Military Review

The history of the creation of a missile attack warning system in China

65
Recently, the Russian media have been actively discussing the possibility of helping China from Russia to improve missile defense (missile defense) and missile attack warning systems (SPRN). This is presented as another breakthrough in strengthening Russian-Chinese military cooperation and as an example of a "strategic partnership." This news caused a lot of enthusiasm among patriotic readers who, due to lack of awareness, believe that China does not have its own SPRN and there is no groundwork on missile defense. In order to dispel widespread misconceptions about China's capabilities in this area, based on freely available information, let us try to analyze how much China has advanced in defense against nuclear missile attack and timely warning of an attack.


The history of the creation of a missile attack warning system in China

BRDS DF-2 Transportation


The main directions of the improvement of Chinese strategic forces in the 1960-1970 years and measures to reduce damage from a nuclear strike


To make it easier to understand how and in what conditions the first early-warning missile radars were created in the PRC, we will consider the development of Chinese strategic nuclear forces (SNF) in the 1960-1970 years.

The aggravation of relations between China and the Soviet Union in the mid-1960's led to a series of armed clashes on the border between the countries, using armored vehicles, barreled artillery and MLRS. Under these conditions, both sides, which have recently declared their “friendship forever,” began to seriously consider the possibility of a full-scale military conflict, including the use of nuclear weapons. However, the "hot heads" in Beijing were largely cooled by the fact that the USSR had an overwhelming superiority in the number of nuclear warheads and their delivery vehicles. There was a real possibility of delivering a decapitating and disarming sudden nuclear missile attack on Chinese command centers, communication centers and important defense facilities. The situation for the Chinese side was further aggravated by the fact that the flying time of Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles (BRRS) was very small. This hindered the timely evacuation of the top Chinese military-political leadership and extremely limited the time for deciding on a retaliatory strike.

Under the prevailing unfavorable conditions, in order to minimize possible damage in the event of a conflict with the use of nuclear weapons in China, they tried to maximize the decentralization of the military command and control bodies. Regardless of economic difficulties and the extremely low standard of living of the population, very large underground anti-nuclear shelters for military equipment were built on a large scale. Shelters for heavy N-6 bombers (a copy of the Tu-16), which were the main Chinese strategic carriers, were cut down at a number of air bases in the rocks.



Along with the construction of underground shelters for equipment and highly protected command posts, the Chinese nuclear potential and delivery vehicles were improved. A test of a Chinese nuclear bomb suitable for practical use was conducted on May 14, 1965 (explosion power 35 kt), and the first test release of a thermonuclear explosive device from the N-6 bomber occurred on June 17, 1967 (explosion power more than 3 Mt). China became the fourth thermonuclear power in the world after the USSR, USA and Great Britain. The time interval between the creation of atomic and hydrogen weapons in China turned out to be shorter than in the USA, USSR, Great Britain and France. However, the results obtained were largely depreciated by the Chinese realities of those years. The main difficulty was that in the conditions of the Cultural Revolution, which led to a decline in industrial production, a sharp decline in technical culture, which had an extremely negative impact on the quality of high-tech products, it was very difficult to create modern aviation and rocket technology. In addition, in the 1960s and 1970s, China experienced an acute shortage of uranium ore necessary for the production of nuclear warheads. In this connection, even with the necessary number of carriers, the capabilities of the Chinese Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF) were rated low.

Due to the insufficient flight range of the H-6 jet and the low pace of their serial construction, a partial modernization of the Tu-4 long-range bombers delivered by the USSR was carried out in the PRC. On some machines, piston engines were replaced by AI-20M turboprops, the production license of which was transferred along with the An-12 military transport aircraft. However, the Chinese military leadership was aware that the chances of bombers with nuclear bombs to break through to Soviet strategic targets are slim, and therefore the main emphasis was placed on the development of rocket technology.

The first Chinese medium-range ballistic missile was the DF-2 (Dongfeng-2). It is believed that when it was created by Chinese designers, the technical solutions used in the Soviet P-5 were used. The single-stage liquid-propellant engine DF-2 liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE) had a probable circular deviation (CVR) from the aiming point within 3 km, with a maximum flight range of 2000 km. This missile could hit targets in Japan and in a large part of the USSR. In order to launch a rocket from a technical state that corresponded to constant readiness, it took more than 3,5 hours. On alert there were about 70 missiles of this type.

After the refusal of the Soviet leadership to provide technical documentation for the R-12 BRDS, the Chinese government in the early 1960's decided to develop its own rocket with similar characteristics. The single-stage DF-3 heavy-duty ballistic missile, equipped with a low-boiling liquid propellant rocket engine, entered service in the 1971 year. The flight range was up to 2500 km. At the first stage, the main objectives for the DF-3 were two US military bases in the Philippines: Clark (Air Force) and Subic Bay (Navy). However, due to the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations until 60, PUs were deployed along the Soviet border.

Based on the DF-3 SLBM, a two-stage DF-1960 with a launch range of more than 4 km was created at the end of the 4500's. The reach of this missile was enough to hit the 3 MT warhead with the most important targets on the territory of the USSR, in connection with which the DF-4 received the unofficial name of “Moscow rocket”. With a mass of more than 80000 kg and a length of 28 m, the DF-4 was the first Chinese mine-based missile. But at the same time, it was only stored in the mine, before the launch, the rocket was lifted with the help of a special hydraulic elevator to the launch pad. The total number of DF-4 delivered to the troops is estimated at approximately 40 units.

