses. Svyatoslav led the troops to the coast of the Surozh (Azov) Sea. Here were located two large centers of the Khazar state - Tamatarkha (Tmutarakan) and Kerchev. There were no serious fights here. Local residents also suffered from the power of the Khazars and as the Russian army approached, an uprising broke out in Tmutarakan. Khazar governor threw the citadel and, together with the garrison on the ships, crossed the strait and fled to Crimea, to Kerchev. However, the Khazars could not defend the Kerchev (Korchev) either. And here the people revolted, helping to take the city.

Prince Svyatoslav in Tmutarakan and Korcheva showed not only the courage and high fighting qualities of his rati, but also his discipline and justice. The inhabitants of the coastal trading cities were not the enemies of the Rus and the cities did not destroy and burn. Cities became part of Russia. Thus, reaching the coast of the Azov Sea, Svyatoslav defeated most of the Khazars. From the Khanate there were only fragments that were left to be “eaten” by the Pechenegs.

In Khazaria there was only one “tough nut” - Sarkel. It was one of the most powerful fortresses of Kaganate. Having set aside a detachment of retainers and grateful residents in Tmutarakan, Svyatoslav moved on. Soon there will be another Russian region - Tmutarakanskaya principality. Sarkel had six powerful towers, visible from afar. The fortress stood on a cape, which from three sides was washed by the waters of the Don. From the fourth side a deep ditch filled with water was dug. At the distance of the arrow from the walls, from the land, a second ditch was dug. Sarkel was considered impregnable. In the fortress there was not only a garrison, but King Joseph took refuge with the remnants of the troops. In the White Wiege there were large warehouses with food supplies, which made it possible to withstand a long siege. The king of Khazaria hoped to wait out a military thunderstorm in this powerful fortress and begin to restore the ruined.

The Russian army approached the fortress from land — cavalry, and infantry along the river in boats. The siege began. In this battle, the Ruses showed the ability to take well-defended fortifications by storm. Ditches covered with earth and all that was suitable for this business. When the Russian troops moved to the assault, their arrows (complex Russian bows were terrible weapons) showered the walls with a hail of arrows. The fortress was taken on a spear using assault stairs and ram. The last fierce battle took place in the tower of the citadel, where the Khazar king tried to fight off with protection. There was no mercy, all the Khazars were slaughtered. This battle showed that Svyatoslav’s warriors would not be stopped by serious fortresses. Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich returned to Kiev with fame and rich booty.



Results

It was a brilliant victory. The ghoul state, a century and a half drank the blood of neighbors and tributaries, collapsed in a year. Svyatoslav made an unprecedented military campaign for that era, a length of about 6 thousand kilometers. During it, hostile Bulgars and Burtases were defeated, the Khazar Empire experienced a terrible pogrom and disappeared from the political map of the world. Svyatoslav and his army showed brilliant fighting qualities. Svyatoslav used combined tactics using infantry, heavy Russian and allied, light Pecheneg cavalry. He moved swiftly, often landing infantry on ships when the cavalry was on land. Russian army defeated not one strong enemy army, captured several serious fortresses.

As academician B.A. Rybakov wrote: “The campaigns of Svyatoslav 965-968. they represent, as it were, a single saber strike, which drew a wide semicircle on the map of Europe from the Middle Volga region to the Caspian Sea and further along the North Caucasus and the Black Sea region to the Balkan lands of Byzantium. The Volga Bulgaria was defeated, the Khazaria was completely defeated, Byzantium was weakened and intimidated ... The locks that locked the trading routes of the Rus were knocked down. ” The Russian state got the opportunity to start a wide trade with the East. Rus created outposts in Tmutarakan and in the White Vezha. “In all these actions we see the hand of the commander and statesman who is interested in the elevation of Russia and the consolidation of its international position. A series of campaigns of Svyatoslav Igorevich was wisely conceived and brilliantly executed. ”

Russian sources are silent about what steps Svyatoslav took to control the conquered land. This gave some researchers a reason to accuse Prince Svyatoslav of excessive militancy, wasting of his forces and resources on campaigns unnecessary to Russia. But the knowledgeable Arab geographer and traveler Ibn-Haukal reveals the nature of the relationship between Rus and the local population. The Burtas, Bulgars and Khazars, defeated and scattered by the Rus, soon returned to their lands. “They,” the Arabic author informs, “hoped, asked for an agreement with them, and they would be submissive to them (the Russians) because (the Ruses) did him (Shirvanshah) a blessing for them (the refugees).” The point is that many Khazars, fleeing from the invasion, fled into the possession of the Shirvanshah to Derbent, and then after some beneficence of the Rus against the refugees through the Shirvanshah were able to return to their lands. This message is very important. It shows that having cut out the Khazar political, military and trade elite (part of them fled), completely destroying the military component of the kaganate, wiping off all its military strongholds from the face of the earth, having generally performed an operation to “pacify” the enemy, the Rus were not going to make trouble for ordinary people . The civilian population was invited to return to the old places. Perhaps Svyatoslav even gave guarantees to Shirvanshah that no harm would be caused to the refugees. Everyone knew that the pagan russes were keeping the word holy. The regions of the Volga region, the Don region, the Azov region, and parts of the North Caucasus passed under Russian patronage. In a number of outposts, small Russian detachments were left.

Svyatoslav received complete supremacy in Eastern Europe. The Volga and North Caucasian allies of the Khazars received a vivid military lesson. Worried in the Byzantine Empire, closely watching the exploits of the Russian prince. The balance of forces in the region has changed dramatically in favor of Russia.


Aerial photography of Sarkel Fortress, 1951g.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Coming on you!" Educating the hero and his first victory
Saber kick of Svyatoslav on the Khazar "miracle-yuda"
Bulgarian campaign Svyatoslav
Bulgarian campaign Svyatoslav. 2 part
War Svyatoslav with Byzantium. Battle of Arkadiopol
War Svyatoslav with Byzantium. Battle for Preslav and the heroic defense of Dorostol
The mystery of the death of Svyatoslav. Great Russia Construction Strategy
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  1. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF 15 October 2013 06: 55
    38
    It is known that after the defeat of the Khazars, many of the Jews there moved to Poland. It was she who before the development of sowing. America was the center of Judaism. Perhaps the aliens from the east infected the Poles with burning, furious Russophobia?
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. Starfish
        Starfish 15 October 2013 12: 50
        +5
        Svyatoslav’s campaign and the defeat of Khazaria is a prototype of our future victory over modern Khazaria.
        and most likely this will happen very soon, for their heirs yearn for revenge
      2. romb
        romb 15 October 2013 13: 23
        12
        Among the Khazars, there were practically no Jews, or rather, they were, but their number was scanty. The version of the Khazar origin of most Jews was put forward by Koestler and Toynbee. Here it is precisely what most researchers refer to.
        In my opinion, if the top of Khazaria did not begin to get carried away with all sorts of socio-political programs aimed at "consolidating the entire Khazar society", one of the stages that became the ill-considered adventure - the adoption of Judaism as the main religion of the ruling class, it is quite possible that the fate of this people could have turned out differently. Whatever one may say, but Judaism still differs from other Abrahamic religions, tk. was the belief of a single people - the Jews. The court arctic foxes did their best to "prove" the fact that the kagan and his family belonged to the Semitic tribe. With which the ordinary nomads clearly disagreed. As a result, instead of unification, there was a very serious split between ordinary nomads, who for the most part remained Tengrians, and the ruling elite - the kagan and individual representatives of the Khazar merchant elite. Unsuccessful wars, attempts to usurp power by various groups, a decrease in the role of Khazaria as one of the trading centers of Eurasia, and the adoption of Judaism as a system-forming religion, all of this together created that unhealthy situation inside Khazaria, and also seriously complicated relations with neighbors.
        1. bandabas
          bandabas 15 October 2013 20: 04
          +5
          So they seized power. The Jews.
          1. edge
            edge 16 October 2013 04: 09
            +3
            Quote: bandabas
            So they seized power. The Jews

            beat the Jews, save Russia, the motto of the black hundred. After Stalin cleaned the ranks of the party from the safes of the Jewish component of the Politburo, a fair amount of gold jewelry, precious stones and other valuables seized from the bourgeoisie and appropriated ............
            1. VARCHUN
              VARCHUN 23 October 2013 12: 22
              +3
              Well, what has changed to the Russian Duma through 1 Jew, in the ministries too, one Zhirinovsky and Chubais is a good example.
        2. Uhe
          Uhe 16 October 2013 02: 41
          +4
          The Khazars were black - pagan Turks, and whites - the sons of the rulers of the Khazars and Jews proper. Among the Jews, the lineage is passed on through the mother, since by that time they had been slaves to different nations for many centuries and could only preserve their "gene pool" in this way - by rejecting the non-Jewish fathers and taking the children of the Jews for the Jews.

