Military Review

Turkish invasion of Transcaucasia. “Thousands of Russians were shot and burned alive. Armenians are subjected to indescribable torture”

Turkish invasion of Transcaucasia. “Thousands of Russians were shot and burned alive. Armenians are subjected to indescribable torture”

100 years ago, in February 1918, the Turkish army launched an offensive in the Caucasus. The Russian Caucasian front has already collapsed and could not stop the enemy. The Turks quickly occupied the previously lost territories, captured by Russian troops in the cruel and bloody battles of 1914 – 1916. Resistance to the Turkish troops was provided mainly by Armenian troops. For Armenians, the arrival of the Turkish army meant a terrible death or slavery.


The 1916 campaign of the year ended victoriously for the Russian army in the Caucasus. Russian troops advanced deep into the Ottoman Empire, taking possession of the most important and largest cities: Erzerum, Trabzon, Van, Erzincan and Bitlis. Russian troops captured almost all of Western Armenia. Turkish counterstrikes were repulsed. With the successful conclusion of the war for Russia, the conquered territory could have become part of it. Thus, the Armenian issue was solved - the whole of Armenia and the Armenian people were completely freed from the Ottoman yoke, uniting under the authority of the Russian Tsar.

It is worth noting that since the fall of 1916, the commander of the Caucasian army of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich was not so much concerned with military affairs, as with intrigues over a possible palace coup in Petrograd. To him came the leaders of the masons from Petrograd and Moscow, who made the Grand Duke very flattering suggestions: he could again become the Supreme Commander of the Russian army, or even Emperor Nicholas III. It is not surprising that during the “general plebiscite” organized by 2 in March 1917 by General Alekseev, Nikolai Nikolayevich spoke in favor of Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication and immediately left for GHQ, leaving the Caucasian army. Nikolai Nikolayevich was making rainbow plans, but he miscalculated. The Freemason masons deceived him, and on the way he received an order from the Provisional Government, by which he was completely deprived of all posts in the Russian army.

In the winter of 1916 - 1917, a positional lull set in on the Caucasian front. The harsh winter in the mountains and the lack of developed communications made the fighting difficult. The Russian Caucasian Army and the Black Sea Fleet during the 1917 campaign of the year could solve the strategic tasks of seizing Constantinople and the straits, completely defeating Turkey, and joining the Russian regions of the Ottoman Empire to Russia.

The February Revolution destroyed all the brilliant results of the battles of 1914 - 1916. The new commander of the Caucasian front, N. N. Yudenich (he had previously been the de facto commander of the army) tried to continue offensive operations against the Turks. But the difficulties with the supply of troops against the background of economic collapse in the country and disorganization of the rear, the fall of discipline under the influence of revolutionary agitation and an increase in the incidence of malaria forced him to stop the Mesopotamian operation and withdraw the troops to mountainous areas. Refusing to comply with the order of the Provisional Government to resume the offensive, 31 May Yudenich was removed from the command of the front. The troops were led by General M. A. Przhevalsky. However, he could not change the overall situation in the country and the army. During 1917, the Russian army was dying, the soldiers deserted, going home, and by the end of the year the Caucasian front was completely destroyed. Considering that it is impossible to continue the leadership of the troops of the Caucasian Front in this situation, General Przhevalsky 28 December 1917 of the year resigned as Commander-in-Chief and left the active army, transferring command of the Chief of Staff of the Front to General E. V. Lebedinsky.

15 (28) November 1917 by Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Dashnaks (Dashnaktsutyun - Armenian political party) and Musavatists (from the word "Musavat" - Azerbaijani Nationalist Party) in Tiflis, the Transcaucasian Commissariat is created. In fact, it was the nationalist government of Transcaucasia (Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia). In relation to the Soviet government, the Transcaucasian Commissariat took an openly hostile position, supporting all the anti-Bolshevik forces of the North Caucasus - in the Kuban, the Don, the Terek and in Dagestan. The Transcaucasian Commissariat began to disarm the revolutionary-minded parts of the Caucasian army and, relying on national armed groups, extended its power to all of Transcaucasia, except for the Baku region, where Soviet power was established.

