Military Review

Minoan Pompeii: a mysterious city on a mysterious island


Fresco from Akrotiri. City and ships. “Western House”, “Room No. 5”, “South Wall”. National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Ancient civilization. In our cycle of acquaintance with ancient culture, four materials have already been published: “Croatian Apoxyomen from under the water. Ancient civilization ", “Homer's poems as a historical source. Ancient civilization ", “Gold for war, the fourth wonder of the world and Ephesus marble” и "Antique ceramics and weapons". Recently, one of the readers of VO wrote in his comment that it would be nice to return to this topic. Indeed, why not come back, because for us Europeans, antiquity is the basis of everything. However, today we will try to dive a little deeper, so to speak, to the origins of ancient Greek ancient civilization. And our story will go about the ancient city of Akrotiri on the island of Fera (or Santorini).

Modern map of Santorin island

The coast of the island is composed of a multimeter thick volcanic rock

People learned about the existence of this city, located on the volcanic island of Santorin, in general, quite some time ago, back in the middle of the 1901th century. But they didn’t dig. Naturally, they did not know what was underground. But, as it usually happens, each of them buried in the land of Troy had his own Schliemann. In our case, it became the Greek archaeologist Spiridon Marinatos (1974-XNUMX).

Minoan Pompeii: a mysterious city on a mysterious island

What is striking in the open ancient city near the village of Akrotiri is the murals on the walls of its buildings. There is not a single, even a small room, whose walls would not have been painted! Here, for example, the painting "Room D2", "Complex Delta." Acroliti, XNUMXth century BC. National Archaeological Museum of Athens

It was he who hypothesized that the Minoan civilization and settlements on the island of Crete died as a result of the eruption of a volcano on the island of Fera (Santorin). In 1939, in England in the Antiquity magazine his article was published about this, but with the reservation of the editor, that "only excavations will be able to confirm their justice." But then the war began, everyone was not up to the excavations. In Greece, there was also a war, and then it was replaced by a civil war. And only in the spring of 1967, when the military dictatorship of the "black colonels" was established in Greece, Spiridon Marinatos, who had already become an academician, was appointed general inspector of antiquities.

The city itself has been excavated today, although not all, and is covered with a huge roof! Excavation model at the Fera Museum on Santorin Island

A state investment program was adopted, which allowed to begin the museumification of monuments in the open air, new excavations and exhibitions. Visiting Santorin, meanwhile, Martinatos interviewed local farmers, and they told him where, after heavy rains and floods, “antics” appeared from the earth.

Now he could not only manage the excavations of the Archaeological Service of Greece, but also receive funding for them. The "colonels" had an obvious need to demonstrate their "virtue" to the whole world - and Martinatos managed to get unprecedented funds for this business.

And so it looks like one of the excavated houses

A place was chosen on the south coast of the island near the village of Akrotiri, just opposite the island of Crete, which is often even visible from it, especially in fine sunny weather. But in the past, sailors just sailed just like that - from island to island within the line of sight. And here they were already digging in 1967, the French and Germans even found something. But they did not conduct such large-scale excavations. But Martinatos started them and immediately discovered a huge settlement of their multi-storey buildings (destroyed, of course), hidden under a layer of petrified volcanic ash. And only then he realized how incredibly lucky he was!

The houses were built using wood and clay. If they had not been hidden by the ashes, but remained on the surface, nothing would have remained of them for a long time! And then he came up with a wonderful, albeit very expensive thought: to cover the entire excavation area with a roof, and under its protection, no longer afraid of the elements, dig and dig. As was planned, it was done! In dictatorships sometimes it’s good!

Excavations at Acroliti: “Archaeological Zone 4”

The first excavations were carried out in 1967, and he dug and dug until in October 1974 ... he was gone. But by this time he had already managed to cover a site with an area of ​​more than a hectare and discover dozens (!) Of buildings, of which he managed to carefully excavate four.

Since then, excavations at Akrotiri have been ongoing! Continuously! Although their intensity after the “colonels” were driven out, it slightly decreased. And the matter is not even in the allocated money, since the flow of tourists there does not dry out. The problem is how to save everything already excavated, describe, study and restore.

These huge vessels are left where they were found

Modern science and new technologies today provide a truly fundamental approach to the restoration of artifacts. Now it does not come down only to the description, sketching and photographing of the finds, as it was during the time of Agatha Christie, who was doing all this with her husband, but also to recovering the finds from the fragments found. Now the study of ancient techniques, technologies and materials is being conducted with the aim of learning as much as possible about the thing itself and about its era. It was decided that the restoration should begin already at the excavation stage, while all fragments of the thing are right in front of the eyes, and not transferred to the museum, where its employees can do this many years later!