          It soon turned out that these children, through the efforts of their mothers, grew up to be Jews. Having come to power, they began their coup, cutting out a huge number of those who resisted. By the way, many Slavs lived in Khazaria, who lived quite peacefully with the black Khazars, since the faith was more or less the same. This "revolution" in the Jewish way turned the country upside down, because the people were divided into two types - the whites chosen by a strange god and the black slaves who were once the masters of their country. Does it remind you of something? ;)

          Both the Slavs and the Khazars proper suffered greatly from these "kids". Svyatoslav's trouble is that he did not take into account the experience of Khazaria and stepped on the same rake - he had a son from Malushka-Khazarka, the former daughter of the deposed kagan. As a result, Vladimir followed the same path as his half-brothers from Khazaria - he turned flourishing Russia into fragmented principalities, which later could not withstand the blow of those forces that could not utter a word earlier in the direction of the Slavic state. For hundreds of years, the Slavic state flourished, and Vladimir and his seed put an end to this prosperity in one fell swoop, laying the mine that continues to explode 1000 years later. This is Svyatoslav's huge mistake - wives must be chosen carefully and thoughtfully with their heads, not their heads.
          1. Corneli
            Corneli 16 October 2013 04: 47
            +3
            Quote: Uhe
            The Khazars were black - pagan Turks, and white - the sons of the rulers of the Khazars themselves and Jews.

            On the territory of Khazaria, separate and very few Jewish settlements appeared no earlier than the 5th century. The Khazars, as a serious force, have been mentioned in that region since the beginning of the 7th century. The first of those who accepted Judaism is considered the clan of Bulan (740 g). But only in the 9th century, this clan gained enough strength to become a bek (and the old royal family, the Khagans, remained pagans). After 150 years, Khazaria was defeated. So how many Jews do you think lived there, not even purebreds, but at least believers? By the way, numerous excavations (at the moment) find only a single confirmation that Judaism was generally in Khazaria (but pagan artifacts are immeasurable). So there was such a dominance of Jews (or believing Khazar-Jews) there.
            Quote: Uhe
            Both the Slavs and the Khazars proper suffered greatly from these "kids".

            The Khazar Kaganate existed before some clans adopted Judaism for 250 years (and less than 150 after, and I don’t think that they were all "baptized" there, like Vladimir Rus, since the Khagans were pagans), according to your 250 years the Khazars were cute, and having adopted Judaism "became brutal. "?
            Quote: Uhe
            As a result, Vladimir went on the same path as his half-brothers from Khazaria - turned blooming Russia into fragmented principalities,

            Strange, are we talking about the same Vladimir? because in my version, Vladimir is the unifying agent. What are the "fragmented principalities"? And Yaroslav the wise than the rules?
            Quote: Uhe
            who could not then withstand the blow of those forces that could not even pickle earlier towards the Slavic state.

            Which and when? Khazars - destroyed. The Pechenegs raided both before and after Vladimir. The Polovtsians appeared later. The Varangians were friends. The Byzantines became related (and they didn’t climb into Russia at all) In short, just without a clue about who you are.
            Quote: Uhe
            For hundreds of years, the Slavic state flourished, and Vladimir and his seed in one fell swoop put an end to this prosperity, laying the mine that continues to explode after 1000 years.

            Under whom did it flourish so much? With the Varangian Oleg? Igor, the Drevlyans (the Slavs seem to be) did not appreciate the prosperity and harshly executed him. Svyatoslav? So he was busy with conquest campaigns most of the time, and Olga collected the rules and taxes.
            And Vladimir bam, and ended up with "prosperity"! Made a single Slavic empire - Kievan Rus! laughing ) And Vladimir also fought oh how much! (and the Khazars also fought with the disadvantages)
        3. Alibekulu
          Alibekulu 17 October 2013 17: 08
          +1
          Quote: romb
          As a result, instead of unification, there was a very serious split between ordinary nomads, who in large part remained Tengrians, and the ruling elite - the Kagan and some representatives of the Khazar merchant elite.
          In "Primordial Rus" V. Ivanov psychologically described the state of the split of the Khazars very well, in the thoughts of the Khazar Khan ..
        4. Rusich51
          Rusich51 18 October 2013 19: 10
          0
          Rhombus.
          All power was in the hands of the Jews; in fact, the Khazars were an oppressed part of the population. Therefore, the Jews were not supported by the people. And the capital Itil is now under the waters of the Caspian. The superethnos of the Jews even then robbed everyone clean. I read the history of Khazaria and marvel at how mercilessly Jews destroyed all peoples.
    2. Dezzed
      Dezzed 15 October 2013 13: 17
      15 th
      comrade skiff

      I share your satisfaction from the fall of the Khazars!

      but I remind you that the Mongolian campaign was opened / facilitated by this.

      were the Khazars worse for Svyatoslav than the Mongols? hardly.
      1. romb
        romb 15 October 2013 13: 27
        11
        The Mongols, unlike the Pechenegs and the Volga Bulgaria, have nothing to do with this event.
      2. Uhe
        Uhe 16 October 2013 02: 51
        +2
        Khazaria of Judah was a historically confirmed state. And the main slave trader of that time, from which the Slavs suffered greatly, because the device of the troops of that time could not protect everyone. There was simply no strength to protect everyone, but it was possible to gather strength and deliver a powerful blow.

        It is not a question of religion, nor of a choice between the Mongols or the Khazars, but only of protection from raids and the taking of their people into slavery in huge quantities. The prince did what the prince should do - he solved the problem of his citizens by military force.

        The trouble is that with the invasion of the Mongols, if this actually happened, Russia was fragmented into small principalities-states with a struggle between two centers of gravity: Kiev and Novgorod. But Vladimir and his descendants are responsible for this. Svyatoslav is only to blame for having conceived such a son from a Jew, which was not worth doing, because through this son the White Khazars avenged Russia for the fall of their kingdom - an energy blow, in fact. But in the case of the defeat of the Khazar Khaganate itself, the act was the only true one for that time. There were no other ways to resolve this issue.
        1. Corneli
          Corneli 16 October 2013 04: 12
          +3
          Quote: Uhe
          The trouble is that with the invasion of the Mongols, if this actually happened, Russia was fragmented into small principalities-states with a struggle between two centers of gravity: Kiev and Novgorod. But Vladimir and his descendants are responsible for this. Svyatoslav is only to blame for having conceived such a son from a Jew, which was not worth doing, because through this son the White Khazars avenged Russia for the fall of their kingdom

          1. Internal wars, in that period were in the order of things. Oleg killed Askold and Dir. Drevlyans banged Igor. Sons of Svyatoslav started a fight with each other and, as far as I remember, Yaropolk (and not Vladimir) started it by killing his brother Oleg ...
          2. The reign of Vladimir and Yaroslav is considered the period of maximum power of Kievan Rus (it is clear that it was built on the deeds of their ancestors), so what kind of "responsibility" of Vladimir are you talking about?
          3. As for his mother, such as a Jew of the Khazars, also, sewn with white thread, where does the information and evidence come from?
          4. What was the "Khazar" revenge? Is that Vladimir the great prince of a mighty state? Have you read about his pre-Christian rule? There, the guy was a pagan from pagans, right down to human sacrifices (let alone his "harem", padishahs at the time, vaasche keep quiet). Or did you find a "Jewish trace" in his acceptance of Orthodoxy and the baptism of Rus? This is also not logical, it is believed that he chose between Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Judaism and Islam. Why did he choose Orthodoxy and not Judaism? (Mom is supposedly a Jew, and in your opinion, and should have brought him up in the same vein ... prepare for "revenge" so to speak)
      3. predator.3
        predator.3 16 October 2013 16: 17
        0
        Quote: DezzeD
        but I remind you that the Mongolian campaign was opened / facilitated by this.

        where the Khazars (965), and where the Mongols (1223)
        1. VARCHUN
          VARCHUN 23 October 2013 12: 26
          0
          What Mongols are you talking about?
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. cdrt
      cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 10
      +2
      Perhaps the aliens from the east infected the Poles with burning, furious Russophobia?