The declaration of the Transcaucasian Commissariat of November 18 (December 1) indicated that it would act "only until the All-Russian Constituent Assembly is convened, and if it is impossible to convene ... until the Congress of the Constituent Assembly members from the Transcaucasus and the Caucasus Front." After the Bolsheviks broke up the Constituent Assembly, the Transcaucasian Commissariat decided to convene the Transcaucasian Sejm as a legislative body of the Transcaucasus. 10 (23) February 1918 was held in Tiflis, the first meeting of the Sejm. Its chairman was the Georgian Social Democrat (Menshevik), one of the prominent revolutionaries of Februaryites N. S. Chkheidze. The Georgian Mensheviks — Cheidze, Chkhenkeli, and Jordania — took leading positions. They planned to create an “independent” Georgia under the protectorate of Germany. Azerbaijani nationalists were preparing to go under Turkey. Armenian dashnaks were also eager for independence, but they clearly understood that they were not enough to defend her. The British and the French are far away, and the people are connected with the Russian by many threads. Therefore, in general, adhered to the pro-Russian orientation.

5 (18) December 1917 between the Russian and Turkish troops was concluded the so-called Erzincan truce. The fighting in Asia Minor and Persia was suspended tentatively until February 12 1918. For the final peace treaty with Russia, the Ottoman Empire sent its delegation to Brest-Litovsk. As a result, there was a massive retreat of the remaining Russian troops from Western (Turkish) Armenia to the territory of Russia. The front, which was still standing by inertia, was in fact no longer held by anyone.

Armenian building

In order to somehow compensate for the collapse of the army, the formation of national units intensified. By the middle of July, 1917, on the Caucasian front, at the suggestion of the Armenian public organizations of St. Petersburg and Tiflis, Armenian separate battalions (previously detachments) were transformed into 6 Armenian regiments. By October 1917, the 2 Armenian divisions were already operating here. In December 1917 of the year, the Armenian Voluntary Corps was formed. Lieutenant-General F. I. Nazarbekov was appointed its commander. Thomas I. Nazarbekov had great military experience, he participated in the war 1877 - 1878. In World War I, he commanded a brigade, division, Azerbaijan-Van detachment, 2-m Caucasian Rifle Corps and 7-m separate Caucasian Corps, operating as part of the Russian troops in Persia.

Evgeny Evgenievich Vyshinsky became the Chief of Staff of the Armenian Corps. During World War I, he commanded the 13-m Erivan regiment of the Caucasian Grenadier Division, was the duty general of the headquarters of the Caucasian army, later an assistant to the quartermaster general of the Caucasian army and chief of staff of the Caucasian army. The Armenian corps consisted of 1 and 2 divisions, a horse brigade and several separate regiments. Also included in the corps was a Special Impact Division (Western Armenian Division) formed by order of Przhevalsky under the command of Andranik Ozanyan. In addition to the Armenians, the division also included Russian soldiers and officers (mostly Cossacks), Greeks, Assyrians, and Yezidis.

Andranik Torosovich Ozanyan was a very interesting person. Born in Turkey. Participated in the Armenian national liberation movement, led by partisans (Haiduk) in Western Armenia. In the 1904 year, after the suppression of the Sasun self-defense by the Turks (one of the major Armenian uprisings against the Ottoman yoke), Andranik left Western Armenia. Having visited Persia, Baku and Tiflis and established contacts with the leaders of the Armenian national movement, he went to Europe, where he was engaged in advocacy activities in support of the Armenians. In the 1912 year, with the start of the First Balkan War, Andranik participated in the formation of an Armenian company. For participation in the war against Turkey, Andranik received Bulgarian citizenship and the rank of officer in 1913. When the world war began, Andranik went to the Caucasus, where he formed and led the first voluntary Armenian squad. The brigade distinguished itself in the composition of the Russian troops of the Caucasian army in the battles for the capture of Van, Bitlis, Mush, in the battle of Dilman. In 1916 - 1917 Andranik organized assistance for Armenian refugees, took part in the I Congress of Western Armenians, and organized the publication of the “Hayastan” newspaper, which advocated consolidation of the forces of Eastern and Western Armenians.

