Military Review

From the history of artillery education in Russia. H. 2

17
The schools established by Peter I did not provide well-trained personnel, either in general education or in artillery relations. Yes, and graduated from school, as already noted, it was extremely small. As a result, both under Peter and later, the direction of young people abroad was practiced - for training. And before getting their own good gunners, or generally educated people, it was widely practiced to attract foreigners. These foreigners enjoyed great privileges compared to the Russians, and therefore had little interest in the development of science in Russia. But there is one among them - Minikh, long akin to the Russian people and realizing all the inconvenience and offensiveness of the current state of affairs for the Russians - has obtained from the Empress Anna Ioannovna equations in the situation (and in remuneration) of Russian officers with foreign training young people.



H. Minich

True, according to Minikh, the corps was not supposed to be established solely for the needs of artillery, and not even exclusively for military needs, and “not everyone’s nature has a military-inclined nature, and the state also needs political and civilian training,” to prepare young nobles and for civil service.

In accordance with this assignment of the corps, learning of foreign languages, the ability to deal with people, especially foreigners, the ability to speak beautifully, was put at the head of the training, so how "... this is the great science sometimes is great help, and especially in such cases in which strength, courage and courage are not valid. She gives a skillful way to receive mercy from princes and great persons, also to the administration of affairs and contracts with friends, enemies, and foreigners. Moreover, through it it is possible to lord it over human hearts and convert soldiers' and people's opinions on their own will ”(Artillery magazine. 1862. Xi. C. 621.).

It is interesting to note some other considerations of Minikh about the benefits and necessity of establishing a new educational institution in Russia.

Practiced travel to study abroad did not always bring the desired result. Young people had to leave their parents, spend a lot of money, and many of those who had been sent, who did not have oversight in foreign lands, returned the same ignoramus as they left.

The decree on the opening of a military educational institution in Russia was followed by 29 on July 1731, and the opening of a corporation called “The Cadet Academy” took place in February 1732.

But Gentry Corps can not be regarded as a full-fledged artillery school. And the artillery education was still concentrated in the artillery schools of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The latter, however, did not exist for long.

The Petersburg Artillery School was located on Liteiny Prospect, near the Liteiny House. School started at 6 in the morning and lasted until 12 hours. After a two-hour lunch break, classes were conducted from 14 to 17 hours. Training was conducted mainly by memorizing in a harsh environment - under the threat of flogging.

They demanded that the students memorize the theorems — with the goal that it “makes them temperate and cautious in reasoning and theoretically teaches the attention so needed in the sciences and affairs”.

It is clear that schooling did not give reliable results, did not develop a love of science. Eleven-hour continuous activity oppressed students.

In the 40 of the XVIII century. exams were introduced for young people who have reached the age of 16, including for students of the Artillery School. The examination was carried out in the presence of a member of the military collegium, in the rules of the Orthodox faith, arithmetic and geometry. In the case of failures in these subjects, they were discharged from school without service to sailors - because "one could not expect any benefit from a person who did not teach anyone such training for such trouble-free and highly needed skills."Artillery magazine. C. 626.).

The school of artillery was now connected, then shared with the engineering school. In 1733, they were divided, and in the Artillery, Mikhailo Borisov was appointed as a teacher - charged with teaching pupils about geometry, geometry and trigonometry, to supervise them and take care of their food and clothing. A master of carving was appointed from Arsenal to teach drawing, and officers and noncommissioned officers were appointed to train gun exertion (artillery case) from military units.

Graduated from training were issued to non-commissioned officers in field and garrison artillery, artisans in arsenals and powder-extractors for powder factories.

With the appointment in 1736 of the head (director) of artillery, Captain Ginter, the school has undergone significant organizational changes. Two departments were formed: the first was a drawing school, divided into three classes; the second is apymettic and other schools, also divided into three classes - geometric, arithmetic and verbal science.

In the drawing school, they began to study artillery not only practically (under the guidance of officers and non-commissioned officers commanded from the units), but also theoretically - “the art of recruiting the scale and turning it around are checked; guns, mortars and howitzers to draw.

The school taught laboratory work. It should be noted that the latter has received a particularly wide development, and students have acquired in this area not only great knowledge, but also achieved great art. Contributed to this and the special development in that era of the popular art of fireworks. For the manufacture of "amusing lights" even under Peter I, a potion (powder) factory was transferred to the school.

Pupils wore a special form that they were obliged to strictly observe. On the streets, the disciples were obliged to behave decently and pay tribute not only to officers, but also to all distinguished gentlemen and ladies.

There were no special books and manuals on artillery, except for books brought by Peter I from abroad.