      1. Russophobia taught them many wars lost to Russia laughing and the lost empire
      2. By the way, before the development of North America, Spain was more likely the center (there even a Jewish commander was in the service of the Catholic king), England, Germany. Poland is rather the center of Judaism in Eastern Europe
      1. Uhe
        Uhe 16 October 2013 02: 55
        0
        Quite true for 1 and 2. But the main hatred of the Poles towards the Russians arose on the basis of the difference of faiths: Catholics considered the Orthodox not just Gentiles, but nonhumans, which they did not hesitate to talk about. The leadership in the Slavic world, the arrogance of the Poles and other little things, was imposed immediately, but the basis is the cardinal difference of faith. There was a split and loss of hope for mutual understanding. Christianity split all the Slavs into warring small groups, and then Islam joined in. But once we were united ...
      2. edge
        edge 16 October 2013 04: 17
        0
        Quote: cdrt
        Russophobia taught them many wars lost to Russia laughing and the lost empire

        the Psheks never had an empire: there was a great Lithuanian princedom, then transformed into a Polish-Lithuanian speech, which was then infected with catalism.
      3. Evrepid
        Evrepid 16 October 2013 17: 12
        0
        Here are those on! And how many years did the Poles sit in Moscow?
        So they came like stayed half a day and left? kind of weird! :)

        Somehow you get that the war begins and goes on until you decide that you won it :)
    5. rexby63
      rexby63 15 October 2013 19: 16
      +4
      Not only to Poland, but also to ... Kiev. Svyatopolk the Cursed, Mstislav Vladimirovich, Svyatopolk II fought on Jewish money. Only Batu nukers could constructively influence the size of the Jewish (Jewish) quarter
      1. catapractic
        catapractic 15 October 2013 22: 35
        +5
        In my opinion, Batu Khan’s nukers influenced the size of not only this quarter smile
        1. rexby63
          rexby63 16 October 2013 19: 15
          0
          Well, yes. It is difficult to suspect them of any likes or dislikes. As the hero of the comedy of the times of early capitalism used to say: "Before the bear, everyone is equal."
    6. The comment was deleted.
  2. Humen
    Humen 15 October 2013 07: 01
    14
    An interesting and for the most part now history is already becoming forgotten = (There would be more such articles on different resources.
    1. catapractic
      catapractic 15 October 2013 22: 37
      0
      read Diplomacy of Ancient Russia by Sakhorov, Diplomacy of Svyatoslav he is
  3. Oskar
    Oskar 15 October 2013 07: 19
    12
    By the way, Professor Magomedov in his studies tried to refute the short history of the Khazaria and the version of the complete defeat of Khazaria in the 10th century (according to his version, Svyatoslav did not go further than the Belaya Vezha fortress - he stopped). Kaganate, he said, continued to exist until the 13th century and its capital, Itil, ceased to exist only after the rise of the Caspian Sea level ...
    So, "historians" with speaking surnames reached the early history ...
    1. Pit
      Pit 15 October 2013 11: 50
      +5
      Quote: Oskar
      So, "historians" with speaking surnames reached the early history ...

      Well, here the word "history" speaks for itself - the story will be correct (Iz-Torah-I, where Torah is oral folk art: myths, legends, tales, tales, epics, sagas. Toor - to speak, to pave the way. speak quickly).
      2) STORY TO STORE.
      3) From Old, which sounds like `` history '' in English. The word history appeared in the 4th century BC. has no Greek or Latin roots. The roots of the word are Slavic, since ancient times they have been used in chronicles, denoting antiquity.
      4) Distributors of the biblical concept of the origin of the world created a beautiful substitution, asserting the origin of the term `` history '' from the Pentateuch of Moses Torah (from-Torah-i)

      Modern "historians" are adherence to the first point of the interpretation of the word, I do not know and without trying to find out something, they compose myths that are not justified by anything and push them as the truth, in the last instance.
      1. azkolt
        azkolt 16 October 2013 00: 12
        +1
        Damn, and got here!
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 18 October 2013 19: 12
          0
          Quote: azkolt
          Damn, and got here!

          Who got there? Greeks?
      2. Beck
        Beck 16 October 2013 09: 05
        +4
        Yeah!

        The feature of Russian authors does not disappear to consider millennia-old historical facts from the standpoint as if they had happened yesterday. Hence the crying, unnecessary emotional passages and such phrases - A parasitic state, as if now Russia does not take customs duties. The Khazar yoke, how can one lie like that, there was no yoke. The death of Prophetic Oleg from a mythical bite of a snake by the author of the article is attributed as a reason for going to Khazaria - stupidity.

        This article has little historical credible and many unnecessary emotions. I will illuminate, as far as I know, this moment in history.

        In the second century, the Turkic Huns came to the Volga region, Northern Kazakhstan, the Urals from their ancestral home - the steppes of Mongolia. Here, the Huns were assimilated by the Iranian-speaking Indo-European Aryans - Sarmatians, Scythians and Ugoro-Finns tribes. In the 4th century, half of this cross under the Europeanized name of the Huns went derban Europe and disappeared there. The remaining part gave impetus to the formation of such peoples as the ancient Bulgars, Burtases, Khazars, and others. By the 7th century, the Khazars had intensified and driven out the Bulgars from the lower Volga. A part of the Bulgars ascended the Volga to Kama and formed the Volga Bulgaria (present-day Tatarstan). Another part of the Bulgars, led by Khan Asparuh, went to the lower reaches of the Danube, subjugated the Slavs of the Wallachians there and created the Bulgarian Khanate, which, after centuries, became present-day Bulgaria. The Khazars created a powerful state in the lower Volga region.

        The basis of the Khazaria’s life was cattle breeding, and viticulture and melons were also developed. Customs duties were secondary. And there was a slave trade. And the Jewish merchants of the Rahdonites were not rulers of the Khazars, it was a merchant caste that functioned throughout the Silk Road, and not only in the Khazars, from China to Italy. And this was a dangerous occupation in view of the robbery and murder of the Rakhdonites by both robbers and many rulers on the Path. But it is the Rakhdonites who laid the foundations of current transnational globalization.

        In 520, a civil war broke out in Persia, the Jewish community of Persia sided with one of the parties, and this side was the loser. Exarch of the Jewish community Mar Zutra was hanged. The Jews of Persia fled north and found themselves on a wide plain between the Terek and Sulak. They began to herd cattle, religious rites were not strictly performed, but adhered to the Sabbath and Circumcision. Jews did not fight with the Khazars, they lived neighborly. So they lived 200 years, and in the 8th century they jointly repelled Islamic-Arab expansion and not only repelled, but transferred military operations to Azerbaijan and Armenia. And the conversion of the Khazars to Judaism was not.

        200 years of living together showed one, but influential fact. Many children appeared from the mixed marriages of the Khazar Turks and Jews. The beautiful Jews were willingly married to themselves by the Khazar Beks and Tarkhans. And the Jews married the Khazars. But there was a significant difference between the children of these mixed marriages. The children of the Jew and the Khazars were considered half-breeds, they did not enter the Jewish community, and had no access to the aristocratic staircase of the Khazars. A child from a Bek and a Jewish woman was considered a Jewish community by his own, in view of the fact that the nationality of a Jew is determined by his mother, and the same child had all the exits to the aristocratic staircase from his father's Bek.
        1. Beck
          Beck 16 October 2013 10: 07
          +2
          Quote: Beck
          and this same child had from the father’s beck all the exits to the aristocratic staircase.


          In this way, the Jewish community gradually seized power in the Khazars, making the Turkic Hagan a nominal, honorable ruler who had no actual power.

          In the early 800s, just such a Jew, who became influential thanks to his father Khazar, a certain Obadiya seized power in Khazaria, turning the kagan into a puppet. And so that the Khazars did not overthrow the Jewish "kings", the Jewish community, as it were, demobilized the Turkic Khazars from the military class. The military force of the "Jewish" Khazaria began to be composed of mercenary troops. At first it was the Pechenegs, then the Guzes, then someone else.

          Then many political events took place. The Pechenegs and the Guz became enemies of the Khazars. The hired power of the Khazars became the Turks of Khorezm.

          AND WHEN SPRING 965 YEAR HOLY GLORY WITH HIS FRIENDS MELTED ON BOATS DOWN THE VOLGA, THEN THE STEPENEZHNY CAVILIA was STEPPED ALLIANCE IN STEPPE.

          This is what the ugly historians do not want to notice, highlighting only their own. How they do not want to notice that the Khorezm Türks did not even start fighting, but left. And some resistance was put up not by the "Tsar" Joseph, who was in power at that time, but by the indigenous Khazars under the leadership of an unnamed kagan. But the forces were unequal and the military skill of the Khazars was undermined by the centenary rule of the Jews, who, fearing a Khazar uprising, formed an army of mercenaries.
        2. rexby63
          rexby63 16 October 2013 19: 26
          0
          The children of the Jew and the Khazars are probably the ancestors of the Karaites or Krymchaks. Although probably not so simple
      3. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 18 October 2013 19: 10
        0
        "Tor" = deity of other Slavs, a symbol of lust, similar to Greek. Priapus. But almost all words rooted in the word "Thor" are the beginning of the words "Trade" or "Trade place". It should be noted that in the dictionary of Archpriest Dyachenko ed. 1900 there is no word "Torah", although there is "Bible", and here the spelling of the word "Bible" is interesting - Greek. "The Bible, the Holy Scripture of the Old and New Testament, which for Christians is a book par excellence, or the only one incomparable with other books (of the Holy Content)", where the "Old and New Testament" is capitalized. So the word "Torah" came much later than the word "Historical = historical, narrative, belonging to history." Historiographer = (Greek) = writer of stories. And how, in your opinion, can the words "Hurry up" be translated into modern language? ... not more than - to be frightened, dumbfounded, shy. I can agree with the first option, but only if this word is of Greek origin ...
    2. Corneli
      Corneli 15 October 2013 16: 55
      +6
      Quote: Oskar
      By the way, Professor Magomedov in his studies tried to refute the short history of the Khazaria and the version of the complete defeat of Khazaria in the 10th century (according to his version, Svyatoslav did not go further than the Belaya Vezha fortress - he stopped). Kaganate, he said, continued to exist until the 13th century and its capital, Itil, ceased to exist only after the rise of the Caspian Sea level ...