The image of an octopus is a characteristic motif for dishes of the Minoan era. Such vessels were found in Crete, and in Akrotir, and in Cyprus. Photo from the Museum of the Sea in Ayia Napa, Cyprus

It turned out that here in Akrotiri under a thick layer of volcanic pumice and pozzolana (a mixture of ash and pumice) are the real Pompeii, only much more ancient, where everything has been preserved intact for many millennia!

And then vessels of huge sizes were made! Here, for example, a vessel for grain from the island of Cyprus. Archaeological Museum of Larnaca

As a result, Akrotiri was just a godsend for scientists of various specialties. Not only archaeologists came here, but also paleozoologists (those who study ancient animals, the bones that are found here), paleomalacologists (those who study ancient mollusks - their shells were also found), paleoichthyologists, paleoentomologists and paleobotanists - after all, literally survived under the ashes all! There was a unique opportunity to find out what the ancient Minoans ate and drank, what plants were bred, and even what they hurt ...

Polychrome vessel with the image of birds. Akrotiri, XNUMXth century BC. National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Moreover, the area is seismically dangerous! There were earthquakes in 1999 and 2007, and it was necessary to strengthen the roof, and then replace it, since previously used asbestos cement slabs were dangerous to health.

But then again, as often happens, there would be no happiness, but misfortune helped. To put the pillars under the new roof, it was necessary to dig 150 (!) Pit mines with a depth of 20 m, penetrating through the entire excavation. And these pits made it possible to obtain a complete stratigraphy of the settlement, that is, to see all the soil layers and, accordingly, all phases of the existence of this settlement. Judging by them история Akrotiri counts at least three and a half thousand years!

But still, the main thing that makes one admire this place is still not dishes, but wall murals. Let's say this one. Ship Procession

It turned out that this place was inhabited already in the Neolithic era (mid-Vth millennium BC) and further in the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages people lived here until the fateful eruption of the volcano. Many of the findings in Akrotiri are simply impressive. For example, stone pythos was found here - a vessel for grain 1,3 m high, made of andesite, the strongest rock. And it weighs so much that it was clearly made on the spot, because such a drive from somewhere - do not love yourself. It is clear, of course, that it was laser-cut by representatives of the most ancient civilization of the antediluvian historical period, but in the workshop where such vessels were made, no wiring was found, alas! (Warning, this is a joke of the author!)

And many ordinary ceramic vessels were found, both here and in neighboring Crete and Cyprus, that is, that there was one civilization here, no doubt. They found a vessel that served as a hive with the remains of honeycombs, and fish bones were found inside many vessels. So, they salted or pickled the fish in them.

Or this one! National Archaeological Museum of Athens

It turned out that the area of ​​Akrotiri settlement, occupying 20 hectares, was the city center. However, the agora (the main square) were never found. But, nevertheless, this is a real city with a very high level of improvement. The streets have pavements covered with stone or cobblestone, along them sewer drainage channels blocked by slabs are laid, the houses have sanitary rooms connected to the street system. That is, all this was built not by sight, but according to a single plan and with clear coordination. And there is coordination, which means that there are people who carry it out, that means there is power. The city found many dwellings of artisans. These are builders, masons, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, artists, sailors, potters, that is, people not related to agriculture. So someone fed them. That is, there was a market where these people bought life support products for their services, and someone brought these products here somewhere and exchanged them for these services. And if so, then this settlement is clearly not a rural community, but a city.

And now let's take a closer look at it. “Boxing boys” - this name was given to her by archaeologists. Found her in “Room B1” of “House B” in Acroliti (XVI century BC). National Archaeological Museum of Athens

But the political structure of this city is still unclear. There are no "palaces" characteristic of the island of Crete, or they have not yet been found. There is not a single building that can be called the ruler’s house, and only one building claims (and no more) a cult character. All houses demonstrate approximately the same level of culture and, most importantly, the income of their inhabitants.

Just an amazing fresco depicting women: "Women picking crocuses (saffron)." A painting of a potentially ritual building No. 3. National Archaeological Museum of Athens

The head of one of the women with this mural

The fashion for women's clothing in Acroliti was similar to that of neighboring Crete!

Another interesting fact. Coal paleobotanists determined which wood was used by the inhabitants of the city and which woody cultures grew here. And here there grew a pistachio tree, palm tree, tamarisk, oleander, pine. You can’t cut long logs from them. So, for ships and houses, logs had to be bought in Crete, in continental Greece or in Lebanon. And import. That is, trade with different areas of the Mediterranean was very developed. Food For the sake of growing figs, sesame seeds, almonds, olive, figs, grapes, barley, lentils - a total of more than 50 species of cultivated plants.