From the history of artillery education in Russia. H. 2

Uniforms of Artillery and Engineering Cadet Corps, 1760-s

Only in 1767, a manual compiled by Captain Veliashev-Volyntsev appeared under the title “Artillery proposals for training noble youth of artillery and engineering gentry cadet corps” (1762 published the book “Initial knowledge of theory and practice in artillery involving hydrostatic rules with tasks ”, compiled by artillery by captain Mikhail Danilov).

It is interesting to note the following words from the preface to the readers: “An artilleryman who wants to succeed in this science should not only be in geometry, algebra is enough, but also have some enlightenment in physics and mechanics”, but also the definition of the essence of artillery as a science (C. 338): “Artillery is a science that shows the rules how to make a composition, called gunpowder, and the machine it operates and use weapons».

An extremely interesting note is the artillery of Major Mikhail Vasilyevich Danilov, written in 1771 and published in Moscow in 1842. It characterizes the life, lifestyle and character of training in artillery schools.

Thus, the teacher at school was a bayonet-junker Alabushev, according to the notes, a drunk and stupid man who "was arrested for the third slaughter and was taken to school." This bayonet, of course, attached particular importance to the learning of the science of the rod. But, as Danilov notes, then there was such a great "lack of scholars in artillery that one had to resort to planting artillery knowledge of people like Alabushev."

Of course, not all teachers were of this sort, and Danilov mentions the captain Grinkov, a “diligent and painstaking” person who managed to inculcate in his students a craving for classes and without resorting to tough measures. Grinkov significantly improved his teaching at school, and the school produced quite a few people who turned out to be useful artillery. Danilov especially notes the activities of Captain Ginter, who in 1736 was appointed the director of the St. Petersburg artillery school. According to Danilov, Ginter was “a pleasant and quiet person, and at that time, his first knowledge, which brought all the artillery in good proportion.”

The ending should ...
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From the history of artillery education in Russia. H. 1
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  1. heavy division
    heavy division 13 March 2019 15: 21
    +9
    It was a difficult but interesting time, in terms of studying tacos
    Learning is light, and unlearned is darkness!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 13 March 2019 15: 45
      0
      Quote: Heavy Division
      It was a difficult but interesting time, in terms of studying tacos
      Learning is light, and unlearned is darkness!
      The classics, our literature, describes well the process of teaching the Doryan ignoramuses Pushkin-Captain's daughter. Saltykov-Shchedrin Poshekhonskaya antiquity. It is true that they also describe "advanced teaching methods." Bumping, pinching, nape, spanking. Etc. etc. Teachers were also at the level of the era, drunkards, female hunters.
      1. Rodent
        Rodent 13 March 2019 18: 21
        +8
        so different teachers then
        more cool than bad
        otherwise not schools but closets
        and a drunkard and a female hunter is more of a compliment wink
  2. Hunghuz
    Hunghuz 13 March 2019 15: 58
    +11
    Danilov's note an important monument of the era
    And it is written fascinatingly. Palette, s)
  3. Rodent
    Rodent 13 March 2019 18: 22
    +9
    Oh, there aren’t enough rods right now
    especially in universities, for Khachiks the only understandable thing is strength
    1. Grandfather Barsik
      Grandfather Barsik 13 March 2019 18: 59
      +8
      it will not be superfluous
    2. Proxima
      Proxima 13 March 2019 23: 29
      +1
      Quote: Rodent
      Oh, there aren’t enough rods right now
      especially in universities, for Khachiks the only understandable thing is strength

      In the top ten! If you pour a little to our offspring, then they will not think about gadgets, or maybe they will think about learning a little? request
  4. Grandfather Barsik
    Grandfather Barsik 13 March 2019 18: 58
    +8
    it’s kind of written about education at that time, but so many details, it’s nice
    especially since I forgot when I was studying
  5. Square
    Square 13 March 2019 20: 11
    +8
    Minih did a lot
    in different areas. Another outstanding Russian German
  6. Decimam
    Decimam 13 March 2019 20: 19
    -5
    Somehow, the author did not understand at all in the artillery schools of the first third of the XNUMXth century. Even in the number of schools.
    According to the author, the Moscow artillery school did not exist for long. The statement is controversial, since 47 years (1712 - 1759) for that time is not a short time. In 1759, the school ceased to exist in connection with its merger with the St. Petersburg artillery school.
    As for St. Petersburg, the question is more interesting.
    In 1721, an artillery school was created at the Laboratory House to train non-commissioned artillery officers. In 1730, the Artillery Arithmetic School was opened at the Foundry Yard to train specialists from soldiers' children. In 1735, the Artillery Drafting School was founded, which trained non-commissioned children of non-commissioned officers art. and engineering troops. In 1735, the Artillery, Artillery Arithmetic and Artillery Drawing Schools were merged into the Joint Artillery School at the Laboratory House. It had 2 departments: for nobles (training art. Non-commissioned officers) and soldiers' children (training clerks and artisans). This school in 1758 was combined with the Engineering School in the United Artillery and Engineering School (located on the Engineering Courtyard, the training ground on the Vyborg side), which trained officers and non-commissioned officers of artillery and engineering troops (from the nobility), clerical, draftsmen and artisans ( from soldier children). In 1762, this school was transformed into the Artillery and Engineering Cadet Corps. In 1759, a special department was allocated from the school - the United Soldier School, which combined the soldier classes of the former United Artillery School and the Soldier's Engineering School. In 1762, this school was transformed into the School of Arts at the cadet corps (it trained non-commissioned and soldier children as non-commissioned officers, clerks, draftsmen, draftsmen and artisans for engineering troops, artillery and mints), and in 1790 it became a soldier’s company under the corps.
    In addition, there are inconsistencies for some historical figures.
    With the appointment in 1736 of Captain Ginter, chief (director) of artillery