      In this article infa is also contradictory. If you take the first campaign 964-965 (and here it is described), then according to the article, the Khazars were completely defeated, but who then Svyatoslav fought in 968-969? He threw Bulgaria, recaptured the Pechenegs from Kiev, and for some reason instead of returning to Bulgaria (where he returned later) again went to Khazaria. It is known for sure just after his campaigns that the Khazar Khaganate, as a large and united power, ceased to exist. The Khazars are also mentioned later (Vladimir’s campaign and tribute to the Khazars in 985 or the capture of Prince Oleg by the Khazars and the extradition of Byzantium in 1079), but the same was not the same ...
      P.S. The author’s attitude towards Khazaria is a little jarring (I understand that he doesn’t like Jews, few people love them at all), but nevertheless, I can put the kaganate in pluses to restrain them from moving the nomads from beyond the Volga for several centuries (which was very gut). And also the military assistance (and in some places quite significant) of Byzantium in the fight against the Arab invasion (Again, they did not allow Islam to penetrate into Europe, either through Greece or through the Caucasus).
      In general, the author would have thrown less definitions like "the parasitic state of the Khazars, which lived at the expense of trade duties, holding in their hands all the exits from Eastern Europe to the east and southeast."It is especially interesting how, after such explanations, the author will explain Svyatoslav:
      I don’t like to sit in Kiev, I want to live in Pereyaslavtsi on the Danube - for there is the middle of my land, all the blessings flow there: from the Greek land gold, pavoloki, wine, various fruits; silver and horses from the Czech Republic and Hungary; from Russia fur and wax, honey and Slaves
      PVL, year 969
      It turns out that Svyatoslav was a "parasite" (he wanted to sit on trade routes), and he dabbled in the slave trade (moreover, compatriots)? And how is he better than the Khazars, in this case?
      1. Yuri Y.
        Yuri Y. 15 October 2013 18: 33
        0
        I put you +, I did not understand only where in the quote you quoted it says that the Rusich slaves were said from Russia. There were enough production methods in Russia.
      2. uzer 13
        uzer 13 16 October 2013 00: 10
        +2
        In ancient Russian society, a slave could become a person who did not repay the debt and thereby did not fulfill the conditions of the previously concluded contract. As you can see, the habits have been preserved (this is about lovers of bank loans).
      3. Evrepid
        Evrepid 16 October 2013 17: 43
        +1
        For all 100!

        There is a Russian proverb: "We see a speck in someone else's eye, but we don't notice a log in our own!" one hundred percent about the author.
        Although it is impossible not to take away from him at least an attempt to somehow comprehend.

        The Khozars were considered a lot by a confessional state; there were many Jews and Christians and Zoroastrians in it, etc.
        Yes, actually, one can say in refutation of the author’s words that the Khazar state was defeated?
        Let us remind him of the phrase: "There is no issue from the Don!" It turns out how? won the state, and it says that if someone crossed its border, you get it back! Neither force nor anything!

        And here and so just once and won all! Anika the warrior :)
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 18 October 2013 19: 26
          0
          "There is no extradition from the Don" - referred to the fugitives from serfdom, since, in agreement with the tsarist government, the one who fled to the Don became a resident of the border area and took the first blow in any invasion, for military service the "Cossacks" were given a "grain supply" there is a food supply that allowed not to sow or reap, but also demanded to die first. But very often such "freemen" led to the creation of a robber, when a long time without war led to the impoverishment of the "Cossacks".
          1. Beck
            Beck 19 October 2013 09: 47
            0
            Quote: shasherin_pavel
            "There is no extradition from the Don" - referred to the fugitives from serfdom, since, in agreement with the tsarist government, the one who fled to the Don became a resident of the border area and took the first blow in any invasion; there is a food supply that allowed not to sow or reap, but also demanded to die first.


            Somehow I disagree with you. I have a different interpretation of the phrase "There is no issue from the Don"

            Cossacks arose in the Turkic environment. It was an honor among the Turks that for some time the men were cossacking, that is, they led an independent life of adventurers, living by hunting and raiding into adjacent territories. During the Cossacks, the man did not recognize the power of the khan, the sultan, and had no social obligations to his family, clan, or tribe. At any moment, the man could quit the Cossacks and return to the village to the family and again recognize the power of the khan.

            And according to TRADITIONS, not only the Turk could become a Cossack. The Turkic Cossacks accepted in their midst both the visiting Persian and the runaway Slav. In ancient times, when the South Russian steppes were not yet Russian, there lived Turks and Cossacks - Mughal, southeast of Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, a few Cossacks of the northern foothills of the Caucasus, Desht Cossacks from Irtysh to the Dniester.

            And it was precisely the Turkic Cossacks who concluded treaties with the kings of Rus on the protection of the southeastern borders, for which they received payment for bread and other things. Turkic Cossacks were hired to serve in the city Cossacks, that is, they carried garrison service and took on the responsibility of protecting serif features, that is, to be village cossacks. Stanitsa from the Turkic word Stan is land, a place whose rate goes back to the Aryan Stan - Earth. Therefore, Kazakhstan, Tatarstan is the land of the Kazakhs, the land of the Tatars. In the Russian chronicles it is written that a person free from tax could become a Cossack, and what kind of person in Russia of that era was free from taxes and taxes?

            During the intensification of feudal oppression in Russia and White Russia, to the south, to the Don and peasants, where the Turkic Cossacks lived. First units. According to the Turkic custom, the Türks were also taken by the Cossacks into Cossacks. And the boyar detachments, already sent to catch the fugitives, did not meet the frightened peasants, but removed the team of Turkic Cossacks who knew the techniques of horse fighting, and this team did not give offense to their new Slavic members. From here it went - WITH NO DONATION ISSUE.

            Subsequently, the flow of Slavs intensified, they began to prevail in the Cossacks and, if I may say so, the Cossacks became glorified. And also because the Turkic Cossack showed up he could return to the aul, the Slav could not and did not want to return to the serf yoke. Finally, the Cossacks became Russian somewhere in the early 19th century.
      4. rexby63
        rexby63 16 October 2013 19: 49
        +1
        It is quite possible that the image of the "hero" prince is somewhat artificial. Or maybe not. Over the past twenty years, the most authoritative leader of the state has been a hero twice, and once a tyrant. And that's all, mind you, officially. And who was the person who lived more than a thousand years ago ... Of course, you can trust exclusively the subjective opinion of the chroniclers, but this does not solve the problem. The logic that was guided by the official historians, starting with Karamzin, is as simple as a felt boot - he beat the Khazar invaders, adhered to the faith of his ancestors, and fought bravely against the "coolest commander" John Tzimiskes. Hence - the Hero. Too easy.
    3. edge
      edge 16 October 2013 04: 21
      0
      Quote: Oskar
      By the way, Professor Magomedov in his studies tried to refute the short history of the Khazaria and the version of the complete defeat of Khazaria in the 10th century (according to his version, Svyatoslav did not go further than the Belaya Vezha fortress - he stopped). Kaganate, he said, continued to exist until the 13th century and its capital, Itil, ceased to exist only after the rise of the Caspian Sea level ...
      So, "historians" with speaking surnames reached the early history.

      Rumyantsev did not have time to finish a little .....
  4. Igor39
    Igor39 15 October 2013 08: 28
    11
    The Khazarian Jews dissolved in the blood of the North Caucasus backgammon. 1000 years have passed and again the campaign of the new Svyatoslav is needed.
    1. FC SKIF
      FC SKIF 15 October 2013 09: 56
      +6
      We are not in that phase of ethnogenesis, unfortunately. And, it seems, patience is not over yet. Until...
      1. Evrepid
        Evrepid 16 October 2013 18: 09
        0
        And do you know what your race is called? In English?
        Kazakazian :) Because A true Aryan skull was found in the Caucasus.
        Yes, and somehow it turns out weird ... There are in your opinion some Russians who are more Russian than the population of the south of the Russian Federation, where 85% are carriers of the haplotype R1a1a1 or R1a1b1 of the Russian gene ...
        Where did you find the population with 100% of the haplotype R1a1? Could it be that the Moscow region means where only 45-50% are carriers of the R1a1 haplotype?

