Military Review

The history of the Chinese missile defense system in the 1960-1970 years

17
Missile defense of China. The first stage in the creation of the Chinese missile defense system “Project 640”, which started in the second half of the 1960's, was the construction of Type 7010 and Type 110 radars. Type 7010 radars were supposed to provide an early warning of a missile attack, and Type 110 was entrusted with the task of accurately determining the coordinates and providing target designation to interception means. The “640 Project” identified several promising areas:
- “Project 640-1” - the creation of interceptor missiles;

- “Project 640-2” - anti-ballistic artillery guns;
- “Project 640-3” - laser weapon;
- “640-4 Project” - early warning radars.
- “640-5 Project” - detection of warheads when they enter the atmosphere using optoelectronic systems and the development of satellites that fix the start of ballistic missiles.

The history of the Chinese missile defense system in the 1960-1970 years

Chinese missile delivery to a test site


Development of missile defense in China


The first Chinese anti-missile system was the HQ-3, created on the basis of the anti-aircraft missile HQ-1, which in turn was a Chinese copy of the Soviet SA-75M air defense system. The missile, designed in China to combat ballistic targets, did not seem to differ much from the B-750 missiles used in the SA-75M, but were longer and heavier. However, it soon became clear that the anti-aircraft missile, designed to combat aerodynamic targets at medium and high altitudes, is not suitable for defeating warheads flying at hypersonic speed. The launch characteristics of the anti-missile did not meet the necessary requirements, and the manual tracking of the target did not provide the required accuracy of guidance. In connection with the use of a number of technical solutions of the HQ-1 air defense system, it was decided to develop a new HQ-4 missile defense system.


HQ-4 complex interceptor missile


Chinese sources say that the weight of the HQ-4 missile system was over 3 tons, the firing range was up to 70 km, and the minimum was 5 km. Reach in height - more than 30 km. The guidance system is combined; in the initial section, the radio command method was used; in the final section, semi-active radar homing was used. For this, a target illumination radar was introduced into the guidance station. The defeat of a ballistic missile was to be carried out by a high-explosive fragmentation warhead weighing more than 100 kg, with a non-contact radio fuse. The missile was dispersed at the initial stage by a solid-fuel engine, after which the second stage was launched, which operated on heptyl and nitrogen tetroxide. Missiles were assembled at the Shanghai Mechanical Plant.

During tests in 1966, the interceptor missile was able to disperse to 4М, however, control at this speed was extremely difficult. The process of fine-tuning the missile was very difficult. Many problems arose with refueling with poisonous heptyl, the leaks of which led to serious consequences. Nevertheless, the HQ-4 complex was tested by firing on a real ballistic missile R-2. Apparently, the results of practical firing turned out to be unsatisfactory, and at the beginning of the 1970's the process of refining the HQ-4 missile defense system was stopped.

After the failure with HQ-4, the PRC decided to create from scratch a new missile defense system HQ-81. Externally, the interceptor missile, known as the FJ-1, resembled the American two-stage solid-propellant rocket Sprint. But unlike the American product, the rocket, created by Chinese experts, in the first version had two liquid stages. Subsequently, the first stage was transferred to solid fuel.


Missile defense FJ-1


The final FJ-1 modification submitted for testing had a length of 14 m and a starting weight of 9,8 t. Launch took place from an inclined launcher at an angle of 30-60 °. The operating time of the main engine was 20 s, the range of destruction in range was about 50 km, the interception height was 15-20 km.

Throwing trials of prototypes began in the 1966 year. The development of the Type 715 anti-missile and fire control radars was greatly inhibited by the Cultural Revolution, and managed to launch the FJ-1 guided missiles at the anti-ballistic firing range in the vicinity of Kunming in 1972. The first tests ended unsuccessfully, two rockets exploded after the start of the operation of the main engine. We managed to achieve reliable operation of the engines and control system by the 1978 year.



During the control firing carried out in August-September of 1979, a telemetric missile was able to conditionally hit the warhead of a medium-range ballistic missile DF-3, after which it was decided to deploy 24 anti-aircraft missiles FJ-1 north of Beijing. However, already in the 1980 year, work on the practical implementation of the China missile defense program was stopped. The Chinese leadership concluded that the national missile defense system would cost the country too much, and its effectiveness would be dubious. By that time, ballistic missiles carrying several individual warheads and numerous false targets were created and adopted in the USSR and the USA.

In parallel with the development of the FJ-1 from 1970, the FJ-2 interceptor rocket was created. It was also intended for close interception, and had to fight with attacking warheads at ranges up to 50 km, in the altitude range of 20-30 km. In 1972, 6 prototypes were tested; 5 launches were recognized as successful. But due to the fact that the FJ-2 missile was competing with the FJ-1, which entered the stage of acceptance tests, in the 1973 year the work on the FJ-2 was curtailed.