It is worth noting that Andranik well understood the significance of the Russian factor in the Caucasus. In one of the interviews he said: “Caucasian peoples should treat the Russian people with understanding, taking into account that the Russian soldier protected them from the invasion of the barbarians. Ganja incident leads to sad reflections. It is wrong to treat the sons of Russia, who shed their blood in our mountains for three years of struggle. The Russian people should not turn their backs on the traditional course of their fathers, forget the blood shed by their fathers and grandfathers in the Caucasus Mountains to oblivion ... All-Russian statehood should be preserved in the Caucasus ... ”

Thus, by the beginning of 1918, the Turkish army was actually opposed by only a few thousand Caucasian (mostly Armenian) volunteers under the command of a certain number of officers of the old Russian army.

Thomas I. Nazarbekov (1855 - 1931)

Andranik (center) during the First World War

Turkish offensive

The position of the Ottoman Empire in 1917 was similar to the situation in Russia. The war completely undermined and so flimsy position of the empire. All of the country's economy - industry, agriculture, finance, trade, was collapsed. The common people were starving. Officials, the bourgeois stratum, could have enriched themselves as much as possible - by staging a "feast during the plague." The Young Turkic ruling elite set the tone for the shameless robbery of the country. The head of the ruling triumvirate Enver Pasha was especially distinguished in this. During the war, he managed to acquire several palaces at the expense of the treasury and in general did not refuse anything to himself. Other Turkish dignitaries also behaved. And this is against the background of the approach of the complete collapse of the Turkish Empire.

In the Caucasus, in Mesopotamia and Palestine, the Turkish army suffered defeats. Desertion has taken incredible proportions. Troops sent to the front in the spring of 1917, lost on the way to the theater of operations, up to 40% of the personnel. In addition, there were a lot of cases of self-harm and suicide in the army. Deserters often created bandit formations, or national units that fought against the Turks in response to the policy of genocide against national and religious minorities (Armenians, Greeks, Yezidis, etc.). This aggravated the chaos in the country. Struggling with desertion and Chetnik partisans, the Turkish authorities showed even greater brutality, punitive wiped out whole villages and villages.

In the spring of 1917, the British took Baghdad and launched an offensive in Palestine. In November - December 1917, the British army captured Gaza, Jaffa and Jerusalem. On the Caucasian front, for the most part of 1917, the Russian army retained an advantage. The revolution in Russia has changed the situation in the Caucasus radically. Tens of thousands of soldiers left the position and moved home. Russian front collapsed. However, the rulers of Turkey, instead of reinforcing the troops in Mesopotamia and Palestine, preferred a new military adventure - the invasion of Transcaucasia. The Turkish elite, despite the degradation of the army, which was retreating under the onslaught of the British, and the complete collapse in the country, was still delirious by the conquest of the Caucasus. And this is at the moment when the Turkish army lost hundreds of thousands of people, and the country lost a large part of the territory - Hijaz, Southern Palestine and most of Iraq.

30 January (12 February) 1918, Turkish troops under the command of 3 Army Commander Vehiba Pasha, violating the conditions of the Erzincan Armistice, launched a large-scale offensive on the Erzurum, Van and Maritime directions. The attack involved up to 10 Turkish divisions, Kurdish cavalry and Muslim militia units. Almost immediately, they were busy with Erzincan, February 4 - Bayburt, February 8 - Memahatun, and February 11 (24) - Trabzon. They moved relatively calmly, since the Russian army was no longer there. Only detachments of Armenian nationalists tried to bring down the rate of the enemy offensive.

A massacre typical of the Turkish invasion began. They cut out the remaining rear Russian institutions, hospitals that did not have time to leave. They robbed, raped and brutally killed Armenian refugees, who had just returned to their native lands, relying on the protection of the Russian army. German diplomats reported that to Trapezund “thousands of Russians were shot and burned alive. Armenians are subjected to indescribable torture. Children are thrown into bags and thrown into the sea, old men and women are nailed to crosses and crippled, and girls and women are raped. ” Greece now fought on the side of the Entente, and therefore the Greek community was mercilessly massacred. Their quarters were trashed, men were shot and killed by children, women and girls were raped, brutally abused. Turkish authorities demanded total extermination of Armenians. The genocide of 1915 of the year was continued.