        Something is wrong in your synagogue, oh something is wrong ... :)
    2. Skiff-2
      Skiff-2 15 October 2013 20: 56
      +3
      Quote: Igor39
      The Khazarian Jews dissolved in the blood of the North Caucasus backgammon

      If you mean the Chechens and the Dagestanis, then these are the descendants of the hired guard of the kaganate from Gurgan (the city of the wolf) - the vicinity of Karezm, therefore they are called Vainakhs. Part of the Khazars adopted Christianity and dissolved in the Russian people, sex by the name of Brodniki. The garrison of Belaya Vezha (Sarkel) did not show resistance to Svyatoslav, but fled through Polish lands to Lithuanian ones and asked to settle there in the border forests. The Lithuanian princes allowed these refugees from Belovezhskaya Pushcha on the condition of protecting the border and collecting customs duties, and this is the name of this forest region of BELOVEZHSKAYA PUSCHA ever since. I remember there was a great doc about this story. a film on the Jewish channel "Yahad" in the early 90s, and in the "Big Jewish Encyclopedia" it is detailed about this, including the fact that the surviving Khazars all converted to Judaism (before that, only know) and were accepted into the Jewish world as the 13th tribe - Ashkenazic - which actually is not even Semitic, Ashkenaz is the eldest son of Japheth, grandson of Noah. Now about 82% of all Jews in the world are Ashkenazi Jews (again, data from the Great Jewish Encyclopedia, moreover, from the library of the Washington synagogue), and you wonder why they are so to us, to RUSSIANS ...
      1. Igor39
        Igor39 15 October 2013 21: 11
        0
        Jewish channel "YAHAD", "Big Jewish Encyclopedia", Ashkenaz, Japheth, Noah, your sources are Jewish fairy tales. According to European scientists who studied the genotype of the North Caucasian peoples, the Chechens in particular, revealed 17% of the Semitic genotype.
        1. Skiff-2
          Skiff-2 15 October 2013 22: 04
          0
          Quote: Igor39
          Jewish channel "YAKHAD", "Big Jewish Encyclopedia", Ashkenaz, Japheth, Noah, your sources are Jewish fairy tales. According to European scientists who studied the genotype of the North Caucasian peoples, the Chechens in particular, revealed 17% of the Semitic genotype.

          Quite right, or do you think that the Khorezmian guard (in the person of its warriors) did not have any sexual relations during the entire service (life) and did not create a family? Sherche-la-fam, as they say, those percentages are from them. Yakhad Channel, which appeared in Dnepropetrovsk in the 90s, and Protestant activists entered the Washington Synagogue in the 82nd year, opened books and made a good film, very honest and well illustrated, including about Ashkenazov’s affiliated tribe, its history and numbers. All those materials were for internal use, not for goyim ... a surprisingly honest and informative film - then there was a threat of World War III from the Arab-Israeli crush and the guys studied the nature of the issue ...
      2. azkolt
        azkolt 16 October 2013 00: 09
        -1
        This is well described in the book by Tatyana Gracheva "Holy Russia against Khazaria"
      3. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 18 October 2013 19: 47
        0
        Quote: Skif-2
        Ashkenaz is the eldest son of Japheth, the grandson of Noah.

        Actually, in Russian, Askhanaz is the son of Gamer, the grandson of Japheth, the great-grandson of Noah. If you wish, write to [email protected] and I will send you my Table "Genealogy from Adam ..", which was compiled during the translation of the Church Slavonic Bible ed. 1900 If there is a genealogy of Askhenaz, then with great gratitude I will accept it by mail, since there is nothing in the Bible about his genealogy. Only that he had brothers Rifaf and Forgama.
    3. Beck
      Beck 16 October 2013 15: 57
      0
      Quote: Igor39
      The Jews of the Khazars dissolved in the blood of the North Caucasus backgammon.1000 years have passed and again the campaign of the new Svyatoslav is needed.


      The Jews of Khazaria dissolved in many. And you, that there is not enough historical BLOOD. Do you need more than 60 years of bloodshed by the tsarist autocracy in the Caucasian wars? You don’t have enough blood of the Jewish Holocaust? You don’t have enough blood of two modern Chechen wars? WHEN THE SAME LIKE YOU WILL DRINK A HUMAN BLOOD, or never.

      Quote: FC Skif
      It is known that after the defeat of the Khazars, many of the Jews there moved to Poland.


      How is this known? Your known sucked out of the finger. The Jewish settlement of Europe, including central, mainly occurred from the Iberian Peninsula.

      In the mid-15th century, the Reconquista finally abolished the power of the Moors in Spain and established the power of the Spanish Catholic kings. But a significant part of the population of Spain continued to be Moors and Jews. For the spiritual struggle against them, under the guise of fighting against heresy, the Spanish Inquisition was created under the leadership of the Catholic Dominican monk Thomas Torquemada, confessor of Queen Isabella.

      It was this inquisition with bonfires, rears, and torture with iron that wanted to convert the Moors and Jews to the Christian faith. The Moors fled to the north of Africa, Jews to Europe.

      And the Jews of Khazaria did not resettle in Poland. Dissolved somewhere in the spaces. It is known only about Karaite. Karaites are mainly the descendants of the marriage of Jews and Khazars, half-breeds that were not part of the Jewish community of Khazaria, since the nationality of the Jews is determined by mother. And the Karaites were not full Khazars to advance along the aristocratic ladder of government. After the defeat of Khazaria, these Karaites basically settled in the Crimea, spoke the Turkic language and professed a very simplified Judaism.

      After the Crimean campaign, the Lithuanian prince Vitovt, in 1390, relocated part of the Karaites to Trakai, Lutsk and Galich. From where later the Karaites settled in the rest of Lithuania. A few Karaites still live in Crimea.

      PS

      By the way, on the recognition of nationality on the maternal side. You can’t fool the Jews. Example. If the husband is Russian, the wife is Ukrainian, then their child must be Russian, this is generally accepted. But, if the Ukrainian wife secretly gulnul on the side with the chaldon and suffered from him, then the Russian husband will sincerely consider the child his own - Russian, although the child will not have a single drop of Russian blood.

      If the wife is Jewish and gulneth with someone on the side, then in any case, the child will have Jewish blood 50%. Therefore, Jewish women who are not even married to a Jew still give the child half of the Jewish blood. Therefore, the nationality of the Jews is determined by mother.

      You can’t fool the Jews.
      1. lexe
        lexe 16 October 2013 16: 53
        -2
        Beck
        You can’t fool the Jews.

        And we will not lead them, we will drive them.
        Russian people-trainer with a great experience in coaching.
        The trainer is paid little and even humiliated, so he went wild laughing to your students.
        They want to be champions.
        So we are terrible enemies to each other, but we are also terrible allies.
        So the question is not as simple as you see it.
        1. Beck
          Beck 16 October 2013 23: 09
          0
          Quote: Lexi
          And we will not lead them, we will drive them.
          Russian people-trainer with a great experience in coaching.
          The trainer is paid little and even humiliated, so he went wild with his students.
          They want to be champions.
          So we are terrible enemies to each other, but we are also terrible allies.
          So the question is not as simple as you see it.


          DO YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND YOURSELF WHAT YOU BLINKED? IT IS UNDERSTANDABLE - OR YOU A LANGUAGE, THAT YOU DID OR IN THE HEAD OF THE DRAWERS.
          1. lexe
            lexe 17 October 2013 14: 50
            +1
            DO YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND YOURSELF WHAT YOU BLINKED? IT IS UNDERSTANDABLE - OR YOU A LANGUAGE, THAT YOU DID OR IN THE HEAD OF THE DRAWERS.

            Dear, then what is the dispute? Is the Russian people stupid?
            but our language is a true weapon, and by the way you use this weapon.
            I understand you have certain stereotypes.
            Everyone has them! So it is and always will be.
            1. Beck
              Beck 17 October 2013 16: 48
              0
              Quote: Lexi
              Dear, then what is the argument?


              That's exactly what you want to argue about?

              Quote: Lexi
              that the Russian people are stupid?


              But this is a purely ugly, nationalistic question. Uroshniki ask themselves such a question, and then they yell with orm that this is not so. I have not seen on this page from anyone, not a hint that the Russian people are stupid. This is a personally raised question by you. Since stupid peoples in nature, in principle, does not happen by default. There are only stupid individuals.

              Quote: Lexi
              I understand you have certain stereotypes


              And what is it for? Who claimed that there are no stereotypes?

              but our language is a true weapon, and by the way you use this weapon.

              And what's this? I am not an ideologist, not a propagandist to use the word as a weapon. With tongue, I voice thoughts. And why should I not know the Russian language, if I have lived in the USSR for more than half my life. Or write to you in Kazakh - then the dialogue will come out to the highest degree by the dialogue of the deaf-mute.
              1. lexe
                lexe 18 October 2013 18: 58
                +1
                Or write to you in Kazakh -

                do mercy
                And then on each topic, there is a peer review from the Kazakh comrades.
                A kind of Kazakh control laughing
                No offense ponimash laughing Russians have a bad "aura" and we carry a blizzard and a draft in our heads.
                Dostoevsky had such a blizzard laughing that everyone still considers it an honor to learn Russian hi
                1. Beck
                  Beck 19 October 2013 08: 55
                  -1
                  Quote: Lexi
                  And then on each topic, there is a peer review from the Kazakh comrades.