At the end of the 1970, the DF-5 heavy-class ICBM tests were completed. A missile with a launch mass of more than 180 t could carry a payload of up to 3,5 t. In addition to the monoblock warhead with a capacity of 3 MT, the payload also included missile defense systems. QUO at launch at maximum range in 13000 km was 3 -3,5 km. The preparation time for the DF-5 ICBMs for launch is 20 minutes.


ICBM DF-5 before test launch


DF-5 became the first Chinese intercontinental-range missile. It was designed from the very beginning for mine-based. But according to experts, the level of protection of Chinese silos is much lower than Soviet and American. In this regard, in the PRC there were up to ten false positions per mine with a missile put on combat duty. Above the head of a real mine, fake fast-moving buildings were built. This should have made it difficult to reveal the coordinates of a real missile position by satellite reconnaissance.

A major drawback of the Chinese ballistic missiles and ICBMs developed in the 1960-1970 years was their inability to participate in the counter-strike because of the need for lengthy prelaunch preparations. In addition, Chinese silos in terms of protection against the damaging factors of nuclear weapons were significantly inferior to Soviet and American missile mines, which made them vulnerable to a sudden "disarming strike". However, it should be recognized that the creation and adoption by the Second Artillery Corps of mine-launched ballistic missiles DF-4 and DF-5 was a significant step forward in strengthening the Chinese strategic nuclear forces, and was one of the reasons for creating a missile defense system around Moscow that could protect against a limited number of ballistic missiles.

After the adoption of nuclear weapons in the PRC, aviation became its main carrier. If the development and adoption of ground-based ballistic missiles in China, albeit with difficulty, but managed, then with the creation of the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces did not work out. The first submarine with ballistic missiles in the PLA Navy was a diesel-electric submarine of the 031G project, built at Shipyard No. 199 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur under the 629 project. The disassembled boat was delivered in parts to Dalian, where it was assembled and lowered into the water. At the first stage, the submarine with airborne number 200 was armed with three R-11MF liquid single-stage missiles, with a range of 150 km starting from the above-water position.


DEPL Ave. 031G at Qingdao


Due to the fact that the license for the production of the R-11MF was not transferred to the PRC, the number of delivered missiles was insignificant, and they quickly became obsolete, the only missile boat of the project 031G project was used in various experiments. In 1974, the boat was converted for testing ballistic missiles launched from submerged position (SLBM) JL-1.

In 1978, a nuclear submarine with ballistic missiles (SSBN) of the 092 project was laid in China. SSBN 092 Ave. “Xia” was armed with 12 mines for storing and launching two-stage solid-fuel ballistic missiles JL-1, with a launch range of more than 1700 km. The missiles were equipped with monoblock thermonuclear warhead power: 200 — 300 CT. Due to many technical problems and a number of accidents during testing, the first Chinese SSBN was put into operation in the 1988 year. Apparently, the Chinese nuclear submarine Xia was not successful. She did not carry out any military service and did not leave the inland Chinese waters for the entire period of operation. Other boats on this project in the PRC were not built anymore.

The history of the creation of Chinese SPRN


Due to not quite understandable reasons, it is not customary in our country to widely cover history the creation of high-tech defense products in China, this also applies fully to radar equipment. Therefore, many Russian citizens are inclined to think that in the PRC they have recently begun to concern themselves with the development of SPRN radars and interceptors of the missile defense system, and Chinese experts have no experience in this area. In fact, this is not at all true, the first attempts to create radars designed to fix the warheads of ballistic missiles and ballistic missile warheads in China were made in the middle of the 1960's. In 1964, the program of creating the national missile defense of China, known as the “640 Project,” was officially launched. According to information published in official Chinese sources, the initiator of this project was Mao Zedong, who expressed concern about China’s vulnerability to the nuclear threat and stated: “If there is a spear, then there must be a shield.”

The development of a missile defense system, which was supposed to protect Beijing from a nuclear missile strike at the first stage, involved specialists trained and trained in the Soviet Union. However, during the Cultural Revolution, a significant part of the Chinese scientific and technological intelligentsia was subjected to repression, which is why the project stalled. The situation required personal intervention by Mao Zedong, and after a joint meeting of senior party and military leaders, which was attended by more than 30 high-ranking scientists, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai approved the creation of the Second Academy, which was entrusted with the responsibility for creating all elements of the missile defense system. Within the framework of the Academy in Beijing, the "210 Institute" was formed, whose specialists were to create anti-ballistic and anti-satellite weapons. Radar, communications and information display equipment were run by the 14 Institute (Nanking Institute of Electronic Technology).

It is clear that building even a local missile defense system is impossible without the creation of over-horizon and over-horizon radars for the timely detection of ballistic missile warheads. In addition, radars are required that are capable of continuous tracking of targets in the area of ​​responsibility and coupled with a computer to calculate the trajectories of the combat units of the BRRS and ICBMs, which is necessary to provide accurate target designation when aiming missile interceptors.

In 1970, at 140 km northwest of Beijing, construction began on the Type 7010 SPRN radar. A phased array radar with dimensions of 40X20 meters, located on the slope of Mount Huanyang, at an altitude of 1600 meters above sea level, was intended to control outer space from the USSR. It was also planned to build two more stations of the same type in other areas of the PRC, but due to their high cost, this could not be realized.