For the long-range interception of warheads of ballistic missiles, the FJ-3 was intended. The development of this anti-missile launched in the middle of the 1971 year. Tests of the long-range three-stage solid-fuel mine-based interceptor began in the 1974 year. To increase the likelihood of intercepting a target in near space, the simultaneous guidance of two missile defense systems on one target was provided. The missile defense was to be carried out by the S-7 on-board computer; later it was used on the DF-5 ICBM. After the death of Mao Zedong, the FJ-3 development program was discontinued in 1977.

Work on the creation of anti-ballistic artillery guns


In addition to interceptor missiles, it was proposed to use large-caliber anti-aircraft guns to provide missile defense for local areas in the PRC. Research on this topic was carried out as part of the 640-2 Project by the Xi'an Electromechanical Institute.



Originally designed 140-mm smoothbore gun, capable of sending 18 kg projectile with an initial speed of more than 1600 m / s to a height of 74 km, with a maximum firing range of more than 130 km. In the tests that took place from 1966 to 1968 year, the experimental gun showed encouraging results, but the barrel life was very low. Although the height reach of the 140-mm anti-ballistic missile was quite acceptable, when using a projectile without a “special” warhead, even when paired with a fire control radar and ballistic computer, the probability of hitting a ballistic missile warhead tended to zero. At the same time, it is worth recalling that the minimum caliber of serially produced "atomic artillery" shells is 152-155 mm. Calculations showed that the 140-mm anti-aircraft guns in a combat situation will be able to produce only one shot, and even when deploying dozens of guns in one area and introducing conventional ammunition with a radio fuse of acceptable efficiency in this caliber, it will not be possible to achieve.

In connection with these circumstances, in the 1970 year, the 420-mm smoothbore gun, which is referred to as the “Pioneer” in Chinese sources, was tested. The weight of the anti-missile gun with a barrel length of 26 m was 155 t. The mass of the projectile is 160 kg, the initial velocity is more than 900 m / s.

According to information published by Global Security, at test firing the gun fired with unguided shells. To solve the problem of extremely low probability of hitting the target, it was supposed to use a projectile in a "special design", or an active-reactive fragmentation projectile with radio command guidance.

When implementing the first option, the developers were faced with objections from the command of the Second Artillery Corps, which experienced a shortage of nuclear warheads. In addition, the explosion of even a relatively low-power nuclear weapon at an altitude of about 20 km above the object to be covered could have extremely unpleasant consequences. The creation of an adjustable projectile was hampered by the imperfection of the radioelement base produced in the PRC, and the overloaded institutes of Academy No. 2 with other topics.

Tests have shown that the electronic filling of a projectile is capable of withstanding acceleration with an overload of approximately 3000 G. Using special dampers and epoxy casting in the manufacture of electronic circuit boards raises this figure to 5000 G. Considering that the magnitude of the overload when fired from an 420-mm gun " Pioneer "exceeded this indicator by about two times, it was required to create a" soft "artillery shot and guided artillery shell with a jet engine. By the end of the 1970's, it became clear that the missile defense weapons were a dead end and the topic was finally closed in the 1980 year. A by-product of field experiments was the creation of parachute rescue systems, which, without prejudice to measuring equipment, returned projectiles with electronic filling to the ground. In the future, developments in the rescue systems of experimental guided missiles were used to create the returned capsules of spacecraft.

Western sources say that the technical solutions implemented in anti-missile cannons were useful in creating a large-caliber artillery gun, which in its design resembles the Iraqi Babylon super-gun. In 2013, two large-caliber guns were noticed at a range located northwest of the city of Baotou, in the region of Inner Mongolia, which, according to some experts, can be used to launch small-sized satellites in low-orbit orbits and to test artillery shells at high speeds.

Laser Missile Defense


When developing anti-ballistic weapons, Chinese experts did not ignore combat lasers. The Shanghai Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics was appointed the organization responsible for this area. Here, work was carried out to create a compact accelerator of free particles, which could be used to hit targets in space.


SG-1 Oxygen Iodine Laser


By the end of the 1970's, the greatest progress was achieved in the development of the SG-1 chemical oxygen-iodine laser. Its characteristics made it possible to cause fatal damage to the warhead of a ballistic missile at a relatively short distance, which was mainly associated with the features of the passage of a laser beam in the atmosphere.

As in other countries, China was considering the option of using a disposable nuclear-pumped X-ray laser for missile defense. However, to create high radiation energies, a nuclear explosion with a power of about 200 ct is needed. It was supposed to use charges placed in the rock mass, but in the event of an explosion, the release of a radioactive cloud was inevitable. As a result, the option of using a ground-based X-ray laser was rejected.