                  As if you don’t have an opinion on any topic posted on the site. Everyone has their own opinion and nationality has nothing to do with it.

                  Quote: Lexi
                  No offense ponimash Russians have a bad "aura" and we carry a blizzard and a draft in our heads.


                  Do not confuse, do not generalize the Russians with your I, with your ego. Russian is not you personally.

                  Quote: Lexi
                  that everyone still considers it an honor to learn Russian


                  Actually, it’s not an honor, but by necessity, most people on the planet, for today, want to learn English.
      2. Bagatur
        Bagatur 16 October 2013 22: 18
        0
        As we say in Bulgaria, father can have as much as you like, but the mat is always one ...)))
      3. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 18 October 2013 20: 17
        0
        Something in the entire Bible did not find a pedigree that would be on the maternal side, but Noah gave birth to Shem, Ham, Japheth. Japheth gave birth to Gamer. Gamer gave birth to Ashanaz. Notice Gamer gave birth, not Gamer's wife. The only female name in all genealogies is the name of the Mother of God - Mary gave birth to Jesus. The most "confusing" story from the Bible is the "Book of Ruth", where Ruth from the line of Moab, was the wife of the son of Elimelech and Naemmina, became a widow without giving birth to a son from him, the daughter of the Moabite clan, remains with Naemmina and goes to her former homeland, there " lays down "in the field under Naemmina's relative Boaz and becomes the successor of the family of Jesus Christ, where Boaz gave birth to Obid, Obed gave birth to Jesse, Jesse gave birth to David. Ruth ch. 4 v.21, 22. 1 Samuel 16: 11. 17: 12. If kinship was determined by the mother, then Jesus would continue the lineage of Moab and not Israel.
  5. kagorta
    kagorta 15 October 2013 10: 10
    +9
    I cast doubt on the saber strike, we met the sabers in the Khazar Kaganate, but they did not find strong use at that time, the sabers armed with the Russian cavalry. They have only spread since the XNUMXth century in Southern Russia.
    1. Dazdranagon
      Dazdranagon 15 October 2013 16: 06
      +3
      This is a metaphor! It means a lightning strike! hi
    2. Dazdranagon
      Dazdranagon 15 October 2013 16: 07
      0
      This is a metaphor! It means a lightning strike! hi
    3. cdrt
      cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 18
      +1
      I cast doubt on the saber strike, we met the sabers in the Khazar Kaganate, but they did not find strong use at that time, the sabers armed with the Russian cavalry. They have only spread since the XNUMXth century in Southern Russia.

      According to available sources, the Rus in the time of Svyatoslav did not use sabers, but straight swords.
    4. edge
      edge 16 October 2013 04: 40
      0
      Quote: kagorta
      I cast doubt on the saber strike, we met the sabers in the Khazar Kaganate, but they did not find strong use at that time, the sabers armed with the Russian cavalry. They only spread from the XNUMXth century to Southern Russia

      uh, don’t argue that the sabers that were found in Altai 800 years old will be and the Russians were familiar with them, and the direct sword is the development of a combat knife, as well as a checker.
      1. Corneli
        Corneli 16 October 2013 04: 59
        0
        Quote: hert
        uh, don’t argue that the sabers that were found in Altai for 800 years will be ancient and the Russians were familiar with them

        Are the Altai mountains in the Caucasus or the Don? Not in Mongolia? Or is it nearby? And the conversation is not about piece copies, but about mass (main) weapons. It is believed that in Altai they began to use sabers in large numbers only in the 7th century, in Khazaria from the middle of 8. And the Slavs were familiar with them, but since in the time of Svyatoslav the Russian cavalry was very rare, they were hardly used very much. After 100 years, yes, the sabers became quite popular (close contact with the steppe contributed)
  6. Bagatur
    Bagatur 15 October 2013 11: 11
    +2
    It’s a pity that Svetoslav’s Romans were bought later and set on Bulgaria ... After his campaign, 968-970 began the agony and desperate struggle against Vistia, which began in 1018 with the destruction of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (681-1018)
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 22
      0
      It’s a pity that Svetoslav’s Romans were bought later and set on Bulgaria ... After his campaign, 968-970 began the agony and desperate struggle against Vistia, which began in 1018 with the destruction of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (681-1018)

      But didn’t the Bohumili with internal decomposition help the Romans?
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 16 October 2013 11: 49
        0
        And it’s not only Romey ... Heres like heresy! But one internal contradiction (each state is natural), another external aggression and rout the state ... But of course it’s right, if everything in Bulgaria was good and heresy wasn’t. the foundations of the state were destroyed, because there is no country where those who teach people do not pay taxes, do not go as a soldier, and the authorities do not obey. All the earth and everything material from Satan, only the human soul from God was so preached by Bogomil and his disciples .... Bogomil and his successors did not limit Bulgaria only ... After 1018, Byzantium also had business with them - 1111 - Emperor Alexy Komnin grandfather burned his grandfather Basil the elders .. Then the teachings spread throughout Europe ... Qatar from France their investigators, against him in the XNUMXth century. a real crusade ...

        But the problems in Bulgaria at the end of the XVI-the complete rejection of the tsar and the ruling elite and protection of free peasants ... Basically taxpayers and soldiers .. They became fortresses ... this was much weakened by the army and the country. And in Byzantium as early as the VIIIth century, the creation and support of stratioti (free christening) received land for military service. The Byzantine Vasileusi strictly punished those who pityta the earth from them was taken. The Vedas had one stratiot in possession of the land for 288 nomism, a weighty serial sum ... The Byzantine army became a mass army of free people ... they fought not only for imeria but for their family and benefits. This is understandable sunrise empire X-early ХІ century.
    2. catapractic
      catapractic 15 October 2013 23: 11
      +1
      Romans bought everyone who sold, and almost all sold
  7. misterwulf
    misterwulf 15 October 2013 11: 20
    0
    Funny reading! Facts with assumptions, but +! And respect.
  8. Luga
    Luga 15 October 2013 12: 20
    -1
    From school times, I perceived the confrontation between Russia and the Steppe as a confrontation between the culturally settled population and the wild steppe barbarians. More recently (7-8 years ago smile ) began to revise this position. As for the war with Svyatoslav and Khazaria, it turns out that the steppe state, with its developed administration, fiscal authorities, diplomatic and engineering corps, numerous cities, crafts, was terrified of defeat by semi-wild Slavic pagans ...
    But, it seems, that was how it was, even this article, if you pay more attention to details, speaks of a much higher level of development of all state institutions of the Khazaria in comparison with Russia.
    Well, well, one Khazaria has become less. wink
    1. romb
      romb 15 October 2013 12: 45
      0
      Your position is generally correct. At that time, Khazaria really still remained to some extent a developed medieval state, which had already lost its former splendor and greatness, and the process of self-destruction was already in full swing in it.
      The neighbors simply accelerated the agony of this state.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 32
        +1
        Your position is generally correct. At that time, Khazaria really still remained to some extent a developed medieval state, which had already lost its former splendor and greatness, and the process of self-destruction was already in full swing in it.
        The neighbors simply accelerated the agony of this state.


        Yes, she was not developed.
        The slave trade was then a despicable occupation.
        Silk trading - financial speculation, jewelry trading, but not a sign of development. They didn’t produce anything ...
        The developed then were the Roman Empire (aka Byzantium), the Caliphate, China, but not a mixture of slave traders and nomads.
        1. romb
          romb 15 October 2013 19: 44
          0
          Khazaria was the largest transit, logistics and trade center in the European part of the Eurasian continent. On the territory of its cities there were entire merchant quarters inhabited by immigrants from the Muslim east, the SA, the Maghreb and European countries, including the western one. Through Khazaria, the countries of the East received: honey, wax, furs, Europeans, in turn, were primarily interested in: spices, fabrics, carpet weaving products, weapons encrusted with jewelry (luxury goods) and silverware. The Khazars themselves sold a huge amount of cattle, finished leather and wool products to foreign markets. And their system of customs duties, like the entire fiscal system, was sufficiently advanced for that time.
          The slave trade was then a despicable occupation.

          And where was it different?
          Naturally, the Khazaria, like any developed medieval state at that time, received considerable income from the slave trade. At the same time, a significant part of the slaves on the slave market was supplied by the Rus, which (slaves) were subsequently resold to the countries of the east and west of Europe. In modern language, Khazaria was a kind of trading platform where the seller and buyer of the goods could make a deal or negotiate its terms.
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 27
      +1
      Hmm ... barbarians are Slavs and educated Khazars and Jews ...