Map source:

In the meantime, a discussion was going on in the Transcaucasian Seym: what should be done? The Armenian (Dashnak) faction proposed to leave Transcaucasia as part of Russia on the rights of autonomy, divided into national cantons, and in relations with Turkey - to insist on self-determination of Western Armenia. The Muslim (Azerbaijani) delegation declared that the Transcaucasus should decide its fate independently of Russia, concluding peace with Turkey on the basis of refusing to interfere in its internal affairs. The Georgian faction mainly supported the Muslims on the issue of declaring the independence of Transcaucasia and the conclusion of an independent treaty with Turkey. In connection with the stubbornness of the Armenians, the question of the declaration of independence was temporarily postponed. With Turkey, they decided to try to conclude peace on the basis of preserving the twin borders (1914 of the year). The question of the autonomy of Western Armenia within Turkey was also raised.

Local politicians spent more time chattering, although initially there were conditions for creating a strong army and repelling the enemy invasion. So, it was decided to create a new Caucasian army in the Georgian, Armenian, Muslim and Russian corps, the Greek division and the Assyrian regiment. In the Transcaucasus there were huge warehouses of the Russian front: weapon, ammunition, ammunition, various materials. The Russian soldiers, leaving, threw a lot of weapons, some were taken away by local residents. Local residents returned from various fronts: with combat experience, weapons. Part of the Russian officers remained, and could become the backbone of the new army. With a general mobilization, the Transcaucasus could have deployed a large army. Given the general weakness of the Turkish army, its decomposition and the presence of strong positions in the mountains, already fortified by the Russian army, the existing fortresses, it was possible to repel the enemy strike. However, the government of the Caucasian nationalists preferred to chat and squabble for power, and did not take decisive measures to repel Turkish intervention. In addition, Armenians, Georgians and Muslims had their own vision of the future of Transcaucasia. There was no unity even in the ranks of the largest nations. Thus, the Georgian Muslims supported the Turkish offensive.

Meanwhile, the Turkish troops 21 February (6 March) took Ardahan, 27 February (12 March) began the retreat of the Armenian forces and refugees from Erzerum. February 29 (March 14) Turks took Erzerum. Thus, the Turks recaptured the entire territory occupied by the Russians in the First World War. All the works and the blood of Russian soldiers were in vain.

From 12 March to 13, April 1918, negotiations were held between representatives of the Transcaucasian Seym and the Ottoman Empire in Trabzon. Representatives of the Seimas insisted on returning to the borders of 1914 of the year and self-determination of Eastern Anatolia (Western Armenia). The Turks demanded recognition of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, according to which Batumi, Kars and Ardahan, as well as the territories of the Transcaucasus occupied by Turkey since the outbreak of hostilities, were to be recognized as part of the Ottoman Empire. The Armenian and Georgian delegations were against accepting these requirements. However, the Azerbaijani (Muslim) delegation was willing to accept them, since the disputed territories did not belong to them and Pan-Turkist sentiments prevailed among the Azerbaijani delegates. As a result, the Sejm interrupted the negotiations and withdrew the delegation from Trebizond, officially entering the war with Turkey. At the same time, representatives of the Azerbaijani faction in the Seimas openly declared that they would not participate in the war against Turkey, given their "special religious ties with Turkey."

The Transcaucasian government could not fight with Turkey. The Caucasian army remained on paper. The Georgian corps never began to form, the Georgian Social Democrats hoped for the support of Germany. Instead of army units, the People's Guard began to be formed in order to crush the Abkhaz, Adzharians, Ossetians, Lezgins and expand the borders of the future Georgian “state”. At the same time, in order to please Germany, they began to pursue an anti-Russian policy, massively dismissing Russian officers and officials, whose families often became victims of local gangsters. Azerbaijani nationalists formed their troops, but planned to work together with the Turks. To form the Russian corps, the Sejm did not allow. Therefore, only Armenian troops resisted the enemy. But the Armenian corps had too little strength to stop the invasion. In addition, there were many bosses, from whom often came various instructions. Nazarbekov and Andranik called on the people to take up arms, but their initiative was extinguished in endless meetings and talking rooms.