Radar Antenna Type 7010


According to information published in the Chinese media, a 300-330 MHz frequency range radar had a pulse power of 10 MW and a detection range of about 4000 km. The field of view was 120 °, the elevation angle of 4 was 80 °. The station was capable of simultaneously tracking 10 targets. To calculate their trajectories, a DJS-320 computer was used.


Type 7010 Radar Monitoring Area


The commissioning of the Type 7010 radar took place in the 1974 year. In addition to combat duty, this station was repeatedly involved in various experiments and successfully recorded pilot launches of Chinese ballistic missiles. The radar demonstrated its rather high capabilities in the 1979 year, when the calculations of the Type 7010 and Type 110 radars were able to accurately calculate the trajectory and time of falling debris from the decommissioned American orbital station Skylab. In 1983, with the help of Type 7010 SPRN radar, the Chinese predicted the time and place of the fall of the Soviet Cosmos-1402 satellite. It was an emergency satellite US-A of the marine legendary radar reconnaissance and target designation system Legend. However, along with the achievements, there were also problems - the Type 7010 radar lamp equipment was not very reliable and very expensive and difficult to operate. To maintain the health of electronic components, the air supplied to the underground premises had to be removed from excessive moisture. Although a power line was drawn to the SPRN radar, for operation of the station, for greater reliability, energy was supplied from diesel power generators that consumed a lot of fuel.


Google Earth satellite image: Type 7010 SPRN radar antenna on the slope of Mount Huanyang


Operation of the Type 7010 radar continued with varying success until the end of the 1980's, after which it was mothballed. In the second half of the 1990, the dismantling of the main equipment began. By that time, the station, built on electrovacuum devices, was hopelessly outdated.



Currently, the area where the first Chinese SPRN radar is located is open for free visits, and organized tours are carried here. The antenna with the phased array remains in the same place and is a kind of monument to the first achievements of the Chinese electronic industry.

A radar with a Type 110 movable parabolic antenna was developed for the missile defense systems developed in the PRC to provide accurate tracking and target designation. This radar, like the Type 7010, was designed by specialists from the 14 Nanking Institute of Electronic Technology.


Type 110 radar antenna inside a transparent dome


The construction of the Type 110 radar in the highlands of southern Yunnan began in the late 1960's. To protect from the effects of adverse meteorological factors, a parabolic antenna with a mass of about 17 t and a diameter of 25 is placed inside a radio-transparent sphere with a height of about 37 meters. The weight of the whole radar with a fairing exceeded 400 t. The radar installation was placed at an altitude of 2036 m above sea level in the vicinity of Kunming.


Type 110 Radar


A dual-band monopulse radar operating at the 250-270 MHz and 1-2 GHz frequencies was put into trial operation in the 1971 year. At the first stage, high-altitude balloons, aircraft, and low-orbit satellites were used to debug the station. Soon after the start of the first tests, radars with peak power of 2,5 MW were able to accompany satellites at ranges of more than 2000 km. The accuracy of measuring objects in near space was higher than design. The final commissioning of the Type 110 radar took place in the 1977 year, after state tests, during which it was possible to track and accurately determine the flight parameters of the DF-2 ballistic missile. In January and July of the 1979, the combat calculations of the Type 7010 and Type 110 stations carried out practical testing of joint actions to detect and track the warheads of medium-range ballistic missiles DF-3. In the first case, Type 110 accompanied the warhead for 316 s, in the second - 396 s. The maximum tracking range was about 3000 km. In May 1980, the Type 110 radar accompanied the DF-5 ICBMs during test launches. At the same time, it was possible not only to timely detect warheads, but also based on the calculation of the trajectory with high accuracy to indicate the place of their fall. In the future, in addition to carrying out combat duty, a radar designed to accurately measure coordinates and build trajectories of ICBM and infantry ballistic missile warheads actively participated in the Chinese space program. According to foreign sources, the Type 110 radar has been modernized and is still in working condition.

The results obtained during the design of Type 110 radars at the end of the 1970 were used to create radars known in the West as REL-1 and REL-3. Stations of this type are capable of tracking aerodynamic and ballistic targets. The detection range of aircraft flying at high altitudes reaches 400 km, objects in near space are fixed at a distance of more than 1000 km.


Google Earth satellite image: REL-3 radar in the vicinity of Hulun-Buir, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

REL-1 / 3 radars deployed in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and in Heilongjiang Province control the Russian-Chinese border. The REL-1 radar in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region targets the disputed sections of the Sino-Indian border.

From all of the above, it follows that in the first half of the 1970's in China, it was possible not only to lay the foundations of nuclear missile forces, but also to create the prerequisites for creating a missile attack warning system. At the same time as over-the-horizon radars capable of seeing objects in near space, work was being carried out in China on over-horizon “double-hop” radars. A timely warning of a nuclear missile attack, combined with the possibility of radar tracking of warheads of ballistic missiles, gave a theoretical possibility of intercepting them. To combat ICBMs and infantry ballistic missiles, the 640 Project developed interceptor missiles, lasers, and even large-caliber anti-aircraft guns. But this will be discussed in the next part of the review.

To be continued ...
Author:
65 comments
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  1. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 26 October 2019 06: 04
    +4
    Surprisingly, technologically backward China in the 60-70 years managed to achieve some success in creating anti-ballistic missiles. Once again, I am convinced that the vector of development of the state largely depends on the political will (or lack of will) of senior management.
    1. 210ox
      210ox 26 October 2019 07: 02
      +1
      Certainly political will. And specialists trained in the USSR.
    2. Something
      Something 26 October 2019 15: 20
      +6
      Quote: (Bongo (Sergey)
      Soon after the start of the first radar tests with a peak power of 2,5 MW was able to accompany the satellite at a distance of more than 2000 km.

