Military Review

German "fist strike" for the purpose of occupation of the western part of Russia

63
German "fist strike" for the purpose of occupation of the western part of Russia

100 years ago, 18 February 1918, Germany broke the truce and launched an offensive all along the front line from the Baltic to the Black Sea. This offensive forced the Soviet government to accept the difficult world that was signed on March 3 of 1918.


prehistory

The course of the liberal bourgeois Provisional Government to continue the war for the benefit of the Entente (Britain, France, Italy and the USA) completely failed. The continuation of the war was one of the most important factors for the further collapse of the Russian state and the fall of the Provisional Government. Mira wanted the overwhelming majority of the people. In addition, as the summer operations of 1917 showed, the Russian army was already able to fight, and by the end of 1917, the old imperial army had collapsed de facto. The enemy could be confronted only by individual units.

October 25 (November 7) The Provisional Government was overthrown by an armed uprising in Petrograd as a result of the armed uprising in Petrograd. In Russia, mainly by peaceful means, Soviet power is established. October 1917 (November 26) The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted a Decree on Peace, in which it invited all belligerent states to immediately conclude an armistice and begin peace negotiations. On the night of October 8 (November 27), the congress created the Soviet government - the Council of People's Commissars (SNK, Council of People's Commissars).

One of the most important slogans of the Bolsheviks was: "Peace to the nations!" On the night of November 20 1917, the Soviet government sent a telegram to the Supreme Commander General N. N. Dukhonin with an order to offer a truce to the German command. On November 21, allied embassies in Petrograd received a note from the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Leonid D. Trotsky with a proposal to conclude an armistice with Germany and begin negotiations for peace. The Allies ignored this sentence. 25 November, the Soviet government once again turned to England, France and the United States with a proposal to jointly begin negotiations with Germany. However, the Allies decidedly refused to stop the war, as they had to do with the Soviet government.

9 (22) November, the Soviet government, removing the commander-in-chief Dukhonin, who sabotaged the beginning of the negotiations, directly appealed to the soldiers about the need for an immediate actual cessation of the war and offered to begin fraternization and ceasefire negotiations on individual sections of the front to the soldiers' committees themselves. 13 (26) November Sovnarkom appealed to the German government with a proposal for peace. This led to local, independent agreements concluded on a truce with the enemy by separate army formations on the fronts and the beginning of negotiations on a truce, already under the control of the central authorities. 14 (27) November Germany announced its agreement to begin peace negotiations with the Soviet government.


Fraternization during the truce on the Eastern Front. 1918

Truce First Brest-Litovsk Treaty

November 21 (December 4) 1917 of the year was signed “Armistice Agreement between the armies of the Russian Western Front and the German armies acting against the marked front” for the period from November 23 (December 6) to 4 December or 17. truce, if it comes sooner. The representatives from the Western Front were five soldiers, non-commissioned officer Berson and two doctors. The Commissioner of the German High Command was Major General von Sauberzweig. The treaty operated on the front line from the town of Vidzy (Latvia) to the Pripyat River (Volyn).

November 19 (December XNUM) The peaceful delegation of the Soviet government arrived in the neutral zone and proceeded to Brest-Litovsk, where the German High Command was located on the Eastern Front, where it met with the delegation of the Austro-German bloc, which also included representatives of Bulgaria and Turkey. Negotiations with Germany on a truce began on November 2 (December 20) 3. The first composition of the Soviet delegation was headed by the chairman of the delegation, a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee A. A. Ioffe, a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee L. B. Kamenev, a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Board of the People's Commissariat G. Y. Sokolnikov. Germany was represented by Major General Max Hoffman.

The Soviet side offered a truce for 6 months, with the cessation of hostilities on all fronts. The Germans were to withdraw troops from Riga and from the Moonsund Islands and transfer the liberated divisions to the Western (French) front. It is clear that the ban on the transfer of troops has caused particular discontent of the German side. 2 (15) December, the Armistice Agreement was signed between Russia and Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. The contract was valid until 1 (14) January 1918. After that, the term of the contract was extended automatically. Starting from the 21 day of the contract, the parties could refuse it, to lime each other for 7 days. The Germans gave formal consent to ban the transfer of troops to the Western Front.

It should be noted that at the end of 1916, the German command of the Eastern Front developed, and the government supported the project to create a “second border strip”. It provided for the annexation of the western regions of the Russian Empire. Proponents of the temperate circles of the German elite held a hidden form of annexation. The idea of ​​a “middle European” led by Germany was proposed, with the formal independence of the peoples of the western part of the Russian empire. Berlin agreed to the proposal of the Soviet government for an armistice and peace negotiations, hoping to take advantage of the difficult situation of Soviet Russia and impose upon it a peace that consolidated Germany’s gains in the East and allowed to transfer maximum forces to the Western front to defeat the Entente. Under the pretext of the peoples' right to self-determination and peace without annexations and indemnities, the German government planned to separate the peoples of the regions occupied by Germany from Russia, which allegedly expressed their desire to secede from Soviet Russia. The military party (led by Hindenburg and Ludendorff) saw in the future peace treaty not only an opportunity for victory in the West, but also a basis for implementing a large-scale conquest program in the East, which included rejection of the Baltic states, parts of Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea and parts of the Caucasus from Russia. This gave a strategic base, resources and communications for further expansion to Turkestan, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, Persia, Mesopotamia and India.


Germany Expansionary Plans for 1917 Year

Peace talks in Brest-Litovsk

Negotiations about peace began on December 9 (22), 1917. At the first stage, the Soviet delegation included 5 delegates - members of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee: the Bolsheviks A. A. Ioffe (chairman of the delegation), L. B. Kamenev and G. Ya. Sokolnikov, the Socialist-Revolutionaries A. A. Bitsenko and S. D. Maslovsky-Mstislavsky , 8 members of the military delegation - Quartermaster-General under the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the General Staff, Major General V. E. Skalon (he killed himself for some unknown reason), who was under the Chief of the General Staff, General Yu. N. Danilov, Assistant Chief of the Naval General Staff, Rear Admiral V. M. Altfater, chief of the Nikolaev military aka emii General Staff AI Andogsky, Quartermaster General Staff of the 10th Army General Staff AA Samoilov, Colonel DG Focke, Colonel IY clinging, Captain B. Lipsky. Also included in the delegation were the secretary of the delegation L. M. Karakhan, 3 translators and 6 technical staff, as well as 5 ordinary members of the delegation - sailor F. V. Olic, soldier N. K. Belyakov, Kaluga peasant R. I. Stashkov, worker P. A. Obukhov, ensign fleet K. Ya. Zedin.

The delegations of the States of the Fourth Union headed: from Germany, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Richard von Kühlmann; from Austria-Hungary - Foreign Minister Count Ottokar Chernin; from Bulgaria - Minister of Justice Popov; from the Ottoman Empire - the grand vizier Talaat Bey. The conference was opened by the commander-in-chief of the Eastern Front, Prince Leopold of Bavaria, and Kühlmann took the chair.

The Soviet delegation put forward the principle of a democratic world without annexations and indemnities as the basis of negotiations. That is, Germany had to withdraw the troops to the borders of 1914 of the year, withdraw them from the occupied territories of Russia. After a three-day discussion by countries of the German bloc of Soviet proposals in the evening of 12 (25) in December, 1917 von Kühlmann made a statement that Germany and its allies accept these proposals. At the same time, a reservation was made, which effectively nullified Germany’s consent to a world without annexations and indemnities: the governments of the Entente countries were to join this world. The German side understood the “democratic world” without annexations and indemnities other than the Soviet one. The Germans did not assemble to withdraw troops from the occupied territories and, according to a statement from Germany, Poland, Lithuania and Kurland have already declared for secession from Russia, and if these three countries entered into negotiations with the Second Reich about their future fate, this would not be considered an annexation by German Empire Thus, during the German-Soviet armistice negotiations, the puppet Lithuanian Tariba (a government created in September 1917 of the year and declared independence of Lithuania) announced the restoration of the independent Lithuanian state and this state’s eternal alliances with Germany.

After that, the Soviet delegation proposed to announce a break, during which it would be possible to try to involve the Entente countries in the peace negotiations. The Soviet government again invited the Entente countries to participate in the negotiations, but with the same result. 14 (27) December, the Soviet delegation at the second meeting of the political commission made a proposal: “In full agreement with the open statement of both contracting parties that they have no plans of conquest and the desire to make peace without annexations. Russia withdraws its troops from the parts of Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Persia occupied by it, and the powers of the Fourth Union from Poland, Lithuania, Kurland and other areas of Russia. ” Soviet Russia promised, in accordance with the principle of self-determination of nations, to provide the population of these regions with the opportunity to decide for themselves the question of their state existence - in the absence of any troops other than national or local police.

