Military Review

The mystery of the death of Svyatoslav. Great Russia Construction Strategy

22
The great Russian commander Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich looks like an epic figure of Russia. Therefore, many researchers and pulls him into the ranks of the epic warriors, and not statesmen. However, the great warrior and Prince Svyatoslav was a politician of global importance. In a number of areas (the Volga region, the Caucasus, the Crimea, the Black Sea region, the Danube region, the Balkans and Constantinople) he laid down the traditions and the course of the foreign policy of Russia - the Russian kingdom - Russia. He and his direct predecessors - Rurik, Oleg the Veshchy and Igor - outlined the Russian global super-tasks.


The mystery of the death of Svyatoslav

Researchers believe that after meeting with the Byzantine emperor, when an honorable peace was concluded, returning Russia and Byzantium to the provisions of the 944 treaty of the year, Svyatoslav was still on the Danube for some time. Svyatoslav left the Danube region, but Russia retained her conquests in the Azov region, the Volga region, kept the mouth of the Dnieper.

On the Dnieper Svyatoslav was only in the deep autumn. At the Dnieper rapids it was already waiting for the Pechenegs. According to the official version, the Greeks were not going to release the formidable warrior back to Russia. The Byzantine chronicler John Skylitsa reports that earlier Svyatoslav had a master of political intrigue, Bishop Theophilus of Euchites, had reached the Dnieper. The bishop was carrying expensive gifts to Khan Kure and the proposal of John I Zimiscia for the conclusion of a treaty of friendship and alliance between the Pechenegs and Byzantium. The Byzantine sovereign asked the Pechenegs to no longer cross the Danube, not to attack the Bulgarian lands that now belonged to Constantinople. According to Greek sources, Zimiskhiy also asked to let Russian troops pass unhindered. Pechenegs allegedly agreed with all the conditions, except for one thing - they did not want to let the Rus.

Rusam on the failure of the Pechenegs did not report. Therefore, Svyatoslav walked in full confidence that the Greeks had fulfilled their promise and the road was free. The Russian chronicle states that the anti-Russian-minded residents of Pereyaslavets told the Pechenegs that Svyatoslav was going with a small retinue and with great wealth. Thus, there are three versions: the Pechenegs themselves wanted to strike at Svyatoslav, the Greeks only kept silent about this; the Greeks bribed the Pechenegs; Pechenegs notified the Bulgarians hostile to Svyatoslav.

The fact that Svyatoslav went to Russia in complete peace and confidence confirms the division of his army into two unequal parts. Reaching in boats to the “Island of Rusov” at the mouth of the Danube, the prince divided the army. The main forces under the leadership of the governor Sveneld went under their own power through the forests and steppes to Kiev. They safely reached. No one dared to attack a powerful army. According to the chronicle, Sveneld and Svyatoslav offered to go on horseback, but he refused. With the prince remained only a small squad and, apparently, the wounded.

When it became clear that not to go through the rapids, the prince decided to winter on Beloberezhie, the area between the modern cities of Nikolaev and Kherson. According to the chronicles, the wintering was hard, there was not enough food, people were starving, dying from diseases. It is believed that spring should come Sveneld with fresh forces. In the spring of 972, without waiting for Sveneld, Svyatoslav moved up the Dnieper again. On the Dnieper rapids, a small squad of Svyatoslav was ambushed. Details of the last battle of Svyatoslav are unknown. One thing is clear: the Pechenegs outnumbered the Svyatoslav warriors in number, the Russian soldiers were exhausted by the hard winter. The whole squad of the Grand Duke fell in this unequal section.

The Pechenezh prince Smoking ordered to make a bowl-brother from the skull of a great warrior and to enclose it with gold. It was believed that since the glory and wisdom of the Grand Duke will be transferred to its winners. Raising the cup, the Pechenezh prince said: "Let our children be like him!"

Kiev trace

The official version of a straightforward warrior, who was easily deceived by the Romans, putting the Pechenegs under attack, is illogical. Around solid questions. Why did the prince stayed with a small retinue and chose the waterway in the boats, although he always flew swiftly with his cavalry, which had gone with Sveneld? It turns out that he was not going to return to Kiev? I waited for the help that Sveneld should bring and continue the war. Why Sveneld, who reached Kiev without any problems, did not send help, did not bring the troops? Why did not help send Yaropolk? Why did Svetoslav not try to go the far, but safer way - through the White Tower, along the Don?

Historians S. M. Soloviev and D. I. Ilovaisky also drew attention to the strange behavior of the governor of Sveneld, and in the twentieth century - B. A. Rybakov and I. Ya. Froyanov. Currently, this strange fact is noted by researcher L. Prozorov. The behavior of the governor is all the more strange that he did not even have to return to Kiev. According to the Novgorod First Chronicle, Prince Igor gave Sveneld “feeding” the land of the streets, a large union of tribes living in the region from the Middle Dnieper region, above the rapids, to the Southern Bug and the Dniester. The princely governor could easily gain serious militia in the lands.

S. M. Soloviev noted that "Sveneld, by will or bondage, hesitated in Kiev." DI Ilovaisky wrote that Svyatoslav "was waiting for help from Kiev. But, obviously, either in the Russian land at that time, the cases were in great distress, or there they did not have accurate information about the prince's position — help did not come from anywhere. ” However, Sveneld arrived in Kiev and was supposed to provide Prince Yaropolk and the boyar duma with information about the situation with Svyatoslav.