      The author is not peak, but impulse power... These are two big "differences". Correct.
  2. Amateur
    Amateur 26 October 2019 06: 31
    -11
    To combat ICBMs and infantry ballistic missiles, Project 640 carried out the development of interceptor missiles, lasers and even large-caliber anti-aircraft guns.

    БоI haven’t read the stupid thing for a long time. And in general, the article is a collection of American-Israeli cliches about aggressive Chinese.
    1. Bongo
      26 October 2019 07: 11
      +8
      Quote: Amateur
      I have not read much stupidity for a long time. And in general, the article is a collection of American-Israeli cliches about aggressive Chinese.

      I regret to say with regret that you fully correspond to your nickname. negative
      If you do not have sufficient knowledge, do not project it on others.
      1. novel66
        novel66 27 October 2019 13: 56
        -2
        Hi Sergey hi Is this article the answer to me ??? lol
        1. Bongo
          28 October 2019 03: 08
          +2
          Quote: novel xnumx
          Sergey, hi hi is this article an answer to me ???

          Roman, hello! Well, I promised to do it. True, some amateurs from her flatters not childish. lol
          1. novel66
            novel66 28 October 2019 06: 44
            -2
            then they are amateurs !! aplomb in the absence of knowledge
    2. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 26 October 2019 07: 17
      +7
      Such anti-aircraft guns were really developed in the barrage system. I am curious to hear your version of the "peacefulness" of the Chinese. How did it manifest itself, specifically for us? Have all the URs on the Soviet-Chinese border already been demolished? Didn't the guys in Afghanistan receive Chinese bullets? NATO, after all, only later appeared there, and in the initial phase of the conflict, the organization of resistance was led by Chinese specialists / officers /. It was the Chinese who put together and trained the first squads of dushmans. They just could not stick because of ideological differences. This was nicely used by the CIA and the Pentagon. Free from ideological identity, they already began to send their advisers. But the Chinese camps on the territory of Pakistan existed until the withdrawal of our contingent. The Chinese supplied the spirits of the DShK and taught them to shoot, to put it bluntly.
      1. Bongo
        26 October 2019 07: 22
        +8
        Quote: Thunderbolt
        Such anti-aircraft guns were really developed in the system of barrage.

        In China, several samples of the caliber 140-420 mm were created. Instead of waiting for the next part, where they will be discussed, the very "smart" Amateurs chose to accuse others of stupidity.
        As for the Chinese "peacefulness", the "comrade" should ask who the DF-21 MRBMs are aimed at, and where they are deployed.
      2. Crimean partisan 1974
        Crimean partisan 1974 6 November 2019 10: 50
        +2
        .The Chinese supplied the spirits of the DShK .... quite right, and even the black chapter about the Chinese "comrades", they managed to copy MANPADS-2M under the guise of "Hunyin-5" which in Afghanistan piled more of our aviators than the notorious Stinger, RBS-70 and Blopipe put together
    3. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 26 October 2019 07: 42
      +2
      Quote: Amateur
      I have not read much stupidity for a long time.

      Stupidity - it is unproven to blame others for the stupidity! fool
      Quote: Amateur
      And in general, the article is a collection of American-Israeli cliches about aggressive Chinese.

      Let me tell you a secret, almost everything that is stated in the publication the author took from Chinese sources. So these are "Chinese clichés". lol
      1. novel66
        novel66 27 October 2019 13: 57
        -2
        maybe desa ??? the Chinese are cunning ...
    4. Crimean partisan 1974
      Crimean partisan 1974 6 November 2019 11: 47
      +2
      a set of American-Israeli clichés about aggressive Chinese ......... even though I didn't notice it. and it doesn't bother you that the yellow nimble kids paddled the Spratly archipelago under themselves without any fuss. while only the lazy in the west doesn’t squeal about the fictitious annexation of the Crimea. does not bother? and it does not bother the fact that Xiaoping could bring down the financial system of the hegemon of dermogcracy because of the debt in a matter of days, but they did not, the question is. why? you can print a couple of dozen more strains, but this is enough about "a set of American-Israeli clichés about aggressive Chinese people."
  3. Jerk
    Jerk 26 October 2019 07: 30
    -2
    For us, it’s only better, since China does not have an SPS. China is not a beggar, but understands the need for such a system better than anyone, in the light of the toga war with the United States ... So, we will pay for such a system. And she will also work for us ...
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    Once again, I am convinced that the vector of development of the state largely depends on the political will (or lack of will) of senior management.

    ... The USA in the case of China: the technological development of China is the merit of Nixon, who pumped a breakthrough of money from the USA into the technological development of China as a counterweight to the USSR!
    1. Bongo
      26 October 2019 07: 33
      +4
      Quote: Jerk
      For us, it’s only better, since China does not have an SPS.

      This is not true. This will be discussed in the following parts of the review.