The German side made a counter-proposal: the Soviet government was asked to “take note of the statements expressing the will of the peoples inhabiting Poland, Lithuania, Kurland and parts of Estland and Livonia, about their desire for full state independence and separation from the Russian Federation” and recognize that "these statements under the present conditions should be considered as an expression of popular will."

Thus, under the pretext of self-determination of the peoples, the German Empire actually proposed to the Soviet government to recognize the puppet regimes established by the German-Austrian occupation authorities in the western national fringes of the former Russian Empire. This led to the spread of the German sphere of influence on the vast Western possessions of the former Russian Empire, including the Western Russian lands - Little Russia-Ukraine, where the nationalist Central Council (not enjoying the support of the majority of the population) headed for "independence", and in fact, was going to go under Germany.

The Soviet government, in conditions of the collapse of the country, its economy, the absence of the army and the deployment of the civil war in Russia, tried to delay the negotiations as long as possible in the hope of revolution and collapse in Germany itself. It was obvious that the conditions put forward by the German side were unacceptable, but the Soviet government could not offer direct resistance, there were no armed forces. It was decided to oppose the German side's speeding up the negotiations, to demand that the conference be moved to Stockholm (also with the aim of delaying the negotiations), to increase anti-war agitation among German soldiers, to conduct propaganda and agitation in favor of a revolutionary war. These provisions of 18 (31) of December were formulated by Lenin in a draft resolution of the Council of People's Commissars, which also provided for the organization of the army and “defense against breakthrough to Petrograd”. Lenin suggested that the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Trotsky, go to Brest-Litovsk and personally head the Soviet delegation. “To delay the negotiations, we need a retractor,” as Lenin said.

At the same time, the Soviet government tried to restore Russia's defense capability. Supreme Commander N. V. Krylenko, in the 30 Directive in December 1917 (12 in January 1918) set the task for the commanders of the Northern and Western Fronts to strengthen the defense of the approaches to Petrograd, Revel and Smolensk. Heads of the Northern and Western Front were ordered to concentrate combat-ready troops on the most important strategic areas. 15 (28) January 1917, the SNK adopted a decree on the organization of the Red Army, and 29 January (11 February) - the Red Fleet. In Petrograd, Moscow, other cities and at the front, the formation of units of the Red Army began on a voluntary basis. Also, preparations were made for guerrilla warfare and the evacuation of property from the front-line zone.

Problems of the German block

It is worth noting that the hopes of the Soviet government for the rise of the revolutionary movement in Germany itself (as in Austria-Hungary) were justified. Germany, like other countries of the Fourth Union, was completely exhausted by the war. Thus, in Germany, the rationing system was introduced in 1916, and a law on compulsory labor service for men from 17 to 60 years was adopted. The industry because of the blockade felt an acute shortage of raw materials. Labor resources in the country have been exhausted. In military factories used women's labor. More than a third of workers in industrial enterprises in the country at the end of 1917 were women. The government was forced to return to the factories from the front 125 thousand workers. Various surrogates (“ersatz”) of products have spread. The population was starving. Winter 1916 - 1917 It was called "turn", because swede became the main, almost the only food product of civilians. The hungry winter led to great sacrifices: according to some sources, hundreds of thousands of people died of starvation. The weakest were particularly affected - children and old people.

The position of Austria-Hungary was even worse. The Austro-Hungarian army failed to withstand catastrophic defeats on the Russian front and was demoralized. The soldiers were morally and physically exhausted (undernourishment affected), discipline plummeted, lack was felt weapons, equipment and ammunition. The national liberation movement of the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian Empire strengthened. The "patchwork empire" of the Hapsburgs cracked at the seams. In Vienna, they were already seriously working through a separate, separate world with the Entente. The Foreign Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Chernin, wrote to the Austrian Emperor Charles I as early as April 1917: “... It is absolutely clear that our military strength has been exhausted ... I am quite convinced that the new winter campaign is absolutely impossible; in other words, that at the end of the summer or in the autumn you need to make peace at any cost ... ... Your Majesty knows that the string is so tight that it can break every day. I am firmly convinced that the forces of Germany, like ours, have come to an end, which the responsible politicians in Berlin do not deny. If the monarchs of the central powers fail to make peace in the coming months, the nations will make it through their heads, and then the waves of revolution will demolish everything that our brothers and sons fight and die for today ... ”Hunger began in Austria-Hungary. In January 1918, O. Chernin informed the emperor Karl: “... We are standing directly in front of the food disaster. The situation is ... terrible, and I am afraid that now it is too late to delay the onset of a catastrophe that should happen in a few weeks ... ”.

The situation was similar in Bulgaria. The industry was depressed. Hunger and epidemics among civilians led to the fact that the death rate among the population of Bulgaria far exceeded the military casualties of its army. Turkey, which was quietly dying without war, now found itself on the brink of a military-political and state catastrophe. The army degraded and retreated in Mesopotamia and Palestine. Industry, agriculture, finance, trade and transport have collapsed. The common people were starving, living in the conditions of constant requisitions (robbery), arbitrariness, repression and terror by the police, officials and the army. The genocide that the Turkish authorities have unleashed against national and religious minorities has exacerbated the chaos in the country. The Ottoman Empire lived the last days.

At the end of January 1918, Germany was stunned by a general political strike, in which more than a million and a half workers participated (of which more than 500 thousand in Berlin). The most important reason for the strike was the breakdown by the German government of peace talks with Soviet Russia in Brest-Litovsk. The strike swept 3 into several dozen German cities. Among the strikers, there were calls for the overthrow of the Kaiser and actions "in Russian." At factory meetings in Berlin, representatives were elected to the Workers Council in the number of 414 people. The workers' council unanimously demanded: a world without annexations and indemnities; improving food supply; the abolition of the state of siege and the introduction of democratic freedoms; the release of those convicted or arrested for political activities, etc. However, the authorities, with the help of the right-wing Social Democrats who split the labor movement, managed to crush the strike.

The second stage of negotiations

At the second stage of the negotiations, the Soviet delegation headed by the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs L. D. Trotsky consisted of A. A. Ioffe, L. M. Karakhan, K. B. Radek, M. N. Pokrovsky, A. A. Bitsenko, V A. Karelin, E. G. Medvedev, V. M. Shakhrai, Art. Bobinsky, V. Mitskevich-Kapsukas, V. Terian, V. M. Altfater, A. A. Samoilo, V. A. Lipsky.

20 December 1917 (January 2 1918) The Soviet government sent telegrams to the chairmen of the delegations of the countries of the Fourth Union with the proposal to move the peace talks to Stockholm. According to the official opinion of the CPC, there the Soviet delegation could feel freer, its radio messages could be protected from interception, and the telephone conversations with Petrograd from German censorship. In addition, it could delay negotiations. Not surprisingly, the proposal was categorically rejected by Berlin.

27 December 1917 (9 January 1918) opening the conference, Kühlmann stated that, since the Entente had not joined the negotiations, the German bloc considers itself free from the Soviet formula of the world without annexations. In addition, according to representatives of the German bloc, now it was not about universal peace, but about a separate peace between Russia and the powers of the Fourth Union.

At the next meeting, which took place on December 28 1917 (January 10 1918), the Germans invited the Ukrainian delegation of the Central Council. Central Council was formed in April 1917 of the year during the 900 Nationalists congress in Kiev. No one elected her, and she did not enjoy popular support. In fact, a handful of marginal nationalist intelligentsia had gathered, whose views were not shared by the people, and declared itself the government of Ukraine. 22 December 1917 of the Year (January 4 1918) German Chancellor G. von Gertling said in a speech in the Reichstag that a delegation of the Central Council arrived in Brest-Litovsk. Germany agreed to negotiate with the Ukrainian delegation to use the Ukrainian factor against the Soviet government, as well as to put pressure on Vienna. At the December 28 meeting, the chairman of the Ukrainian delegation, V. A. Golubovich, announced the declaration of the Central Council that the power of the Council of People's Commissars of Soviet Russia did not extend to Ukraine, and therefore the Central Council is ready to conduct peace talks on its own. Trotsky agreed to view the delegation of the Ukrainian Central Rada as an independent one, thereby actually playing into the hands of the representatives of the German bloc.