      1. Well ... it seems like Russia was already known in the North as Gardarika (country of cities)
      2. The basis of the Judeo-Khazar kingdom is the slave trade along the Volga route and trade along the Great Silk Road. Those. at present - the slave trade and financial speculation (given the value of silk at that time).
      3. The Khazars without the Jews were quite peaceful fishermen and farmers, whom they again became after the weakening of the Turks and the departure of the Jews
      1. Corneli
        Corneli 15 October 2013 20: 03
        +2
        Quote: cdrt
        1. Well ... it seems like Russia was already known in the North as Gardarika (country of cities)

        In fact, Russia was not called at that time (just like absolutely different peoples / tribes living north of the "ecumene")
        Quote: cdrt
        2. The basis of the Judeo-Khazar kingdom is the slave trade along the Volga route and trade along the Great Silk Road. Those. at present - the slave trade and financial speculation (given the value of silk at that time).

        Furs, not slaves, were the backbone of the northern trade route. From trade along the Great Silk Road, the Khazars received a pont. Who could they sell silk to? Normans, Slavs, nomads? Look at the "path" itself, where it passes, Persia lived from it (later caliphates), Byzantium (before the Venetians and Genoese)
        Quote: cdrt
        3. The Khazars without the Jews were quite peaceful fishermen and farmers, whom they again became after the weakening of the Turks and the departure of the Jews

        The Khazars, it seems, are considered a branch of the Turks ... and they rose just on the conquests of the Turkic Kaganate in the 6th century ... Since the 7th century, the Khazars arise as a serious force (with the disintegration of the Turks), they participate in numerous wars around: Persians (later Arabs ), Bulgars, Slavs, Caucasus, Byzantines, etc. ... They were not already "peaceful fishermen and farmers" and just with the "departure" of the Turks (6-7 centuries) and until the next "migration of peoples" (from the 9th century - Hungarians, Pechenegs, Oguzes, Polovtsians) played a significant role in that region until their weakened kaganate was defeated by Svyatoslav (and finally destroyed by the Polovtsians). By the way, the Jews got out there in 740 (8th century, it seems like Khan Bulanid) for 150 years already, as the pagans of the Khazars were quite a strong force.
        1. romb
          romb 15 October 2013 20: 26
          +1
          The Khazars, it seems, are considered a branch of the Turks ... and they rose just on the conquests of the Turkic Kaganate in the 6th century.

          According to one version, they are considered the western branch of the Ashina clan. The last who remained of the royal family of the Khagans of the Western Turkic Khaganate. In the future, they were actually removed from management, the state was ruled by the henchmen of individual "financial and industrial groups".)))
  9. Enjoy
    Enjoy 15 October 2013 12: 48
    +5
    Great article! A ready-made history lesson with conclusions that are useful in our time
  10. Ross
    Ross 15 October 2013 12: 50
    +4
    Quote: FC Skiff
    It is known that after the defeat of the Khazars, many of the Jews there moved to Poland. It was she who before the development of sowing. America was the center of Judaism. Perhaps the aliens from the east infected the Poles with burning, furious Russophobia?


    They "aliens" from the east promised to return. And they do everything to make it come true. Remember how hard they tried to kill Israel in the Crimea ...
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 36
      +4
      They "aliens" from the east promised to return. And they do everything to make it come true. Remember how hard they tried to kill Israel in the Crimea ...

      Well, of course, the Turks from the East - yes.
      But their descendants are still there, having merged with their separate people and clans, incl. and to the Cossacks (more precisely, to brodniks - their possible ancestors).

      The Jews came to Khazaria rather from the South (from Persia), after the suppression of the Mazdakites, and left it with the fall of Khazaria and the Volga road stopping the slave trade.
  11. George
    George 15 October 2013 12: 53
    +3
    (Russian compound bows were a terrible weapon)

    I apologize for ignorance, but what was the complexity of our bows?
    1. Reindeer herder
      Reindeer herder 15 October 2013 13: 50
      +3
      Difficult to score in a search engine - "Compound Bow"? Maybe then the "strange" questions will cease to arise.
    2. Corneli
      Corneli 15 October 2013 14: 03
      0
      Quote: GEORGE
      I apologize for ignorance, but what was the complexity of our bows?

      In the exaggeration of the author of the article) The Slavs of that period were not so hot as archers and horsemen (hence the presence of the Pechenegs and Hungarians in the campaigns). And the bows themselves, basically refer to the so-called "simple" (short stick with a bowstring), and not "compound" (those used by the nomads). Composite bows, in the squads of the Slavic princes, began to appear en masse much later. Actually, the army of the Slavs of that period was "Norman" in terms of armament and tactics. Bows, cavalry were poorly used, an ordinary warrior (not a militia) is a heavily armed infantryman. Later, in connection with constant contacts (of various kinds) with the "great steppe", the vigilantes acquire more familiar features. True, I still don’t remember that "Russia" was famous for some serious archers. The heavy horsemen (warriors) of later times used the bow (like the Byzantines), but they were far from the light archers of the nomads.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 38
        0
        In the exaggeration of the author of the article) The Slavs of that period were not so hot as archers and horsemen (hence the presence of the Pechenegs and Hungarians in the campaigns). And the bows themselves, basically refer to the so-called "simple" (short stick with a bowstring), and not "compound" (those used by the nomads). Composite bows, in the squads of the Slavic princes, began to appear en masse much later. Actually, the army of the Slavs of that period was "Norman" in terms of armament and tactics. Bows, cavalry were poorly used, an ordinary warrior (not a militia) is a heavily armed infantryman. Later, in connection with constant contacts (of various kinds) with the "great steppe", the vigilantes acquire more familiar features. True, I still don’t remember that "Russia" was famous for some serious archers. The heavy horsemen (warriors) of later times used the bow (like the Byzantines), but they were far from the light archers of the nomads.

        +100500 Complex bows are already closer to the Polovtsy and, most importantly, the Mongols. From them the Russian princely squads took these bows.
        1. edge
          edge 16 October 2013 04: 58
          0
          Quote: cdrt
          Compound bows are already closer to the Polovtsy and most importantly the Mongols. From them the Russian princely squads took these bows

          bullshit, they take and copy only chinas and Japs, our intellect allows us to manipulate the entire component based on the rapid development of creativity (by the way, a compound bow, it is glued from different types of wood, i.e. improved modification)
    3. vlad.svargin
      vlad.svargin 15 October 2013 16: 56
      +2
      George
      I apologize for ignorance, but what was the complexity of our bows?

      Onions excavated in Ancient Novgorod, bows were found, the length of which reached 130 cm. They were made of juniper, whose wood is notable for its elasticity. In the manufacture of complex onions, the planed planks of birch and juniper were combined and they were helically intertwined with strips of birch bark. For the bowstring, animal tendons, silk threads and fibrous plants were used, which were fixed at the ends with strong fish glue (Using bow and arrow in history).
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 15 October 2013 18: 40
        0
        Onions excavated in Ancient Novgorod, bows were found, the length of which reached 130 cm. They were made of juniper, whose wood is notable for its elasticity. In the manufacture of complex onions, the planed planks of birch and juniper were combined and they were helically intertwined with strips of birch bark. For the bowstring, animal tendons, silk threads and fibrous plants were used, which were fixed at the ends with strong fish glue (Using bow and arrow in history).

        Only the neighbors did not note the use of such bows. Although the bows of the Turks, Polovtsy, Mongols were noted in great detail. The bows of the British, the Welsh, by the way, too - for at that time it was a prodigy.
        So ... there were research works on the subject of composite onions, but there is no evidence of mass production laughing
        1. George
          George 15 October 2013 20: 22
          0
          Live and learn.
    4. uzer 13
      uzer 13 16 October 2013 00: 41
      +1
      Russian onions are similar in design to Scythian-Sarmatian, but were made using local materials. In addition to the usual bone plates in such cases, birch bark was used, for example. English bows were made of yew-wood, usual for those places of wood, they were very uncomplicated in design, but had large sizes. This circumstance increased their combat capabilities, because their mass and initial arrow speed were higher. Turkish bows were the most difficult to manufacture and unsurpassed in combat qualities.
      1. hook
        hook 16 October 2013 08: 09
        0
        Dear user sergeant, I will add your comment. It was not about making onions, but about training personnel. Even now, when shooting from a straight-tensioned bow, it is necessary to have overlays for 3 fingers. Otherwise, the bowstring will cut off the skin during the descent. And so, thanks to the author for the article, before he thought that Genghis Khan had finished the Khazars, it turns out 200 years before that they had problems.
  12. Ross
    Ross 15 October 2013 13: 18
    +6
    Quote: Humen
    An interesting and for the most part now history is already becoming forgotten = (There would be more such articles on different resources.