Therefore, many researchers have concluded that Sveneld betrayed Svyatoslav. He did not send any help to his prince and became the most influential grandee at the throne of Yaropolk, who received Kiev. Perhaps in this betrayal lies the source of the murder of Prince Oleg, the second son of Svyatoslav, the son of Sveneld - Lyut, whom he met while hunting in his possessions. Oleg asked who drives the beast? Hearing Sveneldich in response, Oleg immediately killed him. Sveneld, avenging his son, incited Yaropolk against Oleg. The first internecine, fratricidal war began.

Sveneld could be a conductor of the will of the Kiev boyar-merchant elite, who was unhappy with the transfer of the capital of the Russian state to the Danube. In his desire to found a new capital in Pereyaslavtse, Svyatoslav defied the Kiev boyars and merchants. Capital Kiev was relegated to the background. They could not openly confront him. But the Kiev elite was able to subordinate to its influence the young Yaropolk and tighten the matter with sending troops to help Svyatoslav, which was the cause of the death of the great commander.

In addition, L. N. Gumilev noted such a factor as the revival of the “Christian party” in the Kiev elite, which Svyatoslav defeated and driven underground during the pogrom of the mission of the Roman Bishop Adalbert in 961 year ("Coming on you!" Educating the hero and his first victory). Then Princess Olga agreed to accept the mission of Adalbert. The Roman bishop inclined the Kiev elite to the necessity of adopting Christianity from the hands of "the most Christian ruler" in Western Europe - the German King Otton. Olga listened attentively to the envoy of Rome. There was a threat of acceptance of the "holy faith" by the Kiev elite from the hands of the envoy of Rome, which led to the vassalage of the rulers of Russia in relation to Rome and the German emperor. At that time, Christianity acted as an information weapons, enslaving neighboring regions. Svyatoslav harshly stopped this diversion. Supporters of Bishop Adalbert were killed, possibly including representatives of the Christian party in Kiev. The Russian prince intercepted the threads of control from a mind-losing mother and defended the conceptual and ideological independence of Russia.

Long campaigns Svyatoslav led to the fact that his most loyal comrades left with him from Kiev. The influence of the Christian community was revived in the city. There were many Christians among the boyars, who had great profits from trade, and merchants. They were not happy to transfer the center of power to the Danube. The Joakimov Chronicle reports on Yaropolk's sympathies towards Christians and Christians in his environment. This fact is confirmed by the Nikon chronicle.

Gumilyov considers Sveneld to be the head of the surviving Christians in the army of Svyatoslav. Svyatoslav arranged for the execution of Christians in the army, punishing them for their lack of courage in battle. He also promised to destroy all churches in Kiev and destroy the Christian community. Svyatoslav kept his word. Christians knew that. Therefore, it was in their vital interests to eliminate the prince and his closest associates. What role played in this conspiracy Sveneld, is unknown. We do not know whether he was the instigator or just joined the conspiracy, having decided that it would be beneficial for him. Perhaps he was just framed. There could be anything, even Sveneld’s attempts to change the situation in favor of Svyatoslav. No information available. One thing is clear, the death of Svyatoslav is associated with Kiev intrigues. It is possible that in this case the Greeks and Pechenegs were simply appointed the main culprits of the death of Svyatoslav.


"Capture of the Khazar fortress Itil by Prince Svyatoslav". V. Kireev.

Conclusion

The acts of Svyatoslav Igorevich would be enough for another commander or statesman not for one life. Russian prince stopped the ideological invasion of Rome in the Russian lands. Svyatoslav gloriously completed the case of the previous princes — he threw the Khazar Kaganate, this monstrous serpent of Russian epics. He wiped the Khazar capital off the face of the earth, opened the Volga way for the Russians, and established control over the Don (Belaya Vezha).

Svyatoslav trying to present in the form of an ordinary military leader, "reckless adventurer", who wasted the power of Russia. However, the Volga-Khazar campaign was an act worthy of the greatest commander, and was vital for the military-strategic and economic interests of Russia. The struggle for Bulgaria and the attempt to establish itself in the Danube region had to solve the main strategic tasks in Russia. The Black Sea would finally become the “Russian Sea”.

The decision to move the capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets, from the Dnieper to the Danube, also looks reasonable. During historical the breakthroughs, the capital of Russia was transferred more than once: Oleg the Prophet moved it from north to south - from Novgorod to Kiev. Then it was necessary to focus on the problem of uniting the Slavic tribal unions and to solve the problem of protecting the southern borders, for this Kiev was better suited. Andrei Bogolyubsky decided to make Vladimir the capital city, leaving Kiev, mired in intrigues, where the degenerated boyar-huckster elite drowned all the state's undertakings. Peter moved the capital to the Neva in order to secure Russia's access to the shores of the Baltic (formerly Varangian) Sea. The Bolsheviks moved the capital to Moscow, since Petrograd was militarily vulnerable. The decision on the need to move the capital from Moscow to the east, for example, to Novosibirsk, is ripe (even overripe) at the present time.