The German High Command expressed extreme dissatisfaction with the tightening of the peace talks, fearing the expansion of the army, following the example of the Russian, and because of the bad news from Germany. General Ludendorff demanded that General M. Hoffmann, Chief of Staff of the German armies on the Eastern Front, speed up negotiations with the Soviet side. 30 December 1917 (12 January 1918) at a meeting of the political commission, the Soviet delegation demanded from the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary to confirm categorically their lack of intentions to annex any territories of the former Russian Empire. According to representatives of Soviet Russia, the question of the future fate of self-determining territories should be resolved through a national referendum, after the withdrawal of foreign troops and the return of refugees and displaced persons. General Hoffman, in a long spiteful reply, stated that the German government refuses to clear the occupied territories of Courland, Lithuania, Riga and the islands of the Gulf of Riga.

5 (18) January 1918 General Hoffman presented the conditions of the Central Powers - they were a map of the former Russian Empire, in which Poland, Lithuania, part of Belarus and Ukraine, Estonia and Latvia, the Moonsund Islands and the Gulf of Riga departed in favor of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Total Germans claimed the territory of a total area of ​​more than 150 thousand square meters. km This allowed the German armed forces to control the sea routes to the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, if necessary, to occupy all of Latvia and Estonia, and also to develop an offensive on Petrograd. In the hands of Germany passed the Russian Baltic ports, the Baltic, for which Russia in the past paid a huge price. As a result, the German proposals were extremely disadvantageous to the Soviet government. Russia was losing conquests of several hundred years and a series of bloody wars. The system of strategic frontiers in the northwestern, western and partly in the southwestern directions was destroyed. Therefore, the Soviet delegation demanded a new break in the peace conference for another ten days to familiarize its government with the German demands.


German officers meet the Soviet delegation headed by Leonid D. Trotsky to Brest-Litovsk

On the role of Trotsky in the negotiations

Lenin's appointment as head of the delegation of Trotsky was not the best solution. The head of the Soviet Foreign Ministry was provocative. Trotsky, with the expectation of a quick revolution in the countries of Central Europe, externally sought to delay the negotiations, being interested primarily in the propaganda effect of them, and through the heads of their participants appealed for revolt to the "workers in uniform" of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Immediately after his arrival in Brest-Litovsk, Trotsky tries to conduct propaganda among the German soldiers guarding the railway lines, for which he receives a protest from the German side. With the assistance of Karl Radek, an agitational newspaper, Fakel, is being created for distribution to German soldiers.

After Berlin dictated the harsh conditions of peace, Trotsky, considering that neither Lenin’s position in favor of peace at any price, nor Bukharin, who called for a “revolutionary war”, had at that time support of the majority, put forward his own “intermediate” slogan war, no peace ", that is, called for an end to the war without signing a peace treaty. In fact, it was a provocation.

So, according to George Chicherin, who replaced Trotsky after the failure of the current stage, Trotsky was a fan of “declarative steps that bring everything to the extreme aggravation” and “hysterical leaps”, from the very beginning he had no taste for diplomatic work and, according to his own recollections, in the following way, he reasoned with his appointment: “What kind of diplomatic work will we have? Here I will issue a few proclamations and close the shop. ”

And to the testimony of one of the members of the Soviet delegation, former Tsarist General A. Samoilo: “With the change of the head of the delegation, relations with the Germans changed dramatically. ... At the meetings, Trotsky always spoke with great fervor, Hoffmann [General Max Hoffman] did not remain in debt, and the controversy between them often took a very sharp character. Hoffman usually jumped up and with an angry physiognomy accepted his objections, starting by shouting: “Ich protestiere! ..” [I protest!], Often even hitting the table with his hand. At first, such attacks on the Germans came naturally to my heart, but Pokrovsky explained to me how dangerous they were for peace talks. Being aware of the degree of decomposition of the Russian army and the impossibility of any kind of resistance from it in the event of a German offensive, I clearly realized the danger of losing colossal military property on the vast Russian front, not to mention the loss of vast territories. Several times I spoke about this at our home meetings of the members of the delegation, but each time I was listened to by Trotsky, with obvious condescension to my uninvited fears. His own behavior at the general meetings with the Germans was clearly tending to break with them ... the negotiations continued, resulting mainly in oratorical duels between Trotsky and Hoffmann. ”

To understand the behavior of the Commissar of Foreign Affairs of Soviet Russia, it is necessary to know that L. Trotsky was an "agent of influence" of the owners of the USA (the so-called financial international) and was sent to Russia with an insurgent detachment in order to lead the revolution and destroy and destroy Russian civilization in the interests of western financial capital. He could not immediately replace Lenin, although he played a prominent role in the revolution and occupied key posts.

During the negotiations with Germany, Trotsky took a tough and provocative position to solve two problems. First, to fail the negotiations and cause German intervention, which led to the dispersal of German forces and the acceleration of its fall, respectively, the US victory in the First World War. Secondly, the German intervention could lead to a crisis of the Soviet government, the fall of Lenin's authority. Trotsky became the head of the government and Russia, condemning her to slaughter. And as a leader of the Bolsheviks and Soviet Russia, Trotsky had the opportunity to complete the solution of the “Russian question in the interests of the owners of the Western project.


Soviet delegation in Brest-Litovsk. L. Kamenev, A. Ioffe, A. Bittsenko, V. Lipsky, P. Stuchka, L. Trotsky, L. Karakhan.

To be continued ...
Author:
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1918 Campaign

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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 19 February 2018 07: 41
    +8
    The appointment of Lenin as the head of the delegation of Trotsky was not the best decision.
    ... That's right ... not the best candidate ...
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 19 February 2018 08: 12
      +6
      Quote: parusnik
      not the best candidate

      So yes, but in fairness it should be noted that then many did not fully understand the importance, and the need for an early conclusion of this world.
      It is possible that Lenin didn’t have much choice but whom to send for negotiations.
      1. dSK
        dSK 19 February 2018 11: 47
        +3
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        in fairness it should be noted
        it was complete surrender Russia, pre-planned and paid stamps to the organizer and bucks performer.
        1. dSK
          dSK 19 February 2018 12: 12
          +2
          In 1917 - after expulsion from Spain - Trotsky, spent ten weeks with his family in New York: "I ended up in New York, in the fabulously prosaic city of capitalist automatism, where the aesthetic theory of cubism triumphs on the streets, and in the hearts is the moral philosophy of the dollar. New York impressed me as it most fully expresses the spirit of the modern era. "
          On March 25, 1917, Trotsky visited the Russian Consulate General, where he "with satisfaction" drew attention to the fact that there was no longer a portrait of the Russian Tsar on the wall. US authorities promptly granted returnees exit visas. On the way home, Trotsky was interned by the British authorities in the Canadian city of Halifax: the accusation was that the revolutionary received “German money” in order to overthrow the Provisional Government. The liberation of Trotsky was actively promoted by Vladimir Lenin.(wikipedia.)
          1. Monarchist
            Monarchist 19 February 2018 18: 21
            +1
            "Vladimir Lenin actively promoted the release of Trinity" and secured hemorrhoids and Stalin had to "butt" him
            1. parma
              parma 20 February 2018 06: 33
              0
              And what was the actual hemorrhoid, do not tell? While Lenin was alive, there seemed to be no hemorrhoids ... But how he retired, from the government, so they began to butt for power ...
  2. Cheburator
    Cheburator 19 February 2018 07: 53
    +18
    German "punch"

    Well, it wasn’t a fist punch, but rather a wave creep - which was supposed to encourage something to do what was needed
    I recommend the following article about these events.
    http://www.oborona.ru/includes/periodics/armedfor
    ces / 2017/0718/164621888 / detail.shtml
    Just in time for the past 100th anniversary of the signing of the armistice (December 4, 1917)
    And to the upcoming 100th anniversary of the signing of the "obscene" Brest peace - March 3, 1918
    Soon, Russia's enemies will probably celebrate this "anniversary" ((
  3. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 19 February 2018 08: 26
    +13
    The article is very ... peculiar. The author says that “Russia fought for the interests of the Entente,” forgetting that the interests of the Entente were, among other things, the interests of Russia. And the German offensive in 1918 confirms this — the fight against German claims against neighboring states was in Russia's interests.
    And yet, speaking of the decline in the combat effectiveness of the army, the author forgets to mention the treacherous work of some parties that conducted anti-war propaganda contrary to the interests of their Fatherland. http://artofwar.ru/w/woroshenx_a_p/text_0860-1.sh
    tml
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 19 February 2018 10: 40
      +9
      Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
      The article is very ... peculiar.