Fresco "Blue Monkeys". And the question is: why are they blue? And who painted them so accurately, considering that monkeys have never been here? National Archaeological Museum of Athens

And this is a fresco with monkeys in the Fera Museum

Archaeologists did not find the remnants of the fabric, but from something the inhabitants of Akrotiri sewed sails for their ships and what did they dress in? It is well known that clothes were dyed yellow (saffron) and purple (findings of purple shells). Weights from looms, by the way, also found ...

The upper floor of the "Western house", "Room number 5". Fresco "Fish Catcher"

But the most important thing in Akrotiri is still not finds, but wall paintings. The fact is that the houses in the city were, as a rule, two-story, and so, not a single house was found where at least one room would not have any murals! It was as if the inhabitants of it were only doing that they painted their houses from the inside and boasted of each other with these “pictures”, although maybe that was how it was, and people stood out by inviting a more famous and talented artist or ordering a completely original painting - not like everyone else! Interestingly, this kind of "rivalry" has never been seen anywhere else in the Aegean world. Only here, only at this time! In one of the largest excavated houses, to which S. Marinatos conditionally gave the name "Admiral’s house", they found, for example, images of fishermen with a catch, a young priestess, and a fresco with ships and a battle amazing in realism. Well, frescoes with monkeys and wild cats directly speak of trade with Egypt and Syria. They weren’t closer then!

War scene! Fragment of a fresco on the northern wall of the "Western House", "Room number 5". National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Wild boar helmet, described in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, depicted in a fresco from the Western House and found during excavations in mainland Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens

The city lived and developed until 1500 BC. e., when on the island of Santorin (or Fera) there was a terrible eruption of a volcano. At first there was an earthquake that destroyed the city. But the inhabitants escaped and began to rebuild it, and they worked quickly: archaeologists did not find human remains under the rubble of the buildings. That is, they managed to extract them! Life began to gradually return to its usual course, but then the volcano woke up. It all started with the release of gases, then a layer of ash fell on the city (the thickness reached 2-2,5 cm). Then a pumice stone flew from the volcano, the thickness of which was already about a meter. Finally, at the vent itself, a layer of fine ash reached 60 meters, and near Akrotiri - 6-8 m. It is interesting that this ash was found even in the ice of Greenland, that was the power of this eruption! Then Mount Santorin failed, and in its place a huge caldera was formed, filled today with the sea, and people just forgot that there used to be a flourishing civilization!

Santorini today: the northernmost town of Oia
Articles from this series:
Antique ceramics and weapons
Gold for war, the fourth wonder of the world and Ephesus marble
Homer's poems as a historical source. Antique civilization. H. 1
Croatian apoxiomen from the water. Ancient civilization. H. 2
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 May 2020 06: 18
    Yes, volcanic ash turned out to be an excellent preservative: it has preserved such amazing beauty for us!

    True, at the cost of misfortune of its ancient inhabitants themselves ...
    The houses were built using wood and clay.

    In the photo, it seems, you can see blocks of saw sandstone or limestone, the usual building material for ancient Greece.

    The centralized sewage system is a sign of a high level of development of civilization, especially if we recall the fetid rivers flowing directly through the streets of medieval European cities ...

    The head of one of the women with this mural

    Ah beauty!

    And women's fashion of those times, I welcome!
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 30 May 2020 11: 13
      Very beautiful! Thanks to the author for an interesting tour!
    2. cost
      cost 30 May 2020 14: 05
      Vyacheslav, let me supplement your illustrations a little.
      The Museum of Prehistoric Fira (Thira) is located on the island of Santorini in the city of Fira.

      1. cost
        cost 30 May 2020 14: 07
        The artifacts presented in the museum were mostly discovered during excavations in Akrotiri

        1. cost
          cost 30 May 2020 14: 10
          Among the household items of ancient Akrotiri, I was particularly struck by the well-preserved, bronze saw.
          1. Xnumx vis
            Xnumx vis 30 May 2020 18: 40
            The fine arts are amazingly developed .... I get the impression that in the future all these impressionists copied artwork similar to the Aktorothyrii ... The art of drawing of ancient people is surprising ... And more. "Many finds in Akrotiri are simply impressive. For example, Here they found a stone pithos - a vessel for grain 1,3 m high, made of andesite, the strongest rock. And it weighs so much that it was clearly made on the spot, because such a transport from somewhere is not to love yourself. that it was laser cut by representatives of the most ancient civilization of the antediluvian historical period, but in the workshop where such vessels were made, alas, no wiring was found! (Attention, this is the author's joke!) "But, how! What tools could have been used to manually create this ... I am always amazed at such facts ... Here is an ordinary stone, far from granite, or basalt, it is impossible to hew with a steel chisel and an ax ... And they are bronze tools ...
            1. AllBiBek
              AllBiBek 31 May 2020 00: 41
              Yes, metal is not used in the manufacture of stone vessels; they were first known almost from the Mesolithic. A harder stone always.