    http://topwar.ru/uploads/images/2013/072/fnbp468.jpg
    Quote: Starfish
    Svyatoslav’s campaign and the defeat of Khazaria is a prototype of our future victory over modern Khazaria.
    and most likely this will happen very soon, for their heirs yearn for revenge

    http://topwar.ru/uploads/images/2013/072/fnbp468.jpg
    The author of the monument was not given permission to depict the star of David on the shield of the defeated, and he died suddenly after a short time after the installation of the monument.
  13. mithridate
    mithridate 15 October 2013 14: 01
    +8
    Quote: Luga
    From school times, I perceived the confrontation between Russia and the Steppe as a confrontation between the culturally settled population and the wild steppe barbarians. More recently (7-8 years ago smile ) began to revise this position. As for the war with Svyatoslav and Khazaria, it turns out that the steppe state, with its developed administration, fiscal authorities, diplomatic and engineering corps, numerous cities, crafts, was terrified of defeat by semi-wild Slavic pagans ...
    But, it seems, that was how it was, even this article, if you pay more attention to details, speaks of a much higher level of development of all state institutions of the Khazaria in comparison with Russia.
    Well, well, one Khazaria has become less. wink

    why did you get that the Slavs were half-wild?
  14. mithridate
    mithridate 15 October 2013 14: 03
    +2
    By the way, why a saber strike? At that time, did the Slavs seem to be fighting with swords?
  15. bistrov.
    bistrov. 15 October 2013 14: 30
    +4
    It is simply amazing how many times and peoples the Russians have endured in their lifetime, but nevertheless retained their "identity". At present, Russia and the Russian people face new challenges, much more serious. Withstand them, not go astray!
  16. luxing
    luxing 15 October 2013 15: 00
    +7
    More such articles need to be increased in patriotism for those who have little ...
    1. edge
      edge 16 October 2013 05: 03
      0
      Quote: luxing
      More such articles are necessary, to increase patriotism among those who have little ..

      patriotism is not enough, as a rule, bystryuk .......
  17. SPAAARTAAA
    SPAAARTAAA 15 October 2013 15: 21
    +6
    Good article! That is precisely such information that needs to be conveyed to our youth through films and games.
  18. revnagan
    revnagan 15 October 2013 16: 05
    +2
    All this is fine, but here are the words of A.V. Suvorov, that an uncut forest is growing again, I like it somehow more ... And it's a pity that now we, the Slavs, do not have that ancient principle - "blood for blood. "
  19. lexe
    lexe 15 October 2013 16: 47
    +6
    I have a simple question - why do we even know about Svyatoslav today? From this Tory-and? Yes ... gave Svyatoslav the reckless-traits of a remote warrior, and yet this is not so ... he is our Russian genius from the word of gen.No Nevertheless, the name of Svyatoslav is! like his feat! However, as a leader, he was cruel (to enemies in the broad sense of the word laughing ) but also fair. The optimal balance ...
    The blow from the North and the confusion in the ranks of the allies of Kaganate on just a lie ... but the truth of life, you want to survive, to the side.
    Article +
    History may well repeat itself.
  20. Yarosvet
    Yarosvet 15 October 2013 17: 03
    +3
    -----------------------------------
  21. Fastblast
    Fastblast 15 October 2013 18: 03
    +4
    centuries pass and nothing changes ...
  22. Alexandr0id
    Alexandr0id 15 October 2013 19: 21
    +1
    By the time of Svyatoslav’s campaign, most of the Khazar lands were already occupied by the Pechenegs, and the Haganate was only a pale shadow of that Khazaria, which opposed the caliphate and saved Byzantium. the participation of the Pechenegs in the final defeat of the Khazars is mentioned in passing, as if it was worthless to claim some part of the glory of the great Svyatoslav, from whose skull they treacherously made the cup. although the subsequent situation shows who has become the main beneficiary of the defeat of the Khazars. but the Pechenegs did not have scribes or historians.
  23. rexby63
    rexby63 15 October 2013 19: 41
    +2
    In addition, the Khazar Khaganate was weakened by the civil war, when the Jews seized power, drowning in the blood of their rivals.


    The Jews came to power in the middle of the 8th century. This is what 200 years the Khazars slaughtered each other? Mikhail Illarionovich somehow differently tells
    1. catapractic
      catapractic 15 October 2013 22: 31
      0
      Absolutely, the article may be patriotic, but too simplistic - everything was more complicated. In this region, the interests of the Byzantine Empire, the then superpower, clashed, the expansion of the Arabs was stopped by the Khazars (although they lost to the Arabs), the nascent early feudal Russia, the peoples of the North Caucasus and Volga Bulgaria, who wanted to throw off the Khazar yoke ... In general, a tangle of interests that partially cut the military genius of Svyatoslav.
  24. catapractic
    catapractic 15 October 2013 22: 23
    0
    In addition, the Khazar Khaganate was weakened by the civil war, when the Jews seized power, drowning in the blood of their rivals. It would not hurt to recall that the kaganate was previously weakened by the rise of the Caspian Sea and the flooding of a number of cities (read Gumilyova), as well as the most brutal wars with the Arabs that went on with varying degrees of success and undermined the forces of the Khazars, which Byzantium used
    1. azkolt
      azkolt 16 October 2013 00: 25
      0
      About Khazars, one should not read Gumilyov, but Artamonov. Which in these matters is more authoritative, at least among scientists. Gumilyov’s everything is built on assumptions, and Artamonov’s archeology
    2. edge
      edge 16 October 2013 05: 13
      0
      Quote: cataphractium
      read Gumilev

      and who said that Gumilev was an indisputable authority in the field of history and did not write the ordered articles? The raven will not bite his eye, especially since in Russia of this period, opium and a fascination with mysticism were very popular among creative intelligentsia. With such success, after 100 years, Bradbury will be quoted as a historian or forerunner. drinks
  25. sarmat-4791
    sarmat-4791 15 October 2013 22: 39
    +2
    "Archaeologists have discovered a whole system of stone fortresses on the right bank of the Don, Northern Donets and Oskol. One white-stone stronghold was located from another at a distance of 10-20 kilometers. Cemeteries were found near the walls; mercenary soldiers were buried in them. Fortresses were located on the right, west and northwest banks of the rivers.If the fortresses solved defensive tasks, they had to be located on the east bank, making an additional, natural defensive line from the river. On the right bank, these were outposts, actually advanced forward, on the enemy coast, necessary as bridgeheads for attack, covering the crossing of troops and their withdrawal. Small detachments carried out the same raids."- the author repeats someone's nonsense, I've already met this rubbish about the fortress somewhere
  26. The comment was deleted.
  27. askaz
    askaz 16 October 2013 00: 15
    +1
    Something of the sources of information under the article is not visible at all.
    The history of Khazaria is very mysterious and covered in propaganda (anti-Jewish) raid.
    The ethnic composition of Khazaria and the "state language" raise many questions
    interethnic communication.

    Given the constant hostility of the Slavic princes among themselves, the question is that
    some Slavic tribes paid tribute to the Khazars, it is impossible to submit exclusively
    under negative sauce. Civilians always pay tribute or taxes to someone.
    Accordingly, centers of power arise and states are created. Of course it is possible,
    to represent Svyatoslav’s campaigns against Khazaria as a national liberation
    the struggle of the Slavs with the "Jewish yoke", but if it suddenly turns out that a significant part
    the population of the Khazars were Slavs, then we get the usual civil strife.

    In short, the Khazar topic requires further impartial study, as
    many Khazars subsequently disappeared into the southern Russian ethnic group.
    1. Basileus
      Basileus 16 October 2013 08: 34
      0
      Well, it is still believed that the population of Khazaria was under the very Jewish yoke, and the fragmentation and impossibility of any assimilation of the local population (even the Khazaria proper without dependent territories) made the state structure very weak.

      And the army, EMNIP, was not feudal, but hired by the Khazar tsar, which, it seems to me, says a lot in terms of support for its population.
  28. Savva30
    Savva30 18 October 2013 12: 33
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    The Russians then lived on the principle of blood for blood, responding to blow with blow.Not a bad principle ...
  29. Xay
    Xay 18 October 2013 16: 44
    0
    Why, no one writes about Khan Tahmasib. How he smashed the Khazars ....
  30. maroder555
    maroder555 2 March 2014 17: 00
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    Glory to the Great Warrior Svyatoslav !!!
  31. Mastercho
    Mastercho 19 December 2019 17: 49
    0
    I, of course, wildly apologize, but you, the author, contradict yourself ... "The Khazar Kaganate posed a serious military threat to Russia. Archaeologists have discovered a whole system of stone fortresses on the right bank of the Don, Northern Donets and Oskol." Since the Khazars were forced to engage in fortification, it turns out that this Old Russian state threatened the Kaganate. Moreover, the massive construction of Khazar fortresses just in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries falls on, and the Khazars build fortresses rather crookedly due to the lack of tradition. Apparently the "aggressors" were terrified ...