The Turks, inspired by their success, planned not only to restore the borders to the 1877-1878 war, but to go further. 30 March 1918 Turkey presented an ultimatum to the Transcaucasian Committee for the immediate purification of the Kars, Batumi and Ardahan regions. Turkey insisted on restoring the border before the 1877 - 1878 war. Turkish rulers again remembered “Turan” - the great Pan-Turkic empire, they dreamed of breaking through further to the North Caucasus, and then the Volga region, Turkestan! The Turks, with the support of local Muslims, continued the offensive. 1 (14) of April the Turkish army occupies the Batumi fortified area, and by 12 (25) of April Kars and Ardahan.

At the same time, Kars was a powerful fortress that covered the main road to Transcaucasia. Here were located front stocks of weapons, ammunition, equipment. The main forces of the Armenian Corps were concentrated in the fortress and were ready to give the enemy a decisive battle. Nazarbekov rallied troops, put things in order. However, the Ottomans put pressure on the Transcaucasian government and its head Chkhenkeli demanded that Nazarbekov leave the Kars fortress. The military was shocked - how so? Here you could stop the enemy and keep as much as you want! However, they are accustomed to carry out orders. Andranik wrote: “This General (Nazarbekov), who knows how to subordinate everyone to iron discipline, became a toy in the hands of schoolchildren and office scribes.” The Ottomans without a fight and heavy victims received a first-class fortress with hundreds of guns, masses of other weapons and supplies, the key to Transcaucasia. The surrender of the fortress demoralized the remaining fighters, many dropped their weapons and went home.

The Turks entered upon lands that had already forgotten the horrors of long-time invasions. Cut out all the Christians - Armenians, Georgians, Russians, etc. Rezali Yezidis. The peasant population was robbed, burned villages. The roads were filled with refugees. The Soviet government tried to intercede, turned to Germany. It was emphasized that the responsibility for the crimes falls on the Germans, they should have an impact on the allies. Berlin, who had his plans for the Caucasus, was worried. Germany did not need the desert, which left behind the Turkish conquerors. However, the Young Turkish government ignored Berlin, sent diplomatic excuses, and continued to carry out the offensive.

9 (22) of April, despite the resistance of the Armenians (they understood that the new state would be a puppet of Turkey), the Caucasus was proclaimed "an independent, democratic and federal republic." A new peace conference opened in Batum on April 28 (May 11) on April 1918. At the talks, the Turks presented even more difficult conditions than the Brest-Litovsk Treaty provided for. Transcaucasia was to cede to Turkey two thirds of the territory of the Erivan province, Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki counties of the Tiflis province, and also control over the Transcaucasian railway.

Thus, Turkey decided to take advantage of the collapse of the Russian Empire. The Turkish army reclaimed land lost during the 1914 – 1916 hostilities. and continued the offensive in the depths of the Transcaucasus to seize the lands that were ceded to Russia after the 1877 – 1878 war. Moreover, the Turks planned to advance further, putting under their control a large part of the Caucasus. But all these successes were short-term, since the Turkish Empire itself was already on the verge of total collapse.
Articles from this series:
1918 Campaign

US world domination strategy
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 6 February 2018 03: 51
    They have made themselves an “ally” now such that no enemies are needed. Thank you for the article. hi
    1. baku1999
      baku1999 6 February 2018 19: 58
      all ento is temporary, and there they too will be cured ...............
    2. dSK
      dSK 6 February 2018 20: 28
      Quote: lexus
      Thank you for the article.