              If you are interested, google "modern diorite vase", enthusiasts will slowly redo it, there is a detailed description of the process and the results. Moreover, our enthusiasts are qualified. Anthropogenesis. Ru is trying. And the girl cuts out the vases by hand.
              1. Xnumx vis
                Xnumx vis 31 May 2020 08: 07
                Thank you ... It was always interesting how at that time they could process stone for construction too.
                1. AllBiBek
                  AllBiBek 31 May 2020 08: 53
                  By the same principle. A harder stone - on a softer one.

                  Watch some video from the same Assuan quarries, they are still dotted with tools. You just don’t know that this is the tool.

                  A stone hammer, for example, is a sphere or a pear. It is so in all cultures, from Egypt to Easter Island. A stone chisel is most like a pestle. The blank of the stone block will look like its giant beaver has nibbled, the corresponding tools will be lying in the vicinity.

                  A stone file is best from a shell rock, it is also not in short supply.

                  So the first megaliths in the world were treated, and the latter, stupidly with harder, softer stone. Most often, diabase. The tools used to carve the Alexandrian column in St. Petersburg - and this is the largest of the installed stones in the history of mankind - is not very different from the one used to carve blocks for the pyramids. And they put it - all the difference - having horse traction, in the same way - the same levers and blocks. And the mathematical apparatus of two centuries ago.

                  Sukhanov was a genius, he saw through the stone. Such people are sometimes born, Peter was lucky.

                  In more ancient times, the demand for such people was many times higher, and the experience of working with stone as the main material for everything at that time in mankind ranged from one and a half to two million years.

                  That's how they did it somehow.

                  The largest all-stone vessel in the world (and in the entire history of mankind) is also Sukhanov, by the way. Googled as "Catherine II's stone bathroom".
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 30 May 2020 06: 30
    Apparently the island was wooded and fertile. Resources were.
    But they were still waiting for the fate of Rapa Nui. This civilization would have died without a volcano. Rather, they would have dumped, exhausting the island.
    And they drew and dressed beautifully good
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 May 2020 07: 18
      My respect, Ivan!
      This civilization would have died without a volcano. Rather, they would have dumped, exhausting the island.
      Not at all necessary, given that Santorin was an enclave of the Minoan state, located in close proximity to the metropolis. Moreover, if catastrophe did not happen, it is not known whether the Achaean invasion of Crete would have taken place.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 30 May 2020 09: 33
        why not? they would plow the island, cut down the trees ... soil erosion, overpopulation, decline in shipbuilding, etc. would begin. They would have abandoned the island .. As for Easter, there is only where to sail away
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 May 2020 10: 54
          What you described happened to Cyprus.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 30 May 2020 12: 32
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            What you described happened to Cyprus.

            1. Engineer
              Engineer 30 May 2020 12: 47
              But it didn’t happen to Crete
              In any case, it is hundreds and hundreds of years. Civilization could be destroyed and reborn several times.
              fate of Rapa Nui

              Rapa Nui has two opposing views. Overexploitation (e.g. Jared Daimond). Balance with nature. I saw the documentary from NG clearly to the peak of Jared.
              1. AllBiBek
                AllBiBek 31 May 2020 00: 45
                Jared relied on the work of Patricia Vargas, and archaeologically there overexploitation is very well traced.

                The name of the documentary from NG - do not remember, by chance?
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 31 May 2020 10: 17
                  Jared relied on the work of Patricia Vargas, and archaeologically there overexploitation is very well traced.

                  The name of the documentary from NG - do not remember, by chance?

                  Unfortunately no, I looked on the plane a year ago
                  1. AllBiBek
                    AllBiBek 31 May 2020 11: 03
                    They have species diversity there that flora and fauna fall with each generation, Easter Island was really an earthly paradise when the Polynesians sailed there.

                    The substitute is that it is volcanic, where the sea depths rise sharply immediately from the coast, so there is no way to profit from the seafood. Maximum fishing (and they did not know the nets), and hunting for a sea animal (of it there is only a dolphin).

                    Dolphin bones are there only in the lower layers.

                    Well and so on.