Svyatoslav toril the way to the south, so the capital on the Danube had to consolidate the Black Sea coast of Russia. It should be noted that the Russian prince could not know that one of the first cities called Kiev already existed on the Danube. The transfer of the capital greatly facilitated the development and subsequent integration of new lands. Much later, in the XVIII century, Russia will have to solve the same tasks that Svyatoslav outlined (Caucasus, Crimea, Danube). Plans will be revived for the accession of the Balkans and the creation of a new capital of Slavism - Constantinople.

Svyatoslav fought not for the sake of the war itself, although it is still being tried to be shown by a successful "Varangian". He solved strategic super-tasks. Svyatoslav went to the south not for the sake of mining, gold, he wanted to gain a foothold in the region, to get along with the local population. Svyatoslav outlined the priorities for the Russian state - Volga, Don, North Caucasus, Crimea and the Danube (Balkans). The sphere of interests of Russia included Bulgaria (Volga region), the North Caucasus, the way was opened to the Caspian Sea, to Persia, to the Arabs.

The heirs of the great strategist, mired in feuds, quarrels and intrigues, was no longer up to the throw to the south and east. Although some elements of the program Svyatoslav tried to perform. In particular, Vladimir captured Korsun. But in general, the plans and fruits of the victories of the Grand Duke were buried for many centuries. Only under Ivan the Terrible, Russia returned to the Volga region, occupying Kazan and Astrakhan (in its area there are the ruins of the Khazar capital, Itil), began to return to the Caucasus, and plans to subjugate the Crimea arose. Svyatoslav, however, maximally “simplified”, turned into a successful military leader, a knight without fear and without reproach. Although the warrior's actions easily read the strategic plans for the construction of Great Russia.

The titanic power and mysteriousness of the figure of Svyatoslav Igorevich was also noted in Russian epics. His image, as scientists believe, has been preserved in the epic image of the most powerful hero of the Russian land - Svyatoslav. His strength was so enormous that, over time, the narrators spoke, stopped carrying his mother’s cheese the earth, and Svyatogor the bogatyr was forced to go to the mountains.

The mystery of the death of Svyatoslav. Great Russia Construction Strategy

Slobodchikov V. Svyatogor.

Sources:
Artamonov M.I. History of the Khazars. 1962.
Ilovaisky D.I. The beginning of Russia. M., 2012.
John Skylitsa. On the war with Russia // http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus/Skyliza/text3.phtml?id=1340.
Leo the Deacon. History // http://krotov.info/acts/10/lev_diak/leo_00.htm.
Novoseltsev A.P. Khazar state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. M., 1990.
Prozorov L. Svyatoslav the Great: “I am coming for you!” M., 2011.
Razin E. A. The history of military art. In 3's volumes. SPb., 1999 // http://militera.lib.ru/science/razin_ea/2/02.html.
Rybakov B. Birth of Russia. M., 2012.
Sakharov A.N. Svyatoslav's Diplomacy. M., 1982.
A. Sakharov. “We are of the kind of Russian ...” The birth of Russian diplomacy. L., 1986.
F. Uspensky. The Period of the Macedonian Dynasty (867-1057) // History of the Byzantine Empire. The 5 T. T. 3. M. 2005.
Shambarov V. The rout of the Khazars and other wars of Svyatoslav the Brave. M., 2013.
Shishov A. Russian princes. M., 1999.
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Coming on you!" Educating the hero and his first victory
Saber kick of Svyatoslav on the Khazar "miracle-yuda"
Bulgarian campaign Svyatoslav
Bulgarian campaign Svyatoslav. 2 part
War Svyatoslav with Byzantium. Battle of Arkadiopol
War Svyatoslav with Byzantium. Battle for Preslav and the heroic defense of Dorostol
The mystery of the death of Svyatoslav. Great Russia Construction Strategy
22 comments
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  1. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 10 January 2014 09: 53
    +5
    Great review. Thank!
  2. Mhpv
    Mhpv 10 January 2014 10: 51
    +5
    [964-966 g.] This Prince, having matured, thought only of the exploits of magnanimous courage, burned with zeal to distinguish himself by deeds and renew the glory of the Russian weapon, so happy with Oleg; gathered a large army and with impatience of the young Hero flew into the field. There, through a harsh life, he strengthened himself for military work, had neither camps nor convoy; he ate horse meat, meat of wild animals and himself roasted it on coals; despised the coolness and inclement weather of the northern climate; did not know the tent and slept under the arch of the sky: the felt seatpost served him instead of a soft bed, the saddle was the headboard. What was the Leader, such are the warriors. - The ancient chronicle preserved for posterity an even more beautiful feature of his character: he did not want to take advantage of an accidental attack, but always declared war on the peoples in advance, commanding them to say
    coming to you! In these times of general barbarism, proud Svyatoslav observed the rules of true Knightly honor.
    The banks of the Oka, Don and Volga were the first theater of his military, happy actions.
    He conquered Vyatichi, who still recognized themselves as tributaries of Khan of Kozarsky, and turned his formidable weapon against this once so powerful Ruler.
    A fierce battle decided the fate of two peoples. Kagan himself led the army: Svyatoslav defeated and took the Kozarsky White Vezha, or Sarkel, as the Byzantine Historians call it, a city on the banks of the Don fortified by Greek art. The chronicler does not tell us about this war any further news, saying only that Svyatoslav defeated Yasov and Kasogov: the first - probably the current Osses or Ossetians - being an Alanian tribe, lived among the Caucasus Mountains, in Dagestan, and near the mouth of the Volga;
    the second essence of the Circassians, of which the country was called Kasahiye in the 10th century: the Ossetians now call them Kasahs. - Then, as you might think, the Russians conquered the city of Tamatarha, or Fanagoria, and all the Kozarsky possessions on the eastern shores of the Sea of ​​Azov: for this part of the ancient Kingdom of Vozporsky, later called the Principality of Tmutorokansky, was already under Vladimir, as we will see, the property of Russia. Conquering so distant seems surprising; but the stormy spirit of Svyatoslav rejoiced in dangers and
    labor.
    Having paved his way from the Don River to Vozbor Cimmerian, this Hero could approve the communication between the region Tmutorokansky and Kiev through the Black Sea and the Dnieper. In Tauris there was already one shadow of the ancient power of the Kagans.
  3. Dobrokhod Sergey
    Dobrokhod Sergey 10 January 2014 10: 57
    +10
    Prince Svyatoslav would have taken a worthy place in our History if Hagan Vladimir had not baptized it in 988. How many glorious pages were deleted from the history of the Slavs!
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 10 January 2014 12: 43
      +5
      I completely agree. The most amazing thing is that after 100-150 years, Christians relatively reconciled with the pagans (remember from the treaty between Russia and Byzantium: "Rusyn or Christian";)), the people lived quite peacefully. That is, we would have developed the same thing as in China, when Taoists, Buddhists and Confucians get along together, do not climb to each other, although they sometimes had a massacre depending on the addictions of the ruling emperor, but by now they have there was not just peace, but the borrowing of theories, practices - in general, peace and harmony.