      In the figure, the areas of location and viewing zones of Chinese SPRN stations
      1. Jerk
        Jerk 26 October 2019 07: 44
        0
        Yes, it makes no difference to us. Not at all and there is - but the old - do not care. Modernization will even get more expensive, it always has been. And that it is old - it can be seen in the zones - such a hefty hole in the zone of military bases in Japan, where even the aircraft carrier at one time sat without a hitch. Which by the way, again talks about that. who gave them a leap in technology and made, as I wrote above.
        In general, it will be interesting to read ...
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 26 October 2019 08: 01
          +1
          Quote: Jerk
          Yes, it makes no difference to us. Not at all and there is - but the old - do not care.

          One of the main tasks of my husband when writing this publication was to dispel the illusions of readers regarding the Chinese early warning system. The stations operating in the PRC are quite modern and contain interesting "zest". Don't underestimate the Chinese. No. I already read the following parts, wait for them.
          1. Avior
            Avior 26 October 2019 08: 14
            0
            It’s not that China does not have an SPS.
            The thing is that it lags behind the one that the United States and Russia have.
            And the fact that the Chinese are using Russian experience confirms this.
            For SPRN it is not enough to make a radar with good characteristics.
            This condition is necessary, but not sufficient, as mathematicians write.
            We also need processing algorithms, filtering to increase noise immunity, based on many years of experience in using mass systems.
            The USSR had it, Russia has it, and now China will appear. Another brick to the bipolar world that the Chinese are striving for
      2. Avior
        Avior 26 October 2019 07: 44
        -5
        NDA
        It clearly shows who the Chinese consider the enemy and from whom they expect a nuclear attack.
        1. Jerk
          Jerk 26 October 2019 08: 03
          0
          Ahem ... Tech. Who was asked to make a system of SPRN for themselves? Ah, well ...
          1. Avior
            Avior 26 October 2019 08: 09
            -3
            Maybe someone thinks that the technology obtained - and the Chinese are quite capable of copying according to samples - will be directed only against the United States?
            I think he is very mistaken.
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 26 October 2019 14: 06
              -1
              All copies of what China is doing, whether it’s weapons of civilian equipment or consumer goods, are always
              will be poor in quality.
              1. Avior
                Avior 26 October 2019 15: 31
                -6
                Their progress in this regard is evident.
                Smartphones are an example
                1. Vadim237
                  Vadim237 27 October 2019 15: 06
                  -2
                  "Smartphones are an example of this" - yes, an example is really powerful, especially when you consider that the whole world is helping them in this with a part of components and developments.
      3. Observer2014
        Observer2014 26 October 2019 20: 11
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        Quote: Jerk
        For us, it’s only better, since China does not have an SPS.

        This is not true. This will be discussed in the following parts of the review.

        In the figure, the areas of location and viewing zones of Chinese SPRN stations
        With this illustration, you had to start your article. hiRather, complement the first illustration.
        1. Bongo
          27 October 2019 02: 53
          +3
          Quote: Observer2014
          With this illustration, it was necessary to start your article hiI rather complete the first illustration.

          This figure will be in the third part dedicated to the current state of the PRC of China. hi
  4. Avior
    Avior 26 October 2019 08: 07
    0
    The author did not mention that the Chinese write that in the worsening of relations in 1969, the United States threatened to strike at the USSR in an attempt to launch a nuclear strike on China.
    US saved China from nuclear war
    In the late sixties, the Soviet Union was ready to launch a nuclear strike against China. And only thanks to US President Richard Nixon was it possible to prevent an atomic war. Such sensational information is offered to its readers by the "Historical Review" - a supplement to the newspaper "People's Daily", the official organ of the Communist Party of China

    In parallel with the military preparations, Moscow, according to the Chinese, launched a diplomatic offensive. She informed allies from Eastern Europe that she would soon teach a lesson to the "Chinese adventurers". And on August 20, the USSR ambassador to Washington allegedly warned Richard Nixon about the impending operation and asked the United States to remain neutral.

    But Nixon did his own thing. The White House organized a leak to the press, and on August 28, the Washington Post announced the Soviet Union's intention to launch a nuclear strike on Beijing and other cities, as well as on the places where Chinese missiles are deployed. And on October 15, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger threatened the Soviet ambassador: in the event of a "nuclear aggression" against China, the United States will not stand aside and will bomb 130 objects on Soviet territory.

    In this context, it does not matter what is true in this story, but what is fiction.
    It is important that such a story goes quite well in China at a fairly high level, which suggests that the Chinese do not see such a universal enemy in the United States.
    China seeks to return the bipolar world from the multipolar world that exists now and take the place of the USSR.
    As soon as this happens, there can be no talk of any equal partnership with Russia, China will need Russia only as a means of pressure on the Americans, like the DPRK now, for example, only on a larger scale.
    China has made a breakthrough in the economy, and is now interested in helping Russia to achieve parity with the United States in the military sphere, especially in the transfer of Soviet technologies, and not only Soviet ones, in order to take the place of the USSR as quickly as possible.
    He intensively builds the fleet, aviation, and develops rocket science and space.
    As soon as it reaches the level that the United States recognizes as equal, China will immediately push Russia.
    I understand why China needs this, but I absolutely do not understand why Russia needs it? On the contrary, Russia needs to keep China suspended for as long as possible.
    Or does someone think that the Chinese will feel gratitude to Russia? It is mistaken that the Chinese consider all current achievements to be their merits, and there is no question of any gratitude to Russia.
    It is necessary to leave illusions regarding China.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 27 October 2019 12: 22
      -3
      "China seeks to return the bipolar world from the multipolar one that is now, and to take the place of the USSR." ////
      ----
      I would clarify. China is committed to sustainable economic development. The worst periods in Chinese history were not external wars, but internal civil wars caused by sharp economic downturns.
      To develop steadily, China needs to "elbow" its economic competitors and seize their sales markets.
      I would like to point out: “to push with your elbows” does not mean to destroy in wars (otherwise there will be no one to trade with).
      China is "squeezing" America out of Southeast Asia. Pushes England and France out of Africa. Squeezes Russia out of Central Asia.
      The army is an additional means of economic squeezing.
  5. Fedorov
    Fedorov 26 October 2019 08: 08
    -2
    China became the fourth thermonuclear power in the world after the USSR, USA and Great Britain.