                    Add here the custom of cremation of the deceased, which is completely superfluous in those conditions, and - an oil painting.
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 31 May 2020 11: 04
                      Thank you for the clarification.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 07: 39
      The death of the island was determined by geology! As a child, he read the book Lost Atlantis. Alas, I forgot the author. In this work, he described the inevitability of a volcano explosion, and suggested its cyclicity. One of his assumptions was that the island of Santorin was larger, and subsequently repeatedly changed its shape. For example, he explained his fertility by the fact that soils based on volcanic ash give fantastic yields.
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, guys and girls of a good weekend and a constructive proposal, without the “dirt” in the author’s work, that the hand didn’t flinch put pluses in the comments in the comments !!!
      Sincerely, Your Kitty, I’ll go log Beat off the competition under the bench, otherwise they’ve already chosen one sitting, the other is already tearing with its claws !!! Herods, why mark the chainsaw !!!!!!!!!
      1. kalibr
        30 May 2020 07: 48
        Good morning to you, Vladislav! Today I also expect full communism: in the morning, creative work at the computer, then a trip to the cottage and there physical labor in the fresh air, with meals from my own grown greens and radishes. Then a healthy sleep in the fresh air, again work and again a dream. And tomorrow the weather will go bad and have to return home to mental work ...
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 May 2020 07: 49
        Herods, why mark the chainsaw !!!!!!!!!
        And figley she rolls unlabeled?!?!? A mess and mismanagement! And so, everything is in order, the inventory mark is done. laughing
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 09: 30
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Herods, why mark the chainsaw !!!!!!!!!
          And figley she rolls unlabeled?!?!? A mess and mismanagement! And so, everything is in order, the inventory mark is done. laughing

          Hadina, mustachioed, tried to bite the dog Moska on him! She barked from afar and left, she didn’t even get in touch!
          Now I am sawing, I am piling. Noise, din, screech! And he periodically peeps from behind the bushes. He feels my heart, admired by his planer !!! Some kind of mehoman !!!
      3. Hantengri
        Hantengri 30 May 2020 09: 11
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        As a child, he read the book Lost Atlantis. Alas, I forgot the author.

        Isn't she by chance?

        I also read it in childhood and it had the same ideas about Santorin. hi
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 09: 25
          She, she! The author has about five books on this subject, as far as I remember from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean !!!
          They said the guys must be busy with the catalog !!! hi
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 30 May 2020 12: 22
            Good day to all those gathered !!! Dear Vlad! And let me give you a list. So:
            * Address-Lemuria *
            * Look for Atlantis offshore *
            * Atlantis Sea Tethys *
            * Atlantis without Atlantis *
            * Century and water *.
            The first step is to create a directory. laughing
            Sincerely, / you yourself know who /! drinks hi
    3. Moskovit
      Moskovit 30 May 2020 12: 26
      Why would. It was the Venetians who tore off Crete and the islands to build a fleet. The Minoans were not so active. They would live for themselves until they were conquered ...
    4. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 31 May 2020 08: 54
      Would not be exhausted, Easter Island is an exception, not a rule. Otherwise, all the islands of all the seas would be a desert.
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 30 May 2020 07: 25
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    For the first time I read about Santorini in the middle of the 80s, in the magazine "Around the World".
    1. kalibr
      30 May 2020 07: 52
      Dear Anton! Already then much was written about Santorin, but it was bad with pictures from there. Now, thank God, it’s easier with this. Like with getting information. Last time, Viktor Nikolaevich wrote about the Bardini Museum, so I already contacted them, got an answer, an application sheet in English. to publish their photo, I already issued it and sent it back to them. As they sign it, it will be possible to write an article about this museum too!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 May 2020 07: 58
        And yes, I remember that they wrote a lot, but I remember the publication in "VS".
      2. cost
        cost 30 May 2020 13: 19
        As always - informative and with many beautiful illustrations.
        Thanks for the interesting article
  4. Deniska999
    Deniska999 30 May 2020 08: 07
    Frescoes surprisingly preserved, even suggesting suspicion.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 09: 40
      Yeah, at the beginning of the 15th century, the evil Zakharyev-Romanovs were paired by Pope Urban 5 personally, day and night, and Rolshid was standing on a skater with two candles! Then ash was brought from Kamchatka and mothballed !!!
      Life is an interesting thing, but excavations of the famous Pompeii empirically proved that volcanic ash is an excellent conservative !!! Even better swamps !!! In the Urals, in the museum of local lore there is a 10 year old idol !!! Or he was also "buried" !!! The question is who? Tatishchev, Pugachev, Stroganov?
      1. Deniska999
        Deniska999 30 May 2020 10: 11
        It was sarcasm, Kote)
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 11: 01
          But in part. To be honest, already tired of the scientific research of a number of members of the forum "everyone lured, let down, rewrote"!
          Recently, we have sinned similarly. Business needs margin, so history is drained from the finger, and ash is really a good preservative. However, ashes, charred wooden buildings, also better withstand time than an ordinary log cabin. Why I don’t know, but next to my hometown is the abandoned village of Revedel. Wooden barracks die, growing into the ground, and two charred, through the fault of the vandals of the house, Rise above them as if burned yesterday !!!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 30 May 2020 12: 26
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Wooden barracks die, growing into the ground, and two charred, through the fault of the vandals of the house, Rise above them as if burned yesterday !!!