      In Russia, too, the same picture developed. There was a double faith (a concept proposed by Rybakov, if I am not mistaken), which existed before the Nikon reforms (Old Believers), which included all pagan rites and concepts, but with a Christian appearance. The pagans also lived freely, the magi performed rituals, and sometimes rebelled against presumptuous princes. But the middle was found. Churches began to be built everywhere precisely when the pressure of Kiev on Northern Russia decreased to nothing. The people themselves figured out their faiths and found a middle ground.

      But then the Mongols came, who favored the Christians, and massacred all the Magi. This, by the way, refers to the conversation about the "religious tolerance" of the Mongols. They were not tolerant. In India, Buddhists were destroyed, and in Russia - Rusyns, that is, pagans. But they encouraged those beliefs that helped them rule, resigning themselves to their fate. And for some reason it turned out that it was the Church that profited from the power of the Horde, it was the Church that emerged the only one without losses, but the Russian Magi disappeared. So Vladimir began, and the Mongols finished. It was under the Mongols that Russia made a terrible turn from the Slavic path to the Asiatic.

      Now they have put forward the theory (the same L. Prozorov) that Byzantium brought the Mongols to Russia, and the Byzantine priests helped them in this, serving as guides and helping to surrender the largest cities with the help of betrayal.

      In general, the main reason for turning off the Slavic path is the Horde, and Vladimir made it possible for her to come, weakening the once-united state of civil strife.
      1. xtur
        xtur 10 January 2014 14: 05
        +5
        > That is, we would have developed the same as in China, when Taoists, Buddhists and Confucians get along together

        Confucianism is not a religion, it is a socio-political teaching such as communism / socialism
      2. Beck
        Beck 10 January 2014 19: 22
        +5
        Quote: Uhe
        This, by the way, refers to the conversation about the "religious tolerance" of the Mongols. They were not tolerant.


        And what is so categorical, all the more not knowing. Genghis Khan’s troops included admirers of Tengri (Eternal Blue Sky), and shamanists, and pagans, and Buddhists, and Nestorian-style Christians. And in the campaign against Poland and Hungary, both Orthodox Christians - Novgorodians A. Nevsky and Smolensk.

        Legalization of Genghis Khan - Yasa. Yasa has a section dealing with crimes against religion, morality, and established customs. Such are recognized - Oppression of ANY OF THE CHURCHES AND THE Clergy EXISTING IN THE WORLD, INSURANCE OF THE RITUALIST CHARACTER, intentional lie, adultery, debauchery. For all these crimes - the punishment is Death.

        That is why in the Golden Horde church lands were exempted from taxes. Priests had the status of personal integrity. There were intra-church courts, the decisions of which the khan himself could not change.
      3. Motors1991
        Motors1991 10 January 2014 20: 28
        +1
        And Byzantium sent the Mongols to China, Khorezm, Persia, India, etc. Svyatoslav was a great warrior, but he was not a great statesman. He was not involved in the arrangement of the state, and without it all his conquests went to dust.
        1. Simon
          Simon 11 January 2014 00: 38
          0
          My friend, you must be confusing something with the Mongols and Svyatoslav, they have made conquests in different millennia. request
      4. projdoha
        projdoha 11 January 2014 02: 06
        +2
        "the Mongols came and massacred the Magi"
        Sounds weird, if not ridiculous.
        1.Where did you come from? Where did those "Mongolian" heroes go and where are they now? (ours turns out to be weaklings)
        2. Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich was executed by the "Mongols" and then canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church, was he a Magus?
        3. How is it that the "Mongols", who, according to you, who favored the Christians, were able to endure that the Russian princes fought with Western Christians, under the "Mongol-Tatar yoke" and even defeated them!