      The article is very ... funny lol
      Counting on the fact that apart from the “short course of the VKPBE”, the people did not read anything.
      Speaking about the "efforts" of the Bolsheviks to "defend" the author is modestly silent that from the FIRST day of the seizure of power, the Bolsheviks have begun the systematic DESTRUCTION of the Russian Army, in accordance with their programmatic pre-revolutionary documents on the destruction of the bourgeois army (April Theses, "State and Revolution" and etc.). Marx Engels spoke about this earlier. The Russian Army represented the last organized force of the old state, which could demolish them and they were afraid of it.
      In the conditions of World War II they immediately started ..... mass demobilization fool army:
      - the first decree on demobi was distributed on the radio everywhere already 10 November.
      -26 November in Petrograd, the All-Russian meeting on food, supply and demobilization armi
      -November 28 1917 in Petrograd opened a meeting on the demobilization of the army
      - November 23 1917 In Stavka, a private meeting of the demobilization meeting was convened.
      At the end of November - first half of DecemberIn 1917, front-line and army congresses on demobilization took place.
      In addition, decrees on the ELECTION of commanders leading to complete anarchy, telegrams on fraternization with the enemy
      It is difficult to overestimate the crime and provocative nature of the so-called "peace decree": he gave the soldiers a legal basis and an illusory hope to consider the war ended WITHOUT damage to Russia and with full respect for its interests.
      They destroyed the army. When in January they realized that the army was gone!
      The fact remains: BEFORE the Bolsheviks, the front stood, UNDER them, collapsed.
      T.N. The "peace decree" also showed the complete lack of cooperation of the Bolsheviks as politicians: all countries rejected it, the Bolshevik regime turned into an OUTcast, he attracted only the invaders who simply abused them, but they swallowed everything in order to stay in power. The same Hoffman negotiated putting your feet on the table.
      SNK RECOGNIZED Ukraine and ..... HIMSELF dragged her to the negotiations! This is generally beyond ... fool
      .PS Why are these shortcomings in hiding the names of the so-called "Workers-peasants" -heads of the delegation .н. "Soviet government" and their "experience" in diplomacy ?:
      The first composition of the Soviet delegation was headed by the chairman of the delegation, member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee A. A. Ioffe, member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee L. B. Kamenev, member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Board of the People's Commissariat G. Y. Sokolnikov

      Their name was Hirsch Diamond, Leiba Rosenfeld, Leiba Bronstein, Adolfushka Joffe,but not some kind of Kamenev-Sokolnikov. These already elderly lobsters are not like in diplomacy, they generally have never worked ANY DAY in their lives!
      It was their FIRST "work" in life! It worked, yes ....
      It is symbolic that with Soviet side Brest shame. signed an agreement ADOLF yes
      PS2 ALL of these negotiators subsequently destroyed his ts "comrades in the fight", like .... spies, bandits and traitorslol
      "
      1. Curious
        Curious 19 February 2018 11: 07
        +10
        The creative duo amicably and traditionally splashed slops on the history of that country, to which they declare patriotism.
        But the author of this book does not declare such patriotism.

        Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett is a well-known British historian, expert on Germany, official biographer of King George VI, Knight of the Great Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, a member of the British Academy.

        The title of this book, written in 1938 and published many times, should not confuse anyone, since the author in it, unlike some "patriots", sets the task not to slop the history of a foreign country, but an objective analysis of history.
        The “Brest Peace” was a turning point, a turning point in historical development; it was from him that a causal chain of events stretched directly related to issues of war and peace, on which it depended in which direction the world would develop. "
        The book is relevant today.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 19 February 2018 13: 31
          +5
          Comrade MATA lover - I remind you that I ARE DISRUPTED to communicate with you.
          Bother do not contact to me yes
          1. Curious
            Curious 19 February 2018 13: 33
            +6
            And who turned to you? For objects like you, appeals are useless. Exist calmly.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 19 February 2018 14: 07
              +5
              Quote: Curious
              And who turned to you?

              You. Or are you already not you ?! belay lol
              ONCE AGAIN, MATA lover: DO NOT press the "reply" button, please, there is the "add comment" button.
              And then I open the answers, and there- .. FI!negative
              1. Curious
                Curious 19 February 2018 14: 14
                +5
                "Fi" is what you see in the morning in the mirror if you use such an item in Romania. Which button I want, and press this. I forgot to ask you what to reap.
                Your mortal shell is of no interest to anyone except detritophages in the inevitable future.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 19 February 2018 14: 23
                  +5
                  Quote: Curious
                  Which button I want, and press this. I forgot to ask you what to reap.

                  But I get a "notification", I open it. and there, again, an amateur mat imposed with your "communication". negative
                  Spare me your annoying, annoying "attention" yes
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 19 February 2018 14: 50
                    +4
                    I see for you only one way out. All in your hands.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 19 February 2018 15: 22
                      +5
                      Quote: Curious
                      I see for you only one way out. All in Your hands.

                      If in mine, then SO mitten: yes
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 19 February 2018 15: 26
                        +5
                        And why do you need a spoon over your shoulder - for drafts on a fan? I imagined you like that, green and with a shovel in my hands.
                2. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 19 February 2018 14: 38
                  +5
                  Quote: Curious
                  nobody cares


                  learn to speak only for yourself, please
          2. Hantengri
            Hantengri 19 February 2018 21: 05
            +3
            Quote: Olgovich
            Comrade MATA lover - I remind you that I ARE DISRUPTED to communicate with you.
            Bother not to contact me

            Quote: Olgovich
            ONCE AGAIN, MATA lover: DO NOT press the "reply" button, please, there is the "add comment" button.
            And then I open the answers, and there- .. FI!

            Quote: Olgovich
            Spare me your annoying, annoying "attention"

            Poor guy Olgovich ... Something on the site really divorced an indecent amount of "MATA fans" who annoyingly annoy you with their vile attention. laughing Maybe it’s time for you to leave this cesspool and put aside your shovel, turn off the fan + and quickly suck back the unspent guano (do not disappear good) lol , where will the thread go to a quiet, sunny farm to catch butterflies? yes
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 20 February 2018 06: 54
              +3
              Quote: HanTengri
              Poor guy Olgovich ... Something on the site really divorced an indecent amount of "MATA fans" who annoyingly annoy you with their vile attention.

              A lover of mata and gna
              Go away from me.
              Quote: HanTengri
              l this cesspool

              You your
              Quote: HanTengri
              guano
              and maotom turn the discussion into
              Quote: HanTengri
              cloaca
              negative
      2. basmach
        basmach 19 February 2018 11: 57
        +5
        It seems that you are not only a great connoisseur of history and the short course of VKPB, but also the ultimate truth. Well, you didn’t remember the order No.1 (2 (15) of March 1917, It is worth noting that until September 1917, the Bolsheviks did not play a leading role in the Petrograd Soviet. The direct compiler of the order was the CEC secretary, then famous lawyer Nikolai Dmitrievich Sokolov, non-factional Social Democrat: That Talks About Numbers Are Not Empty — Here is a quote from the organizational report of the Central Committee 6 to the Congress of the Sverdlov Party Third meeting of August 9 (July 27)
        “The report of Comrade Stalin fully illuminated the activities of the Central Committee. It remains for me to confine myself to the narrow sphere of organizational activity of the Central Committee. I illustrate with figures the growth of our organization. At the April conference, 78 organizations with 80 thousand party members were represented. Currently, we have 162 organizations with 200 thousand party members ”)), which abolished unity of command and introduced soldiers' committees. Only now the first signs of collapse do not appear in 17.
        A very eloquent excerpt from the order of the 8 Army of the General from the cavalry A.A. Brusilova from 15 on June 1915:

        “... Behind you need to have especially reliable people and machine guns, so that, if necessary, to make the weak-minded go forward. “We should not think about the total execution of whole units for trying to turn back or, even worse, surrender.” Note, this is 1915, just a year of war.
        And here again Kornilov (the future icon of the white movement) - ““ On the fields that could not be called battlefields, ”said General Kornilov,“ there is complete horror and disgrace that the Russian Army did not know from the very beginning of its existence. ”The troops finally they lost their military appearance and fluff, the rear infected the front with madness and hysteria. The army, whose language is short commands and unshakable orders, suddenly began to hear lengthy exhortations and persuasions during the revolution, as if to fulfill their duty they could have freedom of choice. “The Soldier’s Declaration of Rights, which destroyed the beginnings of compulsory discipline.” “You are the freest soldiers in the world!” exclaimed Kerensky at rallies, and the “Great Silence” herself turned into a rally speaker, began to discuss what choice she should make: to fight or not. Before the revolution, she fought “For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland”, and now the purpose and meaning of the war was lost. At the rallies they shouted: “War is beneficial only to the bourgeois, capitalists and gentlemen officers who receive ranks on our roof”, they wrote in newspapers that this is England because of rubbish vnovaniya Germany drew Russia into the war, and the Minister of War, driving the front, said: "We do not want conquests, violence, other people's wealth, we want peace as soon as possible!" "Peace - in that no matter what," added the agitators. The army, which can have an impulse only in the name of victory, was called to fight for peace. Wasn’t it easier for a speedy world to stick its bayonets in the ground? So did the "freest" soldiers. And with what pain, with what indignation, General Kornilov had to wire to the Headquarters and the interim government: “The army of distraught dark people who did not protect themselves from systematic corruption and corruption, who lost their sense of human dignity, be safe ...” June 1917 and "Ternopil shameful days"
        And this is Wrangel, March 1917-I found Petersburg unusually lively. From early morning until late at night, the streets of the city were filled with crowds of people. Most of them were military ranks. Classes in the barracks were not conducted anywhere and the soldiers spent the whole day and most of the night on the streets. The number of red bows, having lost the charm of novelty, compared with the first days of the revolution, decreased, but sloppiness and unbridledness seemed to have increased. Without weapons, mostly in unbuttoned overcoats, with a cigarette in their teeth and pockets full of seeds, soldiers walked in crowds along the sidewalk without giving honor to anyone and pushing passers-by. The clicking of seeds these days has become for some reason an indispensable occupation of the "revolutionary people", and since the streets have not been cleaned since the "freedoms", the sidewalks and pavements were completely covered with husks.
        By the time the Bolsheviks seized power, the army — as a social institution — ceased to exist — it was now a crowd in overcoats and with weapons. A huge number of both soldiers and Cossacks simply took off (starting in March) from the front and went home (grabbing a rifle) —there was a “black” redistribution of land
        And when Lenin spoke about the world at all costs, then unlike you, he understood that at that time there was no army in the classical concept, it had to be recreated from scratch. And such throats and screamed about the war to a victorious end, only someone had to fight, and not they
        And about the recognition of SNK Rada and others:
        The EaP not only allows the creation of sovereign republics with the creation of governments, but also allows the formation of national armed groups

        Poland. 5 November 1916 year, the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, recognized by the Provisional Government 17 March 1917 year.
        Finland. 2 March 1917 years - the termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July, 1917 of the year announced the restoration of independence of Finland. Final recognition of Finland coming out in November 1917.
        . Ukraine. 4 March 1917 years - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, 2 July 1917 years The Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination.
        Belarus July 1917 of the year, the Central Council was formed in Belarus and the Declaration of Autonomy was drawn up.
        The Baltic states. February 1917 of the year, completely occupied by German troops. On the territory of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are formed.
        Bashkiria (Ufa province). July 1917 of the year, the All-Bashkir Kurultai creates the Bashkir government, which is charged with formalizing the autonomy of the region.
        Crimea. On 25 of March 1917, the All-Crimean Muslim Congress was convened in Simferopol, in which 1500 representatives of the Crimean population took part. The Provisional Crimean-Muslim Executive Committee was elected at the congress, which was recognized by the Provisional Government as the only plenipotentiary and legal administrative body representing all Crimean Tatars.
        Tatarstan (Kazan province). The 1-th All-Russian Muslim Congress in early May 1917 in Moscow adopted a resolution on territorial autonomy and federal structure.
        Kuban and the North Caucasus. May 1917 of the year. Creation of territorial self-government bodies within the framework of autonomy.
        Siberia. The Conference in Tomsk (August 2-9) of 1917 of the year adopted a resolution "On the Autonomous Structure of Siberia" in the framework of the Federation with self-determination of regions and nationalities ...
        Ask yourself a simple question: did the Bolsheviks in October have 17 at least the slightest opportunity to stop this "parade of sovereignty" and bring them back.
        And finally, about the "evil and strong" Bolsheviks. The number of members of the First Congress - June 3-27, I All-Russian Congress of Soviets. (Elections to the First Congress of Soviets were quickly held throughout the former empire. According to statistics from the then statistics, more than 20 million people were represented in one way or another more than 5 million workers and 8 million soldiers and sailors, almost 4,5 million peasants, and instead of the expected 1200-1500 delegates to the Tauride Palace of Petrograd, only 1090 gathered, of which only 822 - with casting vote, including only 105 Bolsheviks at 285 Socialist-Revolutionaries and Xnumx Menshevis ah
        1. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 19 February 2018 13: 16
          +5
          Quote: basmach
          And when Lenin spoke about the world at all costs, then unlike you, he understood

          ... that the army was decomposed, including through the active efforts of agitators from his party. A remarkable statesman, this Ulyanov was — at first his party members at the height of the war ruin the army during 1917, and then he “suddenly” realizes that the country captured by him and his accomplices is defenseless against an external enemy.

          Quote: basmach
          Ukraine. March 4, 1917 - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, July 2, 1917, the Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination.,

          I beg you, do not distort the facts. The second “universal” UCR recognized the “General Secretariat” created by it as part of the authorities of the Provisional Government. Rada did not declare independence, but autonomy, moreover, controlled by Petrograd. https://uk.m.wikisource.org/wiki/Other_Un_versal
          _Ukrainian_Central_Radi
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 19 February 2018 13: 53
            +3
            Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
            I beg you, do not distort the facts. The second “universal” UCR recognized the “General Secretariat” created by it as part of the authorities of the Provisional Government. Rada did not declare independence, but autonomy, moreover, controlled by Petrograd. https://uk.m.wikisource.org/wiki/Other_Un_versal

            He does not distort: ​​he simply DOES NOT KNOW the History of our Homeland: What is only nonsense about full Baltic occupation in .....FEBRUARY 1917 fool lol
            In SEPTEMBER 1917, the battle for Riga was still ahead, and Comrade. already passed the entire Baltic .... lol
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 19 February 2018 13: 35
          +3
          Quote: basmach
          You didn’t remember order No. 1 (March 2, 15, 1917,

          Original Order NO.
          printed in a printing house seized by the Bolsheviks, headed by the polygraphist Bonch-Bruevich, i.e. in fact the order was issued by the BOLSHEVIKI
          And here again Kornilov (the future icon of the white movement) - "" On the fields that could not be called battlefields


          Poland. 5 November 1916 year, the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, recognized by the Provisional Government 17 March 1917 year.

          You are UNLIMITED completely: no Cor. Polish VP-NOT recognized
          Finland. March 2, 1917 - termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July 1917, it announced the restoration of Finland's independence.

          You are completely illiterate: no one terminated any union on March 2, in July independence was declared only in INTERNAL affairs, and then the VP canceled it and the Finns RECOGNIZED the decision of the VP.
          The Baltic states. February 1917An ode fully occupied by German troops. In the territory Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are being formed.