            : Hello, Vladislav!

            There is some explanation for this: burnt wood is already another material, much more durable.

            Earlier firing was protected, for example, piles made of wood. floor elements (logs).

            Wood sugar burns out, respectively. no food for tree readers. Larvae and spores die. The molten resin closes the pores of the material and the tree becomes more waterproof.

            In ancient times, the tip of a wooden spear was "baked" on fire - it was stronger than usual .. hi
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 13: 55
              Good day!
              I myself sometimes sheathe the wooden handles of the Tool, shovels, sledgehammers, axes, panicles, etc., with a blowtorch, but for purely aesthetic purposes. Burnt wood is a pleasure to hold. In fact, for two or three seasons it is polished with hands.
              The ability to burn the tip, I'm afraid today is lost. Several times I tried to get this effect on a fire with different types of wood. More or less it turned out with larch, but I'm afraid that our ancestors did not use it because of the exorbitant severity and difficulty in processing! Birch and ash constantly cracked. Spruce, fir and pine are not banal burned.
          2. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 31 May 2020 00: 49
            And what is there to guess? It is elementary.
            From the fact that the building burned down - the soil around was sintered, this is enough. There, consider the layer as a turluk around the perimeter.

            After a couple of tens of millennia, it sometimes feels good either with a master or a knife, so that right here and right here such a good fire burned once.
  5. knn54
    knn54 30 May 2020 08: 37
    In the cave of Crete, the goddess Rhea hid the newborn Zeus so that Kronos would not hear his cry and ate him. And here Zeus in the form of a bull brought Europe. From their union, the son of Minos was born, who ruled Crete and turned it into a powerful island empire. Even Attica paid tribute to Crete until Theseus, the Athenian heir, killed the Minotaur.
    This myth and the results of excavations presented in the article make it possible to read the Crete-Minoan civilization as the oldest on the European continent.
    Vladislav, maybe the book (read in the mid-80s) "Atlantis of the Tethys Sea"?
    And here it is. Atlantis ??? What do you think, Vyacheslav?
    For an EXTENDED (rather than brief facts) article, a big plus.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 May 2020 09: 42
      Yes, it is possible !!! It makes sense to delve into the library. There were at least 5 books in the series !!!
  6. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 30 May 2020 08: 55
    Thanks to the author. Very interesting.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 30 May 2020 10: 04
    Since then, excavations at Akrotiri have been ongoing! Continuously! Although their intensity after the “colonels” were driven out, it slightly decreased. And the matter is not even in the allocated money, since the flow of tourists there does not dry out. The problem is how to save everything already excavated, describe, study and restore.

    I’ll fix it a bit. In 2005, all this roof collapsed. True, the artifacts were not affected, but the visitor was crushed by the roof. Therefore, Akrotiri was closed for tourists from 2005 to 2012. Accordingly, excavations were not carried out until 2016. They resumed thanks to Eugene Kaspersky, a Russian programmer whose anti-virus programs are used, I think, by many commentators. It is he who is the main sponsor of archaeological research in Akrotiri at the present time.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 30 May 2020 12: 15
      Excavations were ongoing in 2017, but the museum was closed.
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 30 May 2020 12: 18
      Maybe it’s better not to dig, otherwise God forbid the Minotaur is dug up, well, it. Theseus killed it, and suddenly what kind of a bloke comes, will say some kind of spell, there are shidriks of a trick, sharanda of a varanda. And this bull comes to life, a roofing felts.
      1. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 31 May 2020 11: 11
        You just quoted any archaeologist with a hangover ...
  8. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 30 May 2020 11: 19
    informative article ...
  9. Operator
    Operator 30 May 2020 11: 24
    The central part of Santorin Island (which is more correct in Russian) did not fail, but exploded (took off into the air), as a result of which only peripheral fragments located along an arc of a circle were preserved from the island (see map).

    The hot ashes from the volcanic eruption and the tsunami from the explosion destroyed the Minoan civilization in the territory of the future Greece and caused damage to the surrounding mainland countries - Egypt, Canaan, Phenicia, Cyprus and the Het kingdom. Agriculture in the wider region of Europe, Asia and Africa was also damaged by aerosol clouds blocking sunlight.