        Porridge is not only in the kitchen ..
        1. Guun
          Guun 11 January 2014 21: 07
          +4
          Quote: projdoha
          3. How is it that the "Mongols", who, according to you, who favored the Christians, were able to endure that the Russian princes fought with Western Christians, under the "Mongol-Tatar yoke" and even defeated them!

          What a victory? What about Mamai who was a temnik? If you defeat the Horde, how did Tokhtamysh after Kulikovo burn Moscow to flee Tamerlane? The horde has disintegrated after this feud! And Russia was a PART of the Horde. The fact that the Horde nobility and the Slavic noble willingly took daughters from each other as a wife and didn’t cough together didn’t tell? Half of the Russian descendants of Scythians and Sarmatians who were also nomads. And the Germans wrote the myth of the Tatar-Mongol yoke under Peter 1, that before Peter 1 everything was poher and lost by the Rurik family. This horde was the UNION of peoples, both nomadic and settled, voluntarily or forcibly!
          1. projdoha
            projdoha 13 January 2014 23: 48
            +1
            and who doubted?
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. valokordin
      valokordin 11 January 2014 05: 13
      +1
      Prince Svyatoslav would have taken a worthy place in our History if Hagan Vladimir had not baptized it in 988. How many glorious pages were deleted from the history of the Slavs! [/ Quote]
      А It’s a long way to move the capital from Moscow to Novosibirsk, but to Saratov or Samara it’s better. Moscow has already turned into a hotbed of all liberal-dermocratic muck.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  4. Mhpv
    Mhpv 10 January 2014 10: 58
    +4
    "The emperor met Svyatoslav with peace proposals and wanted to know the number of his knights, promising to pay tribute to each of them. The Grand Duke announced 20000 people, barely having half. The Greeks, skilled in cunning, took advantage of the time and gathered 100000 soldiers, who with Russians were surrounded on all sides.
    The generous Svyatoslav, having quietly examined the formidable ranks of the enemies, said the squad: Escape will not save us; willingly and unwittingly, we must fight. Do not shame the fatherland, but lay here with bones: the dead are not ashamed! Let's get tight. I am coming before you, and when I lay my
    head, then do what you want!
    His warriors, accustomed not to be afraid of death and love the brave Leader, unanimously answered: Our heads will lie down with yours!
    We entered a bloody battle and proved that not many, but bravery wins. The Greeks could not resist: they turned the rear, scattered - and Svyatoslav went to Constantinople, signifying his path with all the horrors of devastation ... "
  5. Mhpv
    Mhpv 10 January 2014 11: 02
    +2
    "Will perish," he said with a heavy sigh, "the glory of the Russians will perish if now we fear death! Is life pleasant for those who saved it by flight? And will we not fall into contempt among the neighboring peoples, hitherto horrified by the name of the Russian? invincible, conquerors of many countries and tribes, or we will defeat the Greeks, or we will fall with honor, having done great deeds! " Touched by the sowing of a speech, his companions worthy of loud exclamations lashed out the decisiveness of heroism - and the next day the whole Russian army came forward with courage in the field behind Svyatoslav. He ordered the city gates to be locked so that no one could think of fleeing and returning to Dorostol. The battle began in the morning: at noon, the Greeks, weary of heat and thirst, and most of all the stubbornness of the enemy, began to retreat, and Tsimisky had to give them time to rest. Soon the battle resumed. The emperor, seeing that the narrow places around Dorostol favored
    numerically small Russians, ordered his generals to lure them to a vast field by feigned flight; but this trick was unsuccessful: in the dead of night, the troops divorced the troops without any decisive investigation.
    Tsimisky, amazed at the desperate courage of his opponents, decided to stop the tedious war by combating with Prince Svyatoslav and ordered him to say that it was better to die for one person than to kill many people in vain battles. Svyatoslav replied: "I know better than my enemy what to do.
    If he is bored with life, there are many ways to get rid of it: Yes, everyone chooses Tsimisky! "
  6. Mhpv
    Mhpv 10 January 2014 11: 07
    +1
    Svyatoslav with small soldiers, troubled, took the return journey to the fatherland in the boats, the Danube and the Black Sea; and Tsimisky at the same time sent Ambassadors to the Pechenegs, who, having concluded an alliance with them, should demand that they not go beyond the Danube, do not devastate Bulgaria and freely let the Russians through their land.
    The Pechenegs agreed to everything except the last, annoying the Russians for having reconciled with the Greeks. So write the Byzantine Historians; but with greater likelihood one can think the very opposite. The then policy of the Emperors did not know magnanimity: anticipating that Svyatoslav would not leave them alone for long, the Greeks themselves almost instructed the Pechenegs to take advantage of the weakness of the Russian army. Nestor attributes this insidiousness to the inhabitants of Pereyaslavts: they, according to him, made it known to the Pechenegs that Svyatoslav was returning to Kiev with great wealth and with a small squad.
    [972] Pechenegs encircled the Dnieper rapids and waited for the Russians. Svyatoslav knew about this danger. Sveneld, the famous Voivode Igorev, advised him to leave Ladia and bypass the rapids by dry route: the Prince did not accept his advice and decided to winter in the White Coast, at the mouth of the Dnieper, where the Russians were supposed to suffer from hunger and everything, so they gave half-hryvnia for a horse the head.
    Maybe Svyatoslav expected help from Russia there, but in vain. Spring again opened him a dangerous path to the fatherland. Despite the small number of exhausted warriors, it was necessary to fight with the Pechenegs, and Svyatoslav fell in battle. Their prince, Smoking, chopping off his head, made a cup from her skull. Only a few Russians escaped with Voivode Sveneld and brought to Kiev the sad news of the death of Svyatoslav.
    Thus, Alexander died in our ancient History, who so courageously fought with enemies and disasters; he was sometimes victorious, but in the very misfortune he amazed the victor with his generosity; equaled the harsh military life with the Heroes of the Songwriter Homer and, bearing down patiently the ferocity of the weather, the debilitating labor and everything terrible for the bliss, showed the Russian soldiers how they can defeat the enemies at all times. But Svyatoslav, an example of the great Generals, is not an example of the Great Sovereign: for he respected the glory of victories more than the public good and, by his character
    captivating the poet’s imagination, the historian deserves reproach.
    If Svyatoslav in the 946 year - as Nestor writes - was still a weak lad, then he would have ended his days in the most flourishing years of courage, and his strong hand could have long horrified the neighboring nations.