          Your LITERACY is simply astounding: you don’t even know the Holiday ... February 23 (battles under the NARVA 1918. Eschtoni-NOT was then at war ...
          Shame ....
      3. Monarchist
        Monarchist 19 February 2018 18: 54
        +2
        Olgovich, let me correct you a little: the Bolsheviks purposefulness decomposed discipline in the army, we recognize their industriousness, but you have not justly forgotten Kerensky: he’s a “champion” by stupidity
    2. horhe48
      horhe48 19 February 2018 14: 23
      +3
      Come on, whatever you got. Russia did not have any interests of its own in that war. As a result of a purposeful and multi-way combination of the British and French special services, they managed to drag Russia into the war on their side. Meanwhile, Russia has Germany and Austria on the one hand - Hungary, on the other, there were no serious reasons for the war. Neither mutual territorial claims, nor lone colonies. At first, the opponent of any war, Stolypin, who sought “twenty peace years” and who could remain his authority, was removed to capture the short-sighted and weak-willed Nicholas II. The killing of the Austrian Archduke and his wife in Sarajevo, which served as the pretext for the war, was the work of the special services of Serbia, which were under British and French control, and was specially organized to necessarily drag Russia into the war on the side of the ANTANTA. And Russia's entry into the war under a very far-fetched and dubious pretext of protecting Orthodox Serbian brothers is clearly not the goal that the responsible Russian sovereign could pursue. (For example, Peter 2 fought a war for access to the Baltic Sea, and Catherine the 1nd for the Black Sea ...) If Russia hadn’t entered this unnecessary war, it could have supplied belligerents with weapons, ammunition, food, other necessary goods, increased industrial and agricultural production, rearm its army on a new basis, and at the end of the war, upit the war on the side of the winning side, and to dictate their terms to all mira.Tak, as did SSHA.K Unfortunately by the time the monarchy had degenerated, and the other power in Russia was not.
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 19 February 2018 15: 05
        +5
        Are you talking about all this seriously now? Or unsuccessfully trying to troll the "VO" users.
        Interests in Russia were not, you say? Then read about the trade wars between Germany and Russia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. https://regnum.ru/news/1693588.html
        Or look at the map in the article under discussion, which perfectly depicts Germany’s aggressive aspirations to tear away Russian lands.
        In this situation, Russia could not sit aside, the Emperor and the General Staff were well aware that France alone could not stand against the German bloc. And history proves the correctness of the decisions made by Nicholas II — the USSR left France without support in 1940. Result to remind you? And about the number of our fellow citizens who died and the cities and villages burnt to ashes as a result of this action of the Soviet leadership?
        1. horhe48
          horhe48 20 February 2018 12: 38
          0
          It’s useless to argue with you. You are based on false information and its distorted interpretation, and therefore your conclusions are incorrect. What, explain how the adherent of the Entente, Russia was concerned with the security of France? Let them decide their own security issues with the British at the same time. equally they were not allies, but companions involuntarily. When it was necessary to save Paris, Russia paid for it with the lives and blood of the deceased army of General Samsonov. And when Germany in 1915 transferred the main efforts against the Russian army, then the French and the citizens did not lift a finger to help Russia. Or when Germany surrendered, did they somehow take into account the interests of Russia, which lost millions killed and crippled in this unnecessary war? As for your allusions to the 2nd World War, right up to the signing treaties with Germany, the USSR was negotiating with England and France on countering German aggression in Europe. They ended in nothing because of the position of England to France, who did not want to assume any specific obligations, They not only dragged out time in every way, but secretly nudged Wali Germany to attack the USSR (Hess remember) Poland refused to let Soviet troops through its territory to help the Allies, etc. Under these conditions, in order to delay the war, the USSR quite naturally signed a non-aggression act with Germany, proceeding from its own , not French interests.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 19 February 2018 15: 36
        +4
        Quote: horhe48
        ) If Russia had not entered this unnecessary war, it could have supplied belligerents with weapons, ammunition, food, other necessary goods, increased industrial and agricultural production, and rearm its army on a new basis

        So the Bolsheviks did so in WWII, as they dreamed of: they did not get involved in an "unnecessary war", supplied supplies, food, while Hitler defeated France ..
        Then WHAT was, remember? And it was June 22 and an unprecedented military disaster in history and unprecedented losses in history.
        August 1, 1914 and in the Second World War not even a trace.
        1. horhe48
          horhe48 20 February 2018 16: 19
          0
          It’s not very clear why, in your view, the USSR was supposed to defend France in 1939–40? Enough from Russia in 2014, when she sacrificed General Samsonov’s army to save Paris from the Germans. But in 2015, when the Germans launched an offensive On the Russian front, neither your adored French nor the British did anything to alleviate the situation of their allies. You can hardly explain what was the reason to step on the same rake again ... As you know, in the summer of 1939 in Moscow, at the suggestion The Soviet government held negotiations between the USSR, An Leah and Frantsiey.S Soviet side, the People's Commissar of Defense and the beginning participated in the negotiations. The General Staff. The British sent an admiral without a job to the negotiations, and the French as a general-pensioner. This shows how they related to proposals for mutual assistance. They dragged on negotiations in every way and did not want to assume any specific obligations. Poland refused to let the Soviet troops through territory to help the French and British .it..d. At the same time, the British and French wanted to direct Hitler's aggression against the USSR. Under these conditions, the conclusion of a non-aggression treaty with Germany allowed the USSR to delay the start of the war for two years and better prepare for it. And what happened then ... I remind you of Hitler in 3 weeks completely defeated the incapable French army, which did not want to fight, and enslaved the French, who could not sit on the Maginot line, and the USSR defeated the forces of the united Europe led by Hitler and ended the war in Berlin.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 21 February 2018 14: 42
            +1
            Quote: horhe48
            It is not very clear why, in your view, the USSR was supposed to defend France in 1939-40?

            To, as in 1914, leave the war in the WEST.
            1. horhe48
              horhe48 22 February 2018 07: 22
              +1
              And what, she stayed in 1914. in the West? Teach materiel, my dear. And then you are very unconvincing because of ignorance and misunderstanding of historical events.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 23 February 2018 07: 49
                0
                Quote: horhe48
                And what, she stayed in 1914. in the West?

                The main blow, yes, remained.
                Quote: horhe48
                Learn materiel, my dear

                Learn materiel, my dear
                Quote: horhe48
                And then you are very unconvincing because of ignorance and misunderstanding of historical events.

                Otherwise you are funny due to ignorance and misunderstanding of historical events
      3. Hantengri
        Hantengri 19 February 2018 21: 24
        +3
        Quote: horhe48
        Come on, whatever you got. Russia did not have any interests of its own in that war. As a result of a purposeful and multi-way combination of the British and French special services, they managed to drag Russia into the war on their side. Meanwhile, Russia has Germany and Austria on the one hand - Hungary, on the other, there were no serious reasons for the war.

        Quote: horhe48
        First, the opponent of a war was removed Stolypin, who sought “twenty peaceful years” and who, by his authority, could stop the short-sighted and weak-willed Nicholas II. The killing of the Austrian Archduke and his wife in Sarajevo, which served as the pretext for the war, was the business of the special services of Serbia, located under Anglo-French control and was specially organized in order to draw Russia into the war on the side of the ANTANTES.

        “Do not read before Starikov’s dinner” (c) (almost). This is not useful for an objective perception of the historical process.
        1. horhe48
          horhe48 20 February 2018 15: 51
          0
          Thank you for the advice. But I do not need it. But the fact that, judging by your comments, you are not able to analyze and synthesize the information noise surrounding you, indicates that you yourself have obvious problems with the perception of the surrounding reality.
    3. Monarchist
      Monarchist 19 February 2018 18: 28
      +2
      Lieutenant, the author suffers from memory failures. Like Leonov in “The Jeltmans of Fortune”: he hit his head and went memory lapses: “I remember how I took the helmet, but where did you do it?” Do you remember this film?
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 19 February 2018 21: 50
        +2
        As for the memory laps, I completely agree with you. And of course I remember the film — this is one of my favorite comedies, along with Gaidai’s films.
  4. bober1982
    bober1982 19 February 2018 08: 52
    +4
    The composition of the negotiating party of the Soviet delegation is impressive - it is entirely internationalists and future enemies of the people.
    General Skalon, casually mentioned in the article ....... for an unknown reason, he committed suicide ....., this is a Russian general, a military expert in the negotiations, shot himself - could not stand the humiliation.
    1. Dzmicer
      Dzmicer 19 February 2018 10: 42
      +6
      Because to the Russian man, Russia was SORRY. That is precisely why the top of the Bolshevik-Rusorez people consisted almost exclusively of representatives of the “peoples oppressed by tsarism”.
      Now the descendants of those "genetic revolutionaries" with the right genes and beautiful faces are "genetic liberals and democrats."
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 19 February 2018 10: 52
        +3
        Quote: Dzmicer
        Now the descendants of those "genetic revolutionaries" with the right genes and beautiful faces are "genetic liberals and democrats."

        A genetic revolutionary (a fighter for the rights of workers), followed by a transformation into a Trotskyist (enemy of the people), then into a liberal and a democrat (a fighter for humanism for workers), and then again everything repeats, in a circle.
      2. Hantengri
        Hantengri 19 February 2018 21: 28
        +3
        Quote: Dzmicer
        That is precisely why the top of the Bolshevik-Rusorez people consisted almost exclusively of representatives of the “peoples oppressed by tsarism”.