      Nikolai Nikolaevich made bright plans, but miscalculated. The February Masons deceived him, and on the way he received an order from the Provisional Government, with which he generally lost all posts in the Russian army ..
      They cheated, cheat and will cheat. Masons are lovers of "left" schemes and "cunning" plans. All their victories are built on lies and deceit. God willing Vladimir Vladimirovich will not believe them and will not "deny".
      1. dSK
        dSK 8 February 2018 00: 50
        "Masons and opposition during the reign of Nicholas II." In the messages to the Foreign Bureau of the Security Department of the Head of Foreign Agent L.A. Rataev in 1904-1905 it was reported: "The reason for the hatred of Freemasonry towards Russia is that it is considered the most reliable bulwark of Christianity. After all, considering the activities of Freemasons, one should never lose sight of what is above all it's not just atheists, it's sectarians". Realizing the danger of the Great East of France, Nicholas II did not in the least doubt the Masonic character of the regime of the III Republic as a whole. In order to combat the destructive ideas of Freemasonry in France back in 1893 the "Assotiation Antimaçonique" ("Anti-Masonic Society") was founded.(Channel "Tsargrad" 07.02.18/XNUMX/XNUMX)
  2. moskowit
    moskowit 6 February 2018 06: 27
    "... It is worth noting that since the autumn of 1916, the commander of the Caucasian Army, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, was not so much concerned with military affairs as with intrigues about a possible palace coup in Petrograd. Heads of freemasons from Petrograd and Moscow came to him, who made the grand duke very flattering suggestions: he could again become the Supreme Commander of the Russian Army, or even Emperor Nicholas III. It is not surprising that during the "general plebiscite" organized by General Alekseev on 2 on March 1917, Nikolay Nikol Yevich spoke out for the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and immediately left for Stavka, having abandoned the Caucasus Army.Nikolai Nikolayevich made rainbow plans, but miscalculated.The February Freemasons deceived him, and along the way he received an order from the Provisional Government, by which he lost all posts in Russian army .. "
    That's where the truth is! And then the adherents of "true democratic values", all the Bolsheviks are to blame ....
    The material is very interesting. If February had not happened, Turkey would have been defeated ...
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 6 February 2018 07: 37
      Quote: moskowit
      That's where the truth is! And then the adherents of "true democratic values", all the Bolsheviks are to blame ....

      The truth is that before the Thief and the armistice, the front stood. And after the thief, he collapsed. It is a fact.
      Therefore, the Bolsheviks are responsible for the massacre of Russians and Christians.
      If February had not happened, Turkey would have been defeated ...

      Have you read the article? Does not look like it:
      On the Caucasian front during most of 1917 the Russian army kept advantage. Revolution in Russia changed the situation in the Caucasus radically. Tens of thousands of soldiers left their positions and moved home.

      The catastrophe erupted after the thief (see article and DATES on)
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 6 February 2018 09: 59
        you can read the Black Obelisk-- "the Jews are to blame for the defeat of Germany ..."
        - "and cyclists .."
      2. Alber
        Alber 6 February 2018 23: 35
        Quote: Olgovich
        the perpetrators of the massacre of Russians and Christians are the Bolsheviks.

        And to be precise, then ... the housekeepers!
      3. QWERTY
        QWERTY 9 February 2018 20: 53
        Have you read the text at all ??? The mess began after the February Revolution, when you so vehemently removed your beloved king-father.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 6 February 2018 07: 35
    In 1918, in the Kara-Kilis, Bash-Abaran and Sardarapat battles, Armenian troops under the command of F. Nazarbekov inflicted a crushing defeat on the Turkish invaders and stopped the advance of the enemy deep into the First Republic, although by that time the Turks had captured most of it - part of Western Armenia. After the formation of the Republic of Armenia, F. Nazarbekov continued to serve in the army, did not belong to any party and applied huge efforts to create a regular Armenian army. In 1918-1920 - commander of the country's troops. Since March 1919 - Chairman of the Military Council. He led the Armenian army in the Armenian-Azerbaijani war. After the establishment of Soviet power in Armenia, he was arrested. In January 1921 he was transferred from Yerevan to Baku, and then kept in a concentration camp in Ryazan, amnestied in May 1921. After these events, Thomas Nazarbekov wrote memoirs about the hostilities on the Caucasus Front in 1914-1918. Thomas Ivanovich Nazarbekov died on February 19, 1931 in Tbilisi.
  4. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 6 February 2018 07: 59
    The "Good King" denied, failing to fulfill his duty and doom, thereby the Empire to collapse and confusion .... "Caucasian blood" is also in his hands .... Has he redeemed everything by his death? I think it’s unlikely. Death is the same, a kind of escape from responsibility ....
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 6 February 2018 14: 16
      But did the Bolsheviks atone? The blood of Russians and Armenians is on their hands.
      1. Monster_Fat
        Monster_Fat 6 February 2018 16: 46
        The blood of Russians and Armenians is on their hands.