    The city of Akrotiri, the ruins of which were found on one of the surviving fragments of the island of Santorin, was completely bombarded with ash, which served as an airbag in the explosion of the volcano.
  10. Free wind
    Free wind 30 May 2020 11: 25
    Women are very sympathetic, and proportionately written. And these two aboltus, some kind of cheerful rickets. Blue monkeys, and why we don’t have a wiper, they’ll bother, and even fight, so there are all the colors of the discoloration on the face. So tailed monkeys prefer dense forests, though they are pretty playful in their youth. But when it comes to retirement, the harachter becomes bad. Schmimpanzee is a specific killer, Gavril is much kinder, as they say. Kraken are found in many cultures.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 30 May 2020 12: 33
      Quote: Free Wind
      Women are very sympathetic, and proportionately written.

      * Ah, the noblewoman by the beauty of fashion.
      Chervlena lips.
      Eyebrows allied ... * laughing laughing laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 30 May 2020 12: 57
        What else do you need, dog?
        Well, get married, bury, prince lets her go .. (c)
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 30 May 2020 14: 04
          * I apologize that you are all serf, but serf! What serf am I to you ?!! * laughing
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 30 May 2020 14: 06
            * This role is abusive and I ask you not to apply it to me! * laughing laughing laughing
      2. cost
        cost 30 May 2020 14: 34
        Quote: Free Wind
        Women are very sympathetic, and proportionately written
        Really beautiful.
        a photo Minoan murals of Akrotiri

        1. cost
          cost 30 May 2020 14: 39
          And, of course, a fragment of the famous Minoan fresco, the recognized ideal of the Minoan female beauty, called by archaeologists - "Parisienne"
          A photo . The famous fresco "Parisienne"
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 30 May 2020 16: 46
            Greek women still look like that))
            1. cost
              cost 30 May 2020 16: 50
              Albert hi If I am not mistaken, do you have a Greek woman?
              Be sure to show her this mural. She will be pleased.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 30 May 2020 16: 52
                Greetings! hi
                Wife, now a new (currently temporarily replacing the old) nanny of children laughing
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 30 May 2020 19: 14
                  Ha, ha, ha! Ah, yes, Albert! laughing
                  Yes, you are just great! laughing
                  * If I were a sultan, I would have had three wives
                  And would be surrounded by triple beauty ... * good
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 30 May 2020 19: 15
                    Not where I live, I don’t go)).
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Moskovit
    Moskovit 30 May 2020 14: 26

    I will write my little note about this wonderful Greek island. Santorini, my love! I advise you to definitely go there. The views are simply fantastic. In addition to history, this is a real open-air museum of volcanology. You will see layers of ash 20-30 meters thick and you will understand how strong the volcano was raging here. The beaches of black volcanic sand, there is also red too.