        "Announce the entire list, please!" (c) With the pedigree and source of information, naturally. Ato, after all ... do not toss the bags.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 19 February 2018 23: 04
            +2
            This is the composition of the Council of People's Commissars in which year?
            Quote: Dzmicer
            In general, you write as if I owe you something.

            And not just me. You state:
            Quote: Dzmicer
            That is precisely why the top of the Bolshevik-Rusorez people consisted almost exclusively of representatives of the “peoples oppressed by tsarism”.
            Vyakanny? Learn to justify! For the affirming one proves. Not able to smell - do not blather.
            Quote: Dzmicer
            And this is not at all true.

            Well well!
            Quote: HanTengri
            And then, after all ... do not toss the bags.

            By the way, you did not provide links to the source of your "insights".
  5. Ural resident
    Ural resident 19 February 2018 11: 14
    +3
    In general, an informative and interesting article, but only where did such peremptory conclusions come from ?:
    you need to know that L. Trotsky was an "agent of influence" of the US masters and was sent to Russia with a detachment of militants with the goal of leading the revolution and disintegrating and destroying Russian civilization
    1. Curious
      Curious 19 February 2018 11: 28
      +7
      So this is the main idea of ​​the author. For her sake, he exploits all known historical events from the moment when the monkey crawled to the ground. The whole known history of mankind according to the author is a struggle of some "masters" against a superethnos.
      1. dSK
        dSK 19 February 2018 12: 29
        +2
        Quote: Curious
        some "hosts"
        in a couple of years, the "horns" they will grow and you yourself will name their names.
      2. parma
        parma 19 February 2018 12: 56
        +6
        Quote: A resident of the Urals
        In general, an informative and interesting article, but only where did such peremptory conclusions come from ?:
        you need to know that L. Trotsky was an "agent of influence" of the US masters and was sent to Russia with a detachment of militants with the goal of leading the revolution and disintegrating and destroying Russian civilization

        It’s you, dear fellow countryman, who still apparently didn’t get to the most delicious articles of the same author about the medieval history of our country ... If the author plays with very controversial, but still recognized facts in the theme of the 20th century, then in the more distant at times he sees generally one forgery and deceit of the Zhidomassons, conspirators, Anglo-Saxons and reptilians ...
        As for the article, for some reason, the author of the collapse of the country dumps on the interim government, as if hinting that the Bolsheviks did not participate, forgetting (or not pointing out) the simple fact that the Bolsheviks were part of the interim government and were later able to disperse their political opponents ... The blame for the collapse of the army and the country by the beginning of 1917 was not less on them than on the other participants in the interim government, and given the further process of the collapse of the country and its rolling into a civil war, perhaps more ....
        PS: the foregoing applies only to the period of turmoil and civil war (well, maybe + the first 10 years of the Communist rule), and not to the entire period from 1917 to 1991 ...
      3. Antares
        Antares 19 February 2018 15: 03
        +1
        Quote: Curious
        the struggle of some "owners" against the superethnos.

        certain hosts (almost like on RenTV) against a certain superethnos.
        Well, maybe a man is a fan of conspiracy theory and other things? I fully admit that the author can be anyone.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 21 February 2018 11: 36
          0
          Quote: Antares
          Well, maybe a man is a fan of conspiracy theory and other things? I fully admit that the author can be anyone.


          In psychiatry, there is a specific term for this - "obsession."
          Obsession (Latin obsessio - “siege”, “engulfing”) - a syndrome that is periodically, at indefinite intervals, arising in a person obsessive unwanted involuntary thoughts, ideas or ideas. A person can be fixed on such thoughts, and at the same time they cause negative emotions or distress, and it is difficult to get rid of such thoughts or control them.

          Judging by the regularity with which the author shoves them into copied materials, it seems very likely that he himself believes in this.
          According to some articles (for example, about troubled times), with what persistence the author referred to certain "indefinite forces", it is doubtful that he is simulating.

          Uninteresting character - fits into a standard, well-researched psychotype.
          An obsession or obsessive-compulsive stress disorder is persistent thoughts, images, or ideas that, when born in a person’s mind, overwhelm him

  6. BAI
    BAI 19 February 2018 13: 05
    +2
    Hoffman is a very familiar surname in the light of the events of the past 4 years.
    General Hoffmann in 1926 can be read:
    “The creation of Ukraine is not the result of the initiative of the Russian people, but the result of the activities of my intelligence.”
    As the chief of the General Staff of the Eastern Front in 1919, he wrote: "In reality, Ukraine is the work of my hands, and not at all the fruit of the conscious will of the Russian people." (Pay attention to Hoffmann’s “Russian people”, he says who becomes “Ukrainian”, betraying his name.) Attitude ”.

    In general, politics is the art of compromise. For the sake of salvation, the states sacrificed territories. But in 1939 they were successfully returned.
    1. Dzmicer
      Dzmicer 19 February 2018 13: 25
      +3
      So successful that the German reached the Volga and 27 million people died according to official figures. The success story is Stalinist.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 19 February 2018 14: 14
      +5
      Quote: BAI
      General Hoffmann in 1926 can be read:
      “The creation of Ukraine is not the result of the initiative of the Russian people, but the result of the activities of my intelligence.”

      The Bolsheviks recognized Ukraine BEFORE the Germans. The Germans at first REFUSED to recognize Ukraine, recognizing only SNK as a representative of the whole country. But the Bolsheviks themselves dragged the Ukrainians into negotiations, and then the Germans realized ...
      1. Antares
        Antares 19 February 2018 15: 06
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        The Bolsheviks recognized Ukraine BEFORE the Germans. The Germans at first REFUSED to recognize Ukraine, recognizing only SNK as a representative of the whole country. But the Bolsheviks themselves dragged the Ukrainians into negotiations, and then the Germans realized ...

        Does it matter who earlier / later ... what is important is important.
        In a country when there is a tear and it doesn’t happen ... The fact that the UPR was a fact. Not because the Bolsheviks or Germans .. but themselves. In addition, there is no smoke without fire. Yes, and at first they asked for not independence ..
      2. BAI
        BAI 19 February 2018 15: 42
        +3
        This does not negate the fact that the "state of Ukraine" was "created" by the Germans. Recognition is the tenth thing.
        1. dSK
          dSK 19 February 2018 15: 57
          0
          Quote: BAI
          State Ukraine "" created "by the Germans.

          Bismarck idea "Ukraine - antiRussia", take 2.
  7. alatanas
    alatanas 19 February 2018 16: 06
    +1

    Signing the Brest Peace Treaty with independent Ukraine: 1 - Count Otokar Czernin, 2 - Richard von Kühlmann and 3 - Dr. Vasil Radoslavov, Brest-Litovsk, February 9, November 16, 1918
    (Literal translation of the caption under the photograph)
  8. Dzmicer
    Dzmicer 19 February 2018 16: 15
    +3
    [quote = Olgovich] [quote = horhe48]
    August 1, 1914 and in the Second World War not even a trace.[/ Quote]
    The Great Retreat of 1915 is the pale shadow of the summer-fall of 1941.
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 20 February 2018 02: 58
      +1
      The great retreat of 1915 is the pale shadow of the summer-autumn of 1941.
      Something reminded, I can not get rid of the association
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 21 February 2018 11: 56
        0
        Quote: avva2012
        The great retreat of 1915 is the pale shadow of the summer-autumn of 1941.