Development of artificial Earth satellites as part of a missile defense program


To detect the launches of ballistic missiles in China in the 1970-e years, in addition to over-the-horizon radars, an artificial satellite was designed with equipment that fixes the start of ballistic missiles. Along with the development of early detection satellites, work was underway to create actively maneuvering spacecraft capable of destroying enemy satellites and warheads of ICBMs and IFRS in a direct collision.

In October 1969, a design team was formed at the Steam Turbine Plant in Shanghai, which began designing the first Chinese reconnaissance satellite CK-1 (Chang-Kong Yi-hao No.1). The electronic stuffing for the satellite was to be manufactured by the Shanghai Electrotechnical Plant. Since they could not quickly create an effective optoelectronic detection system for the launch rocket torch in China, the developers equipped the spacecraft with reconnaissance radio-electronic equipment. It was envisaged that in peacetime a reconnaissance satellite would intercept Soviet VHF radio networks, messages transmitted via radio relay communication lines and monitor the activity of radiation from ground-based air defense systems. The preparation for the launch of ballistic missiles and their launch was supposed to be detected by specific radio exchange and by fixing telemetric signals.


AES SK-1


Reconnaissance satellites were to be launched into near-Earth orbit using the FB-1 launch vehicle (Feng Bao-1), which was created on the basis of the first Chinese ICBM DF-5. All launches were carried out from the Jiuquan cosmodrome in Gansu province.


Launcher FB-1 on the launch pad


In total, from 18 September 1973 year to 10 November 1976 year, 6 satellites of the SK-1 series were launched. The first two and the last start were unsuccessful. The duration of the Chinese reconnaissance satellites in low orbits was 50, 42 and 817 days.

Although there is no information in open sources on how successful the missions of the Chinese reconnaissance satellites of the SK-1 series turned out to be, judging by the fact that further emphasis was placed on devices that photograph the territory of a potential enemy, the costs did not justify the results. In fact, the first reconnaissance satellites launched in the PRC were in trial operation and were a kind of “test balloon”. If spy satellites in China at the beginning of the 1970's still managed to bring to low Earth orbit, the creation of space interceptors dragged on for another 20 years.

Termination of the "640 Project"


Despite all efforts and the allocation of very significant material and intellectual resources, efforts to create missile defense in China have not led to practical results. In this regard, on June 29, on June 1980, a meeting was held under the chairmanship of the deputy chairman of the CPC Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping, with the participation of high-ranking military and leaders of major defense organizations. Following the meeting, it was decided to curtail work on the "640 Project". An exception was made for combat lasers, SPRN radars and reconnaissance satellites, but the scale of funding has become much more modest. By that time, leading Chinese experts had concluded that it was impossible to build an effective missile defense system on 100%. A certain influence was also exerted by the conclusion between the USSR and the USA in the 1972 year of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense. The main motive for curtailing in China the program for creating a national missile defense system was the requirement to reduce defense spending and the allocation of basic financial resources to modernize the country's economy and the need to improve the welfare of the population. Nevertheless, as subsequent events showed, the PRC leadership did not abandon the creation of weapons capable of counteracting a missile strike, nor did the work to improve the ground and space-based missile attack early warning equipment continue.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
The history of the creation of a missile attack warning system in China
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  1. antivirus
    antivirus 29 October 2019 18: 48
    +4
    the very establishment of the Academy of Sciences apparently should be ahead of missile defense work by 100-200 years. And the number of students in mathematics very often does not turn into a qualitative leap in space
    1. ul_vitalii
      ul_vitalii 29 October 2019 19: 07
      +7
      Damn, Buddy hi I myself am from the time when the October theses were like yours. smile
  2. dzvero
    dzvero 29 October 2019 19: 04
    +9
    To be honest, I did not expect such a scale of work on missile defense in those years by the PRC. Surprised, especially the "missile defense artillery" smile
    Reads easily good waiting for the continuation!
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 29 October 2019 19: 26
    +6
    Indeed, the term "missile defense artillery" is very surprising. From the mid-50s, it became clear that cannon artillery should work only on low-flying targets, medium and high altitudes are for air defense systems. And the Chinese suddenly decided to shoot an unguided projectile at a ballistic target. Maybe they were fulfilling Mao's will?
  4. Sibiriya
    Sibiriya 29 October 2019 20: 59
    +6
    I learned a lot of interesting things. The author’s pole. good
  5. Jerk
    Jerk 30 October 2019 04: 50
    -5
    in the initial section, the radio command method was used, and in the final section, semi-active radar homing was used.