    The author forgot France, the first test in 1960.
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 26 October 2019 08: 11
      -2
      Quote: Fedorov
      The author forgot France, the first test in 1960.

      Thermonuclear bomb?
    2. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 28 October 2019 09: 29
      -2
      Quote: Fedorov
      The author forgot France, the first test in 1960.

      The test of the first French thermonuclear charge took place on 24 on August 1968 of the year at Fangatauf Atoll.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  6. nikon7717
    nikon7717 26 October 2019 08: 57
    -1
    The author began the topic with technology transfer and development of cooperation in the field of missile defense. He gave a good example. I reminded you that you should never rush to transmit information to someone who can use it against you. Let's wait.
  7. Wildcat
    Wildcat 26 October 2019 09: 53
    -4
    hi
    Excellent article, it is a pity you can’t put 10 pluses!
    As always, an interesting, "unbroken" topic, high-quality material, satellite images and photographs!
    hi
    1. Bongo
      26 October 2019 10: 07
      +4
      Quote: Wildcat
      Excellent article, it is a pity you can’t put 10 pluses!
      As always, an interesting, "unbroken" topic, high-quality material, satellite images and photographs!

      Thank you for the appreciation of my humble work! I took up this topic after I got tired of "urya-patriotic" cries after the very controversial, in my opinion, statements made at the Valdai International Discussion Club regarding Russian assistance in improving the PRC's missile defense system. In fairness, it should be said that if the Chinese are lagging behind us in this direction, it is not much. China now has all the conditions for creating a national missile defense system, our secrets will only save them money and time. Another question is what will Russia get in return? And is it worth providing assistance to a state that is superior to us in the field of conventional weapons?
      1. Wildcat
        Wildcat 26 October 2019 10: 30
        -3
        hi
        Perhaps, within the framework of the idea of ​​a multipolar world, the Russian Federation strengthens one of the poles. Perhaps to demonstrate to the other pole that we can go far in this sensitive topic. Perhaps without consequences for us ....
      2. English tarantas
        English tarantas 27 October 2019 12: 24
        -2
        Thanks for the interesting series of articles. But ignorance of cho there in China concerns not only the SPRN and SNF, but also almost all weapons. If you would be interested to write, I would like articles from you about the state of other weapons in China.
        1. Bongo
          27 October 2019 13: 33
          0
          Quote: English tarantass
          Thanks for the interesting series of articles. But ignorance of cho there in China concerns not only the SPRN and SNF, but also almost all weapons. If you would be interested to write, I would like articles from you about the state of other weapons in China.

          Something I already wrote:
          https://topwar.ru/163725-kitajskie-bespilotnye-letatelnye-apparaty-s-reaktivnymi-dvigateljami.html
          https://topwar.ru/154331-sovershenstvovanie-sistemy-pvo-knr-na-fone-strategicheskogo-sopernichestva-s-ssha-ch-9.html
          https://topwar.ru/150618-zarubezhnye-kopii-sovetskogo-zrk-s-75-chast-3.html
          https://topwar.ru/104631-oboronnyy-potencial-knr-na-svezhih-snimkah-google-earth-chast-3-ya.html
          https://topwar.ru/88935-yadernaya-era-chast-6-ya.html
          https://topwar.ru/87925-kitayskie-protivokorabelnye-rakety-chast-2-ya.html
          https://topwar.ru/86625-vozmozhnosti-vmf-noak-po-borbe-s-aviacionnymi-udarnymi-gruppami-chast-2-ya.html
          https://topwar.ru/68574-kitayskie-poligony-i-ispytatelnye-centry-na-snimkah-google-earth.html
          https://topwar.ru/65823-yadernyy-potencial-knr-istoriya-i-sovremennost-chast-2-ya.html
          https://topwar.ru/63515-kitayskie-samolety-drlo.html
          https://topwar.ru/61758-kitayskiy-istrebitel-bombardirovschik-jh-7-letayuschiy-leopard.html
          https://topwar.ru/33432-voennye-obekty-kitaya-na-sputnikovyh-snimkah-google-earth.html
          In publications that consist of several parts, at the end of the article there is an active link to the previous one. hi
  8. Operator
    Operator 26 October 2019 10: 55
    +4
    Not Russian missiles threaten China bully


    1. Bongo
      26 October 2019 11: 11
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      Not Russian missiles threaten China

      Do you think that SLBMs and ICBMs do not threaten densely populated coastal areas, and in the PRC they are creating a missile defense system and improving the ballistic missile defense system from excess resources?
  9. Operator
    Operator 26 October 2019 11: 29
    +4
    Quote: Bongo
    Do you think ...

    An export / import-oriented country with mountains / deserts in the rear and industry / population in the front is naturally vulnerable to a thermonuclear strike from the coast, and by no means missile weapons (against which the SPRN works).