    The crater where this famous monstrous explosion took place .. As you can imagine, the sea waters poured into the mouth, 300 meters deep, and then how it all shied away, it becomes uncomfortable and, in fact, it is clear that the tsunami was mega-destructive.
    We were lucky that our guide turned out to be a Russian girl with an inquisitive mind, who has lived on the island for many years and therefore knows very well the local customs, history and customs of the Santorians.
    The crater has numerous seismic sensors that monitor a dormant volcano. You can drive there for little money. It's a little creepy). But danger is ripening in another place - not far from the island, at a shallow depth a new volcano began to appear. He is also monitored, but knowing the Greek gouging and underfinancing, anything can happen. There is an evacuation plan on the island. However, no one believes in it, because according to the authorities, residents (about 20 thousand + a crowd of tourists) will have almost a month for a relaxing trip. Therefore, the plan is this: somehow, we’ll take you out. Every year, thousands of small tremors take place on the island. They are almost invisible. When we were, there was just a minor earthquake. We did not notice him, because we rode a bus, but the port was closed for an hour.
    About Akrotiri guide told us the following. Residents of the city knew in advance about the impending disaster, so there are very few artifacts. No skeletons or remains found (unlike Pompeii). That is, everyone calmly left and took everything away with them (the Greek government thinks that if the Minoans succeeded, then we are all the more so). It is a pity that the museum was closed, as it still has not been put in order after the death of a tourist.
    There are no sources of fresh water in Santorini. It is either imported, or from a local weak desalination plant, or falls in the form of dew. Plants somehow adapted to this regime. We were proudly told about the local grapes. It looks unprepossessing, lying on the ground like a late potato. Due to the fact that there is little water, the fruits grow very sweet, and the wine turns out to be similar to Cahors. Volcanic soil gives its flavor, but it seemed to us that the imported wine was mixed with the local one, because the scarce lands of Santorini are unlikely to produce large yields. And wines are offered in commercial quantities)). The truth is not at all cheap, at 20-30 euros per bottle.
    Another trouble Santorini is pervasive volcanic dust. My wife, sensitive to allergies, began to sneeze after a couple of hours. Therefore, if you have similar problems, take medication with you.
    The guide told us about the inhabitants of Santorini. In the late 40s there was an earthquake on the island, which destroyed housing stock by 80%. Since then, young people have been trying to leave for the mainland, but no one is selling land and real estate. Families gather once a year in the family nest, and then again to the mainland.
    There are many small chapels on the island. It turns out that any resident of the island can install it in honor of a memorable event or a saint who helped him. But then he must look after the chapel and maintain order in it.
    If possible, I will definitely go to the island again, but not along tourist routes, but along unknown paths!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 May 2020 18: 46
      To paraphrase Pushkin:
      "Ah, Greece! I would love you,
      If not for the wild Iberian coast! " laughing
    2. deddem
      deddem 30 May 2020 21: 36
      The evacuation of the inhabitants of Santorini before the eruption in scientific circles is now being spoken of more cautiously, in the spirit of "no victims of the eruption were found in the excavated areas."
      They are waiting for the excavations to reach the port area, otherwise it may well be like in Herculaneum, where before the discovery of nightmares in the "ship sheds" they also believed that the population had managed to evacuate.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 31 May 2020 00: 15
        Maybe, but if the inhabitants had time to run to the sea, then a giant wave would wash away their little ships and disperse them into molecules. So they may not find it.
        According to the guide, the Minoans all raked in their homes, which indicates a thorough evacuation. On the other hand, a cataclysm of such growth does not happen all of a sudden. In the same Pompeii, the water left, and there were tremors, and smokes, so all the rich quietly evacuated, and the poor and the watchman died ...
        In Santorini, the locals do not be fools, and gathered on the road. Plus, they say, before the explosion there could have been massive emissions of volcanic gases into the water and all the fish had a rest, which led to the attenuation of the fishery.
        1. deddem
          deddem 2 June 2020 08: 53
          As for the death during the evacuation - this is almost 100%, the style characteristic of Fira after her death was noted at exactly two objects, in Egypt and Phenicia, and it’s hard to say whether they were refugees or just a couple of stray "Tajik brigades" who were lucky not to be on the island on the day of the disaster.
  13. Normal ok
    Normal ok 30 May 2020 15: 32
    Fine. Thank you for the article. In the 80-90s he spent holidays in several archaeological expeditions in the Northern Black Sea region. Excellent company (I have been friends with many for over 35 years) and a lot of impressions. May be winked somehow wink I will write.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 31 May 2020 00: 57
      Is it not Hermonass with Panticapaeum?)

      But Tanais is no longer being dug (. The new management of the museum-reserve decided to bring it to "commercial success", and is slowly turning it into an active recreation park. Bastards ...
  14. ont65
    ont65 30 May 2020 16: 19
    In spite of globalism, the Minoan civilization arose so early that actively communicating with its neighbors, thanks to its island location, it managed to avoid wars and invasions, ensuring original cultural progress for centuries. The Greeks had someone to learn from, even in small ways. Typically, each subsequent civilization was more bloodthirsty than the previous one.
    1. Operator
      Operator 30 May 2020 17: 23
      Each crisis (such as the Santorini disaster for Minoan civilization) provides an opportunity for others - for example, for the pagan tribe Habiru, who fled to Egypt from the drought in Canaan after the explosion of a volcano in Santorini, and 200 years later returned as a monotheistic tribe of Jews. The same civilizational shift occurred in the eastern foothills of the Alps in Hallstadt, from which Celtic civilization began to spread at the same time.

      The civilizational level of these cultures ultimately exceeded the Minoan level by an order of magnitude, whose wall painting grew only to decorative and applied art, not to mention the primitiveness of the Minoan bronze objects in comparison with the Celtic ones.
  15. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 30 May 2020 20: 38
    Finally read the article, read the comments.
    From my point of view, it is impossible to publish articles by Artyom and Vyacheslav Olegovich on the same day - this is a form of mockery. smile
    Vyacheslav olegovich, thanks for the material, as always interesting and something new for me.
    I read somewhere about the eruption of Krakatau - at first the volcano threw out lava, then water poured into the vacant caverns, naturally, it was processed there into steam and as a result of the sharply increased pressure "big badabum" was obtained. I do not know how reliable such a reconstruction of events is, but probably something similar could have happened in the case of Santorini.
    When I will be ninety years old and I consider that I saw everything in this life, so that you can die, remind me, colleagues, that there was still a Santorin disaster. See something like that and only then die. smile
  16. AllBiBek
    AllBiBek 31 May 2020 00: 54
    About the strange color of monkeys - it begs that they were painted by the person who saw them, but painted by the one who did not see, or the customer wished more blue. It’s cheaper to hire an artist to just paint, and we can paint ourselves.

    In those days, bright colors were loved, very much. Where as more than now.