    http://www.bibliotekar.ru/karamzin/7.htm
  7. erased
    erased 10 January 2014 12: 07
    +1
    And there is another version. One source indicates that Svyatoslav was diligent in faith following his mother. That is, he was also a Christian. Moreover, like Olga - he was baptized according to the Latin custom - that is, he was a Catholic. Sveneld is a Rodian, one of the leaders of the so-called pagans, who does not like changing politics in Russia. He leaves Svyatoslav with a large army, and Svyatoslav is in no hurry to Kiev, he knows that there are many enemies. Khan Kurya, whose people killed Svyatoslav, fulfilled the request of one of the relatives among the Russians. They killed on the site of a pagan temple, thereby sacrificing.
    Then, when Vladimir baptized Russia, his name began to stick out. And Svyatoslav decided to saddle a frantic pagan, in order to lick the story.
    This is one of the versions and it has the right to exist on a par with the official. This is written by Valyanskiy, Zhabinsky, Shilnik and other specialists.
    As for the chronicle of "Nestor", from which historians take most of the information, Lyzlov wrote in 1692 that "the monk Nestor about the affairs of the prince is not good."
    But in general, hell knows what was there and how it was. Too little information and no original documents that have reached us at all.
    1. projdoha
      projdoha 11 January 2014 02: 15
      +3
      Why did the Russian Orthodox Church not canonize Svyatoslav? And nothing about his Christian deeds came to us, although his mother was written about. How can you miss such an opportunity to promote Christianity? Logic says that is unlikely.
  8. Uhe
    Uhe 10 January 2014 12: 33
    +2
    Then this Svineld betrayed Yaropolk Svyatoslavovich and helped Vladimir the Apostate.

    Is Svyatoslav a Christian? :))) A funny joke - hutspa, as the Jews say. The church loves to draw on other people's merits, declaring warriors monks (governors of the Lithuanian prince Oslyabya and Peresvet, not former monks during the Battle of Kulikovo), and ordinary traitors-fratricides - saints (Alexander Nevsky, brother of the khan, who personally led the Horde raids on Russia; Vladimir the Apostate, who killed Yaropolk and unleashed a centennial civil war in Russia).
    1. projdoha
      projdoha 11 January 2014 02: 17
      0
      I agree. Western way of waging an information war.
    2. Guun
      Guun 11 January 2014 21: 23
      +1
      Quote: Uhe
      Alexander Nevsky, sister of the Khan, personally led the Horde raids on Russia

      He was one of the significant figures in the Horde. Why is it that the army of the Horde was with him and the army of his friend Sartak with whom he beat the Catholics is silent, in fact, he stopped the invasion of the crusaders from the west. And the Europeans were afraid to fight the Horde, they barely stood up to the small scouts of the Horde.
      1. poquello
        poquello 12 January 2014 00: 07
        +1
        Quote: Guun
        Quote: Uhe
        Alexander Nevsky, sister of the Khan, personally led the Horde raids on Russia

        He was one of the significant figures in the Horde. Why is it that the army of the Horde was with him and the army of his friend Sartak with whom he beat the Catholics is silent, in fact, he stopped the invasion of the crusaders from the west. And the Europeans were afraid to fight the Horde, they barely stood up to the small scouts of the Horde.