    Sorry, but you need to decrypt it. I’ll say - flies at random, I have reason
    The Chinese leadership concluded that the national missile defense system would cost the country too much, and its effectiveness would be dubious

    So the Chinese did not begin to make a sign that does NOT work, a missile defense shield around Moscow ... And even more so, Alaska ... M-ya
  6. The comment was deleted.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 30 October 2019 09: 08
      +2
      Actually, the speed of the anti-aircraft gun guidance drives is rather big in itself, and there is also the concept of "angular velocity".
  7. novel66
    novel66 30 October 2019 08: 53
    +4
    Sergey, the kindest! hi thanks for continuing good poor Chinese: there is an SPRN ... but nothing to bring down ..
    1. Bongo
      30 October 2019 11: 40
      +6
      Quote: novel xnumx
      Sergey, the kindest! hi thanks for continuing good the poor Chinese: there is an SPRN ... but there’s nothing to bring down ..

      Good evening (I have already evening). This is not entirely true. The PLA is armed with the S-300PMU2, S-400 and HQ-9 / 9A which are capable of combating OTP and, to a limited extent, ICBMs. In addition, a system comparable to the American THAAD and long-range missile defense is being actively developed.
      1. novel66
        novel66 30 October 2019 12: 10
        +3
        hi Olga, I do not agree with her assessment by mutual friends lol
        1. Bongo
          30 October 2019 12: 21
          +3
          Quote: novel xnumx
          hi Olga, I do not agree with her assessment by mutual friends lol

          Ok I will pass it on! It’s interesting to live with a smart woman, although it’s not always easy! At the moment, she is working for the benefit of the family business, I slept well and after the call on duty.
          1. novel66
            novel66 30 October 2019 12: 31
            +3
            lepotaaa! good beauty ...
            1. Bongo
              30 October 2019 12: 48
              +3
              Quote: novel xnumx
              lepotaaa! good beauty ...

              I envy myself! drinks
  8. Old26
    Old26 30 October 2019 12: 20
    +4
    Sergei! Thanks for the second part. If on Chinese interceptor missiles any information in the closed literature slipped (EMNIP a series of articles on Chinese interceptor missiles was published in the Bulletins "Rocket and Space Technology" of the late 70s and early 90s, then large-caliber anti-missile artillery is "terra incognita" in the late 90s and early 2000s, information about such a large-caliber cannon flashed, but already on a self-propelled chassis and if my sclerosis does not change me in the context of the confrontation with Taiwan.
    1. Bongo
      30 October 2019 12: 46
      +4
      Vladimir, hello! You take a great risk, for communicating with me "patriots" can again "stick" a bunch of minuses to you.
      As for the Chinese large-caliber artillery, now two guns are being tested at the firing range north of Baotou.

      Pay attention to the targets
  9. Old26
    Old26 30 October 2019 12: 55
    +4
    Quote: Bongo
    Vladimir, hello! You take a great risk, for communicating with me "patriots" can again "stick" a bunch of minuses to you.

    Who does not take risks, Sergei, he does not drink champagne. I don't like champagne, more cognac, so we can "say that whoever does not risk does not drink cognac"
    Minuses? for God's sake. I try to determine the interlocutor by the adequacy of his statements and, most importantly, by the level of knowledge. This is the main criterion for me, and not the jingoistic patriotic nonsense that sometimes comes from the pages of VO. Yes, the "minus" is unpleasant, but you perfectly understand that the one who knows something in response to my post will not put a minus anonymously, but will try to figure it out. The rest ... A flag in their hands and a drum around their neck.

    Quote: Bongo
    As for the Chinese large-caliber artillery, now two guns are being tested at the firing range north of Baotou.

    Yes, but this is no longer a missile defense. What? For launching mini-satellites, as it has been proposed for almost half a year, or still a long-term goal - Taiwan
    1. Bongo
      30 October 2019 12: 59
      +3
      Quote: Old26
      Who does not take risks, Sergei, he does not drink champagne. I don't like champagne, more cognac, so we can "say that whoever does not risk does not drink cognac"
      Minuses? for God's sake. I try to determine the interlocutor by the adequacy of his statements and, most importantly, by the level of knowledge. This is the main criterion for me, and not the jingoistic patriotic nonsense that sometimes comes from the pages of VO. Yes, the "minus" is unpleasant, but you perfectly understand that the one who knows something in response to my post will not put a minus anonymously, but will try to figure it out. The rest ... A flag in their hands and a drum around their neck.

      I completely agree, and about the cognac too. drinks
      Quote: Old26
      Yes, but this is no longer a missile defense.

      Of course, not missile defense. From the very beginning, the idea of ​​using guns was "rotten".
      Quote: Old26
      And what? To launch mini-satellites, as it has been proposed for almost half a year, or still a long-term goal - Taiwan

      I don’t know ... request Maybe it's Railgun at all?