    How!
    1. Bongo
      26 October 2019 11: 32
      0
      Quote: Operator
      An export / import-oriented country with mountains / deserts in the rear and industry / population in the front is naturally vulnerable to a thermonuclear strike from the coast, and by no means missile weapons (against which the SPRN works).

      Do you sincerely consider yourself smarter than the top Chinese military-political leadership? I am sure this is not so. No.
      1. Operator
        Operator 26 October 2019 11: 48
        +4
        Try to understand the difference between geography (objective reality) and the mind of someone else soldier
        1. Bongo
          26 October 2019 11: 50
          +2
          Quote: Operator
          Try to understand the difference between geography (objective reality) and the mind of someone else

          The geographical location of the PRC has nothing to do with your fantasies.
          1. Operator
            Operator 26 October 2019 11: 51
            -1
            The topic under discussion is too big for you.
            1. Bongo
              26 October 2019 11: 56
              +3
              Quote: Operator
              The topic under discussion is too big for you.

              Do I have anything to discuss with you? No. Indeed, in the end, the dialogue will end with something like this:
              Quote: Operator
              Do you really expect a freebie to get from me photos of ZGRLS built on the Chinese islands?

              Is it worth it to spend time on someone who is not responsible for his words? No.
  10. Amateur
    Amateur 26 October 2019 12: 47
    -4
    Quote: Bongo
    I regret to say with regret that you fully correspond to your nickname.
    If you do not have sufficient knowledge, do not project it on others.

    In China, several samples of the caliber 140-420 mm were created. Instead of waiting for the next part, where they will be discussed, the very "smart" Amateurs chose to accuse others of stupidity.

    Mr. S. Linnik, before writing about Chinese systems, should read about what it is all about. For example, Kisunko G.V., Secret Zone: Confession of the General Designer.
    And as for
    "comrade" should ask who the MRBM DF-21 is aimed at
    then neither I nor Mr. Linnik know. That is why I called it "propaganda". Perhaps zyablik.olga (Olga), admitted to Chinese secrets, knows this.
    Let me tell you a secret, almost everything that is stated in the publication the author took from Chinese sources. So these are "Chinese clichés".
    1. Bongo
      27 October 2019 13: 39
      -1
      Mr. Diletant should share specific claims that he is not satisfied with this publication, and not engage in low-level trolling. As for the SPRN, literally last Friday I was at one of the facilities that is part of the Russian system.
  11. Old26
    Old26 26 October 2019 13: 37
    -5
    Sergei! Thanks for the new cycle. I, too, sometimes get bored with explaining to everyone that the PRC has SPRN. And if we are going to provide assistance, then as far as I remember the phrase GDP related to the missile defense system.
    You must understand that about the radar SPRN with PAR will be in the following parts. Did I understand correctly?
    1. Bongo
      27 October 2019 03: 04
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      Sergey! Thanks for the new cycle. I, too, sometimes get bored with explaining to everyone that the PRC has SPRN.

      Vladimir, welcome! I apologize for the delay in answering, we live in different time zones.
      You will not prove anything to the sect "Witnesses of the Almighty Zircons and Poseidons". For them, everything that has been done in the PRC is a "copy inferior to the original", and the Chinese themselves are not able to create anything. And what does not fit into their worldview is stupidity. wassat
      Quote: Old26
      And if we are going to provide assistance, then as far as I remember the phrase GDP related to the missile defense system.

      It is, but the Russian media has inflated as if we were going to help China with the SPRN, which is already there.
      Quote: Old26
      You must understand that about the radar SPRN with PAR will be in the following parts. Did I understand correctly?

      This will be in the third part. In the second, we will talk about missile defense systems: anti-missiles, lasers and even artillery pieces, which the "amateur" considers "stupidity".
  12. Wildcat
    Wildcat 26 October 2019 19: 56
    -1
    belay
    With quiet horror, I observe attempts to instruct the minuses to the author of an excellent article.
    No, I understand that in the age of the Internet, anyone has the opportunity to share their opinion with the world, but plz leave it in writing. Minusyators, for example, it is more convenient for me to cherish a bad feeling of superiority in myself, and the nameless minus causes thoughts - "suddenly what is wrong, eh?"
  13. Old26
    Old26 26 October 2019 20: 54
    -1
    Quote: Wildcat
    With quiet horror, I observe attempts to instruct the minuses to the author of an excellent article.

    Do not pay attention. Indeed, the value of Sergey’s articles is precisely in the presentation of materials. And the cons ...
    Well, I want to believe someone that Russia is the navel of the earth and any weapons created by it have no analogues in the world, and all the rest are stupid. So it turns out, cons to those who at least remotely represent the real situation.
    So it turns out that the author picked up more than three dozen minuses by the amount of "+" / "-". I for one similar post - 7 cons. You are about a dozen, Avior (Sergey) is also under three dozen minuses. In short, with whom it is interesting to communicate - all in the minuses laughing
    In short, treat these minuses as an inevitable evil ...

    I hope that in the following sections of the article Sergey will write about this radar SPRN with PAR

    1. Bongo
      27 October 2019 03: 12
      +3
      Quote: Old26
      Do not pay attention. Indeed, the value of Sergey’s articles is precisely in the presentation of materials. And the cons ...