        Well, about his friendship, the Horde’s friendship is understandable, but let’s know about the participating army — the number, what campaigns, where the information comes from.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 12 January 2014 11: 06
      0
      Quote: Uhe
      The church loves to draw on other people's merits, declaring warriors monks (governors of the Lithuanian prince Oslyabya and Peresvet, not former monks during the Battle of Kulikovo)

      You were there? Did you hold a candle?
      Quote: Uhe
      ordinary traitors-fratricides - saints (Alexander Nevsky, twin of the khan, personally led the Horde raids on Russia

      What brother did Alexander Yaroslavich "soak"? Discover the historical secret!
      Quote: Uhe
      Vladimir the Apostate, who killed Yaropolk and unleashed a centennial civil war in Russia)

      From now on, in more detail, please ... Do you not find that the war of Vladimir Svyatoslavich with brothers at the Kiev table and the war of Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yuri Vasilyevich in baptism) with brothers at the Kiev table the plot has insignificant differences (option 2 Boris and Gleb and an attempt to emigrate Yaroslav to Sweden). Maybe there wasn’t a 100-year war?
      Funny joke - hutspa, as the Jews say

      Is it from Hebrew or from Yiddish?
  9. Mhpv
    Mhpv 10 January 2014 13: 19
    +3
    Olga, inflamed with zeal for her new Faith, was in a hurry to reveal to her son the error of paganism; but the young, proud Svyatoslav did not want to heed her instructions. In vain did this virtuous mother speak of the happiness of being a Christian, of the world that her soul had enjoyed since she knew the true God. Svyatoslav answered her: "Can I alone accept the new Law, so that my squad would laugh at me?" In vain did Olga imagine to him that his example would incline the whole people to Christianity. The young man was unshakable in his opinion and followed the rites of paganism; He didn’t forbid anyone to be baptized, but he expressed contempt for the Christians and annoyingly rejected all the convictions of his mother, which, not ceasing to love him dearly, was finally to shut up and entrust God with the fate of the Russian people and son.
  10. konvalval
    konvalval 10 January 2014 14: 53
    +1
    Interesting story.
  11. poquello
    poquello 10 January 2014 20: 33
    +1
    “A song about the beating of the Jewish Khazaria by Svetoslav Khorobr” Slavomysl
    So the Greeks captured Troy, and watered the blood of the Russes of the river.
    But even a Greek for a Jew - whom it is not a shame to destroy
    and I, the Great Prince of Prince, is simply dirt for the Jews!
    Why are you giving the covenants of those Jews who entered the Bible together with me?
    Probably, I, from the god of the Jews, learned a lot of evil,
    or so that I leave my good and accept evil that is alien to me,
    And forever became a slave to their god?
    As the Romans are crazy, they sought the destruction of their empire,
    Yes gullible Khazars, in the depths of that moaning in the darkness?
    Or in Constantinople are you our people and me, sold to slaves to Greeks and Jews?
    Tell me, tell me the truth without melting, because you were a carrier on the river,
    And your awe is inappropriate, I won’t execute you, I won’t lay hands on my mother
    Father and your mother, you know Rusich - not a judge
    And this commandment of the Gods, from the cradle I remember.

    http://www.diary.ru/~ratmir14/p147058586.htm
  12. datur
    datur 10 January 2014 21: 47
    +2
    maydaunyty and betrayed !!!! repeat
  13. Alexandr0id
    Alexandr0id 11 January 2014 01: 16
    +1
    Svyatoslav, of course, the legendary commander, but not so hot politician. in this he is absolutely Varangian king. It seems to be major campaigns, battles and victories, but what about the output? lacquered skull in the hands of the Pecheneg Khan. sad fate. such a person should have been a military leader, but not the ruler of the state. these are still different professions.
    1. projdoha
      projdoha 11 January 2014 02: 21
      +2
      not knowing the realities of that time, it is difficult to judge. At least the defeat of the Khazars is the greatest merit.
      1. Alexandr0id
        Alexandr0id 11 January 2014 14: 17
        +2
        I would say the completion of the Khazars, because in fact, by the time of the campaign of Svyatoslav from the Khazar Kaganate there were horns and legs, because all the steppe territories have long passed under the control of the Pechenegs - allies of Svyatoslav in this campaign. as for the final defeat in 965, we only know the part where the Rus participated - the capture of the Khazar cities. if we take into account that, on the whole, the khaganate was a nomadic state, and in the cities (rather, towns) it was known, the Jewish diaspora and the Khorezm mercenaries (of which there were 7 thousand) - from the power of 10 percent of the Khazarian population. who did the rest 90% - i.e. actually the Khazars? apparently the Pechenegs, who moved not along the river from town to town, but were smashed by the Khazar nomads.
        1. poquello
          poquello 11 January 2014 16: 47
          +2
          Quote: Alexandr0id
          I would say the completion of the Khazars,

          There is something else - the Greeks and Jews carried the brain to the Russians with their values, inspired another truth. With the death of Svyatoslav, a large pile of the city joined spiritually pure Russia, though it has assimilated and is now warming.
        2. Beck
          Beck 11 January 2014 18: 47
          +3
          Quote: Alexandr0id
          and Khorezm mercenaries (of which there were 7 thousand) - from the power of 10 percent of the population of the Khazars. who did the rest 90% - i.e. actually the Khazars? apparently the Pechenegs, who moved not along the river from town to town, but were smashed by the Khazar nomads.


          Well, finally, a true, not obscured by cheers-patriotism koment. It is in Russian and Soviet textbooks that Svyatoslav was elevated as the winner of the Khazaria. I am not talking about other victories, but in the defeat of Khazaria, the squad of Svyatoslav made a small contribution.

          Svyatoslav with his squad descended on the boats along the Volga. Even if one hundred people were placed on the rooks, now imagine how many rooks are needed to fit at least a thousand soldiers. This is HUNDRED rooks and only a thousand people, not counting the horses.