        In 1941 alone, against the USSR, German troops and its allies were concentrated on the Eastern Front - 4 thousand people, 329,5 calculation divisions, 166 guns and mortars, 42 tanks, assault and self-propelled guns and 601 aircraft - mobilized and concentrated along borders, while the Red Army was able to mobilize and deploy divisions only partially.
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 19 February 2018 18: 42
    0
    Quote: basmach
    It seems that you are not only a great connoisseur of history and the short course of VKPB, but also the ultimate truth. Well, you didn’t remember the order No.1 (2 (15) of March 1917, It is worth noting that until September 1917, the Bolsheviks did not play a leading role in the Petrograd Soviet. The direct compiler of the order was the CEC secretary, then famous lawyer Nikolai Dmitrievich Sokolov, non-factional Social Democrat: That Talks About Numbers Are Not Empty — Here is a quote from the organizational report of the Central Committee 6 to the Congress of the Sverdlov Party Third meeting of August 9 (July 27)
    “The report of Comrade Stalin fully illuminated the activities of the Central Committee. It remains for me to confine myself to the narrow sphere of organizational activity of the Central Committee. I illustrate with figures the growth of our organization. At the April conference, 78 organizations with 80 thousand party members were represented. Currently, we have 162 organizations with 200 thousand party members ”)), which abolished unity of command and introduced soldiers' committees. Only now the first signs of collapse do not appear in 17.
    A very eloquent excerpt from the order of the 8 Army of the General from the cavalry A.A. Brusilova from 15 on June 1915:

    “... Behind you need to have especially reliable people and machine guns, so that, if necessary, to make the weak-minded go forward. “We should not think about the total execution of whole units for trying to turn back or, even worse, surrender.” Note, this is 1915, just a year of war.
    And here again Kornilov (the future icon of the white movement) - ““ On the fields that could not be called battlefields, ”said General Kornilov,“ there is complete horror and disgrace that the Russian Army did not know from the very beginning of its existence. ”The troops finally they lost their military appearance and fluff, the rear infected the front with madness and hysteria. The army, whose language is short commands and unshakable orders, suddenly began to hear lengthy exhortations and persuasions during the revolution, as if to fulfill their duty they could have freedom of choice. “The Soldier’s Declaration of Rights, which destroyed the beginnings of compulsory discipline.” “You are the freest soldiers in the world!” exclaimed Kerensky at rallies, and the “Great Silence” herself turned into a rally speaker, began to discuss what choice she should make: to fight or not. Before the revolution, she fought “For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland”, and now the purpose and meaning of the war was lost. At the rallies they shouted: “War is beneficial only to the bourgeois, capitalists and gentlemen officers who receive ranks on our roof”, they wrote in newspapers that this is England because of rubbish vnovaniya Germany drew Russia into the war, and the Minister of War, driving the front, said: "We do not want conquests, violence, other people's wealth, we want peace as soon as possible!" "Peace - in that no matter what," added the agitators. The army, which can have an impulse only in the name of victory, was called to fight for peace. Wasn’t it easier for a speedy world to stick its bayonets in the ground? So did the "freest" soldiers. And with what pain, with what indignation, General Kornilov had to wire to the Headquarters and the interim government: “The army of distraught dark people who did not protect themselves from systematic corruption and corruption, who lost their sense of human dignity, be safe ...” June 1917 and "Ternopil shameful days"
    And this is Wrangel, March 1917-I found Petersburg unusually lively. From early morning until late at night, the streets of the city were filled with crowds of people. Most of them were military ranks. Classes in the barracks were not conducted anywhere and the soldiers spent the whole day and most of the night on the streets. The number of red bows, having lost the charm of novelty, compared with the first days of the revolution, decreased, but sloppiness and unbridledness seemed to have increased. Without weapons, mostly in unbuttoned overcoats, with a cigarette in their teeth and pockets full of seeds, soldiers walked in crowds along the sidewalk without giving honor to anyone and pushing passers-by. The clicking of seeds these days has become for some reason an indispensable occupation of the "revolutionary people", and since the streets have not been cleaned since the "freedoms", the sidewalks and pavements were completely covered with husks.
    By the time the Bolsheviks seized power, the army — as a social institution — ceased to exist — it was now a crowd in overcoats and with weapons. A huge number of both soldiers and Cossacks simply took off (starting in March) from the front and went home (grabbing a rifle) —there was a “black” redistribution of land
    And when Lenin spoke about the world at all costs, then unlike you, he understood that at that time there was no army in the classical concept, it had to be recreated from scratch. And such throats and screamed about the war to a victorious end, only someone had to fight, and not they
    And about the recognition of SNK Rada and others:
    The EaP not only allows the creation of sovereign republics with the creation of governments, but also allows the formation of national armed groups

    Poland. 5 November 1916 year, the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, recognized by the Provisional Government 17 March 1917 year.
    Finland. 2 March 1917 years - the termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July, 1917 of the year announced the restoration of independence of Finland. Final recognition of Finland coming out in November 1917.
    . Ukraine. 4 March 1917 years - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, 2 July 1917 years The Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination.
    Belarus July 1917 of the year, the Central Council was formed in Belarus and the Declaration of Autonomy was drawn up.
    The Baltic states. February 1917 of the year, completely occupied by German troops. On the territory of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are formed.
    Bashkiria (Ufa province). July 1917 of the year, the All-Bashkir Kurultai creates the Bashkir government, which is charged with formalizing the autonomy of the region.
    Crimea. On 25 of March 1917, the All-Crimean Muslim Congress was convened in Simferopol, in which 1500 representatives of the Crimean population took part. The Provisional Crimean-Muslim Executive Committee was elected at the congress, which was recognized by the Provisional Government as the only plenipotentiary and legal administrative body representing all Crimean Tatars.
    Tatarstan (Kazan province). The 1-th All-Russian Muslim Congress in early May 1917 in Moscow adopted a resolution on territorial autonomy and federal structure.
    Kuban and the North Caucasus. May 1917 of the year. Creation of territorial self-government bodies within the framework of autonomy.
    Siberia. The Conference in Tomsk (August 2-9) of 1917 of the year adopted a resolution "On the Autonomous Structure of Siberia" in the framework of the Federation with self-determination of regions and nationalities ...
    Ask yourself a simple question: did the Bolsheviks in October have 17 at least the slightest opportunity to stop this "parade of sovereignty" and bring them back.
    And finally, about the "evil and strong" Bolsheviks. The number of members of the First Congress - June 3-27, I All-Russian Congress of Soviets. (Elections to the First Congress of Soviets were quickly held throughout the former empire. According to statistics from the then statistics, more than 20 million people were represented in one way or another more than 5 million workers and 8 million soldiers and sailors, almost 4,5 million peasants, and instead of the expected 1200-1500 delegates to the Tauride Palace of Petrograd, only 1090 gathered, of which only 822 - with casting vote, including only 105 Bolsheviks at 285 Socialist-Revolutionaries and Xnumx Menshevis ah

    Basmach, your list reminded me of a recent story when the EBN blurted out: “take sovereignty as much as you can digest” and went: “parade of sovereignties”
  10. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 21 February 2018 11: 29
    0
    [quote, you need to know that L. Trotsky was an “agent of influence” of the US masters (the so-called financial international) and was sent to Russia with a detachment of militants with the goal of leading the revolution and disintegrating and destroying Russian civilization in the interests of Western financial capital. He could not immediately replace Lenin, although he played an outstanding role in the revolution and took key posts.] [/ Quote]

    Copyrights of the famous, interspersed with gag in the form of "masters of the west", "masters of the United States" and other conspiratorial schizophrenism ...
  11. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 21 February 2018 12: 01
    0
    Quote: avva2012
    The great retreat of 1915 is the pale shadow of the summer-autumn of 1941.


    Since the Soviet military-political leadership did not correctly assess the degree of threat of the German attack, the Red Army, having begun in May 1941 strategic concentration and deployment in the Western theater, which was supposed to end by July 15, 1941, was June 22 taken by surprise and not had neither an offensive nor a defensive group. Soviet troops were not mobilized, did not have deployed rear structures, and only completed the creation of governing bodies on the theater of operations. At the front from the Baltic Sea to the Carpathians, out of 77 divisions of Red Army cover troops in the first hours of the war, only 38 incompletely mobilized divisions could resist the enemy, of which only a few managed to take up equipped positions on the border. The rest of the troops were either in places of constant deployment, or in camps, or on the march. If we take into account that the enemy immediately threw 103 divisions on the offensive, then it is clear that an organized entry into the battle and the creation of a continuous front of Soviet troops was extremely difficult. Having outstripped the Soviet troops in strategic deployment, having created powerful operational groupings of their fully combat-ready forces in selected areas of the main attack, the German command created favorable conditions for seizing the strategic initiative and successfully conducting the first offensive operations.

    https://rg.ru/2016/06/16/rodina-sssr-germaniya.ht
    ml
  12. Artem Popov
    Artem Popov 16 June 2018 02: 09
    -1
    "The Central Council was formed in April 1917 during the congress in Kiev of 900 nationalists. Nobody elected it, and it did not enjoy the support of the people. In fact, a handful of marginalized nationalist intelligentsia gathered"
    And someone seemed to elect the Bolsheviks. Oh, these zealots of legitimacy, forgetting the whole stock of logs in their eyes. The whole of central Russia (not to mention the outskirts) in the 18-19 years was in the anti-Bolshevik uprisings of the peasants - this is "support",