    What and whom does the author mean? The chief of artillery in the Russian Empire at that time was the general-feldzeichmeister of the Russian imperial army, who, by definition, could not be captain.
    Among them, the third in a row is Ivan Yakovlevich Ginter, who in 1726, after the dismissal of Ya. V. Bruce, was given control over the Russian artillery and the rank of lieutenant general, in 1727 he was promoted to full general. In 1728, Emperor Peter II approved him with the rank of Russian General Feldzheichmeister. He died in 1729. Obviously, he and the person of "Captain Ginter, who in 1736 was appointed director of the St. Petersburg artillery school" are completely different people.
    Nevertheless, the author should more carefully prepare the material.
    1. Dalton
      Dalton 14 March 2019 08: 55
      +5
      In my opinion, the cycle is very interesting. A lot of rare information.
      I put you Decimam (Victor) minus - because they are biased and fundamentally wrong.
      for example
      According to the author, the Moscow artillery school did not exist for long. The statement is controversial, since 47 years (1712 - 1759) for that time is not a short time.

      well this is for someone like
      further - blah blah blah. Everything is known, so to speak educational program of pedia.
      then
      With the appointment in 1736 of Captain Ginter, chief (director) of artillery

      you poor fellow Decimam (Victor), before you comment on something - first learn to understand what is generally written. And what is written? And only that Captain Ginter became the chief (director) of artillery.
      Ginter - artillery captain. Or - the captain of artillery. Got it?
      The headmaster (that is, the captain of the artillery) Ginter became the director of the school (and not at all the head of artillery as Decimam (Victor) considered) - the grief commentator himself writes about below.
      Imagine - it is just so right: not a captain of artillery, but an artillery captain, not a guard lieutenant - but a lieutenant of the guard.
      These are the commentators here.
      And the cycle is good, we are waiting for the final.
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 14 March 2019 09: 13
        -4
        These are the commentators here.
        Yes, those who are rude, poking at strangers and not even suspecting that mistakes can be pointed out without rudeness.
        And what is for you in the article "a lot of rare information" is for you in the article a lot of rare information, nothing more.
        1. Dalton
          Dalton 14 March 2019 09: 24
          +7
          for you in the article "a lot of rare information", so it is for you in the article a lot of rare information

          there’s just a lot of details that you won’t find on your wikipedia.
          Well, if I offended with anything - I apologize.
          But aren't you rude yourself - without understanding the essence of the phrase, you will smartly teach the authors.
          When in fairness it was necessary to write not just
          Somehow, the author did not understand at all in the artillery schools of the first third of the XNUMXth century.
          , and the fact that Decimam (Victor) did not understand who Ginter was - whom this Decimam (Victor) wrote to the chiefs of artillery throughout Russia.
          And for the fact that I poked - of course I apologize. I thought that we were all brothers here and everything was on you. By the way (according to observations) often poke yourself. From now on - only you respected.
          Then we take leave
          1. Decimam
            Decimam 14 March 2019 09: 27
            -1
            By the way (according to observations) often poke yourself.
            An example does not make it difficult?
            1. Dalton
              Dalton 14 March 2019 09: 31
              +7
              Will we discuss commentators in the comments?))
              However, I had in mind (you understand) when you act under a different legend)
              In my opinion today is enough. Do not find? Have a nice day, buddy!
              1. Decimam
                Decimam 14 March 2019 10: 30
                -2
                My other legend is only in your rich imagination. One is enough for me. And all the best to you.
  7. Kapitan a
    Kapitan a 14 March 2019 21: 36
    +4
    All the advantages are worth it! All deserved! Greetings to the author, burn on !!!