          Svyatoslav descended the Volga, and the Pecheneg cavalry marched along the steppes and smashed the Khazar nomads. It was the nomads, not the Khazar troops. By that historical moment, the Khazars did not have their own troops consisting of the Khazars. The power in Khazaria at that moment belonged to the Jewish community, which had at one time fled from the civil war in Iran. And about a hundred years before the defeat, the Jewish community, led by Obadiah, seized power in the kaganate. Of course, the Jews could not trust the armed Khazars and the Jewish government hired Turkic mercenaries from Khorezm for the money, and their number was 7 thousand. It was these mercenaries who held back the Pecheneg creeps.

          It is not known for sure - either the Khorezm mercenaries, by the time of the campaign of the Pechenegs and Svyatoslav, were not in Khazaria, or they did not fight and left. But there is no historical data on the battles between mercenaries and the combined army of Rus and Pechenegs. Although if there were such battles, they should have been noted in historical sources.

          From here, the Pechenegs and Russians smashed defenseless towns and nomads. Some armed resistance was provided only by a handful of close, unknown history, Khazar Khagans in the capital itself. Where did they die.

          Jews fled somewhere, in an unknown direction. A cross between Jews and Khazars, namely Jews and Khazars, who were not considered Jews among Jews, since the nationality of the Jews is determined by the mother, for the most part settled in Crimea under the historical ethnonym Karaima. Lithuanian prince Vitovt, after the lapse of time, moved the Karaites to Lithuania, as the basis of light cavalry.

          And now, a very small number of Karaites are scattered across the Baltic. These are the last remnants of the once strong Khazaria. The Karaites have the Turkic language and simplified Judaism.
        3. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 12 January 2014 11: 18
          0
          Quote: Alexandr0id
          I would say the completion of the Khazars, because in fact, by the time of the campaign of Svyatoslav from the Khazar Kaganate there were horns and legs,

          LN Gumilyov's work is "Ancient Russia and the Great Steppe", read it, do not consider it a work, the author has a slightly different opinion there. In short, the scientist considers the rise of the Caspian Sea and the flooding of its territory to be undermining the power of Khazaria, which was also reflected in the school textbook "History of the USSR" of the seventh grade of secondary school in the 70s of the last century.
          1. Alexandr0id
            Alexandr0id 12 January 2014 17: 43
            +1
            I read that the heterochronism of moistening Eurasia, etc., undermining the power of the Khazars is the Hungarians, and then the Pechenegs, the Hungarians walked first, and part of the Khazars (cabarets) left with them, and then the Pechenegs came, and this was already a complete paragraph for the Haganate.
  14. shoemaker
    shoemaker 11 January 2014 08: 06
    -2
    He defeated then he defeated .. And then there was chaos on the trade routes from the Varangians to Persia and China, which actually foreshadowed the appearance of the Moguls. That is, this victory was stupid and unnecessary, it was one thing to weaken the enemy while maintaining order in this territory, and another to completely destroy the state. The project of Novgorod and Bulgaria called Kiev went out of control, trade routes were disrupted, and as a result of inflation and a drop in production from Novgorod to Khazaria. In general, maybe he was a warrior from God, but as a statesman is useless.
    1. Hitrovan07
      Hitrovan07 12 January 2014 00: 25
      0
      almost a hint of statehood in the former USSR (including the metropolis) crying
    2. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 12 January 2014 11: 23
      +1
      Quote: zapatero
      And then there was chaos on the trade routes from the Varangians to Persia and China, which actually foreshadowed the appearance of the Mughals. That is, this victory was stupid and unnecessary, it was one thing to weaken the enemy while maintaining order in this territory, and another to completely destroy the state. The project of Novgorod and Bulgaria called Kiev went out of control, trade routes were disrupted, and as a result of inflation and a drop in production

      Probably V. Zvyagintsev, the series "Odysseus Leaves Ithaca" are you quoting (the plot of forzel-aggra)?
  15. Peter76
    Peter76 11 January 2014 08: 33
    0
    Thank you for the article
  16. Svar
    Svar 11 January 2014 10: 50
    +1
    Glory to the Heroes of the fallen for Russia!
  17. 11111mail.ru
    11111mail.ru 12 January 2014 11: 42
    +1
    An article plus at least for the fact that it reminds us of our history, even if it is more than a thousand years ago. While we argue with each other, strain the brains of ourselves and others, no liberalizers, no Soros can control our brains. I give below a link to the book of my favorite historian Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov. I read it 20 years ago, and his other works in paper form are on the shelf. I reread it according to my mood. If anyone can do it, then read "Millennium around the Caspian" (for history buffs), and if for building a worldview, read "Ethnogenesis and the Earth's biosphere" with the appendix to it (explanation of each aspect of the theory) "End and beginning again." Link: http://royallib.ru/read/gumilyov_lev/drevnyaya_rus_i_velikaya_step.html#430080
    Regards to your opponents!
  18. ValeraKrasovski
    ValeraKrasovski 18 January 2014 17: 16
    0
    Good article. With the adoption of Christianity, the power of Russia began to decline, and by the time the Mongols arrived, it was something consisting of patches of Russian-speaking principalities. Each of which had its own, and not national interests. Result? Complete defeat and submission (not without the help of Alexander Yaroslavich) to the laws of the Horde.
    Chlenov's book "In the Footsteps of Dobrynya" gives a version of what is happening and Sveneld's betrayal.