      Cons are also needed, albeit anonymous. yes I don't pay attention to them, but be that as it may, you Vladimir with your competent and interesting posts are steadily "growing in rank", and various xenophobes and characters prone to rudeness and unfounded statements are losing their rating. So, everything is fine - the dog barks, and the caravan moves on. drinks
      Quote: Old26
      I hope that in the following sections of the article Sergey will write about this radar SPRN with PAR

      Mandatory, but reliable information on the new Chinese stations in the public domain is virtually non-existent. I would be grateful if you have anything on this subject. hi
  14. Ehanatone
    Ehanatone 27 October 2019 00: 07
    -1
    A very strange reaction of all amateurs to a rather interesting article!? ...
  15. Ehanatone
    Ehanatone 27 October 2019 00: 11
    -3
    If someone stares so much, then there is an article by Ryabov Kirill, where you can scream painlessly about the upcoming release of 100500 new Armenians! ... tongue
  16. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 27 October 2019 12: 09
    -2
    Very interesting!
    Is the DF-5 ICBM now in service? How many were made?
    1. Bongo
      27 October 2019 13: 23
      -1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Is the DF-5 ICBM now in service? How many were made?

      Armed with advanced modifications DF-5А / В. About 25 units, according to the estimates of American experts, no more than 50 units of DF-5 of all modifications were built in total.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 27 October 2019 13: 30
        -5
        Thank. That is, they are not really increasing the number of ICBMs? Do not force this type of weapon?
        1. Bongo
          27 October 2019 13: 35
          -2
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Thank. That is, they are not really increasing the number of ICBMs? Do not force this type of weapon?

          Increasing, the main emphasis in China is placed on mobile solid-fuel complexes DF-31 and DF-41, as well as SLBMs.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 27 October 2019 13: 45
            -5
            How many, roughly, all types of ICBMs do they have?
  17. Amateur
    Amateur 27 October 2019 13: 57
    +3
    Quote: Bongo
    Mr. Diletant should share specific claims that he is not satisfied with this publication, and not engage in low-level trolling. Regarding the CPAP,

    I share: the early warning system stands for "Missile Attack Warning System" Therefore, it does NOT include submarines, medium and shorter-range missiles, or even anti-aircraft guns with anti-aircraft missiles.
    SPRN is a highly specialized information retrieval system that determines the only parameter - is the launch of a ballistic missile / missiles in the direction of the protected area or not. Everything else is ABM / ABM.
    I literally last Friday was at one of the sites that is part of the Russian system.

    Therefore, they probably told you what is part of the SPRN.
    Ps The difference between "Mr. NN wrote a stupid article" and "A stupid Mr. NN wrote an article" is fundamental. Please notify your wife about this.
    Stupidity - it is unproven to blame others for the stupidity!
    1. Bongo
      28 October 2019 03: 04
      -2
      Quote: Amateur
      I share: SPRN stands for "Missile Attack Warning System"

      Yes, you are direct "captain obviousness" ... lol
      Your logic is tight, and even this introduction to the second paragraph did not help:
      To make it easier to understand how and in what conditions the first early-warning missile radars were created in the PRC, we will consider the development of Chinese strategic nuclear forces (SNF) in the 1960-1970 years.
      fool
      Quote: Amateur
      Therefore, they probably told you what is part of the SPRN.

      No, but I knew about it since 1994. wink
      Quote: Amateur
      SPRN is a highly specialized information retrieval system that determines the only parameter - is the launch of a ballistic missile / missiles in the direction of the protected area or not.

      And in what place of publication is the opposite stated? request
      To combat ICBMs and infantry ballistic missiles, the 640 Project developed interceptor missiles, lasers, and even large-caliber anti-aircraft guns. But this will be discussed in the next part of the review.

      If you do not understand that this is an announcement of the topics that will be discussed in the following parts of the review, then this is your problem.
      Quote: Amateur
      The difference between "Mr. NN wrote a stupid article" and "A stupid Mr. NN wrote an article" is fundamental. Please notify your wife about this.

      It is unlikely that she needs it, because she is many times smarter than some commentators. hi
  18. Old26
    Old26 27 October 2019 18: 28
    -4
    Quote: voyaka uh
    How many, roughly, all types of ICBMs do they have?

    Tentatively? Let's take it. From open sources it is known about 10 ICBMs DF-5A and 10 DF-5B.
    The number of ICBMs of the DF-31 model is estimated in the amount of:
    DF-31 = approximately 6
    DF-31A = up to 24
    DF-31AG (sometimes called DF-31B) = up to 24
    The number of DF-41 based on those shown in the parade = minimum 16
    Total - up to 90 ICBMs
    In 2017, tests began on the DF-5C ICBMs with a larger number of warheads than on the DF-5B ICBMs
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 28 October 2019 09: 31
      -3
      Thanks for the detailed answer
      drinks
  19. Shooter22
    Shooter22 28 October 2019 15: 25
    0
    Thanks to the author for the article, which returns to the meaning of going to VO for the sake of good military-technical material. I will wait for the continuation! And my colleague, who went to Seoul on the Varyag cruiser on the anniversary of the death of his legendary ancestor, told me about the attitude to Asian fidelity and friendship. In his words, they accidentally crossed paths with the American naval officers in the bar, so they were over head and ears to drink to the campaign with ours, and to the question: "And it is not destiny with the Koreans?" yellow-faced monkeys, not worthy of respect. "Of course, rude. But it is not without a certain meaning. One thing is certain - we have never been friends with Asians and will never be (with their pragmatism and philosophy, look at Vietnam).