        Yeah, and also Jews and ".... twoteen" nationalities ... winked
  5. Knizhnik
    Knizhnik 6 February 2018 08: 56
    November 15 (28), 1917 by Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Dashnaks (Dashnaktsutyun - Armenian political party) and Musavatists (from the word "Musavat" - Azerbaijani nationalist party)

    In fact, both parties held national (rather than nationalist) positions. You either write “political” about everyone, or continue to call it “nationalist”. In Soviet times, being opponents of the Bolsheviks, both parties were recorded as "nationalists", this can somehow be understood. But double standards are hard to understand
  6. The comment was deleted.
    1. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 6 February 2018 09: 42
      Andranik admitted that he was acting on the orders of England, which was beneficial to this factor disturbing Turkey. Unfortunately, while among the soldiers and officers of the Turkish Caucasian army there was sympathy and understanding of ethnic affinity with the local population, the Turkish government was guided by other priorities.
    2. Romka47
      Romka47 6 February 2018 10: 01
      (Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tatarstan, Bashkiria, Azerbaijan, Dagestan) I understand that Russia is not in this list?
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 6 February 2018 13: 43
        As I understand it, a hot guy. Russians, for such, are the main enemies.
    3. already a Muscovite
      already a Muscovite 6 February 2018 18: 18
      Quote: Buka001
      (Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tatarstan, Bashkiria, Azerbaijan, Dagestan) We are all brothers and have proved and will prove again our brotherhood. And with a single fist we’ll hit the enemies.

      Your ideas of pan-urbanism have not been successful for a long time ... You are not able to attract the "non-Soviet countries" to your side, let alone the CIS countries or republics within the Russian Federation ... First, impose your "brotherhood" on the Kurds ...
    4. lekalpan
      lekalpan 6 February 2018 20: 22
      Dagestan does not shove the list. Dagestanis Caucasian ethnic groups (Indo-European race) and Mongoloid Turks are not related!
      1. protoss
        protoss 7 February 2018 02: 02
        Well, Dagestanis have nothing to do with the Indo-Europeans (by the way, this is not a race, but a language family).
        1. lekalpan
          lekalpan 12 February 2018 09: 05
          The language group is Caucasian and the race is Indo-European. The race is distinguished by the base of the jaw and the proportions of the skull. Slavic peoples are exactly the same Indo-Europeans as Pakistanis and Iranians. But the language groups are different.
          1. protoss
            protoss 13 February 2018 13: 47
            According to the classification, there are 3 large races - Caucasian, Mongoloid, Negroid. (sometimes still separate Veddo-Australoid and Americanoid).
            there are language families - Indo-European, Nakh-Dagestan, Abkhaz-Adyghe, Ural, Altai, etc.
            don't mix everything together
  7. Knizhnik
    Knizhnik 6 February 2018 09: 32
    Azerbaijani nationalists were preparing to lie under Turkey.
    Delirium, passed through the years. In the same way, they thought about us after the collapse of the USSR. Relations with Turkey were very strained: the commander of the Caucasian army, Nuri Pasha, ignored the first national government, was engaged in personal enrichment, but the Bolsheviks and Turks were looking for an alliance with each other: the Turks gave them Transcaucasia, for this the Bolsheviks helped fight those same unfortunate Greeks, allies of the Entente .
  8. Romka47
    Romka47 6 February 2018 09: 59
    If it had not been for the revolution, everything would have been different, which is why it was conducted.
    1. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 6 February 2018 10: 06
      For all the misfortunes that befell the peoples of the former Russian Empire, it is difficult to blame the Bolsheviks for the intention to dismember the country, although the state approach to the territory did not appear immediately. It’s just that all evil spirits, first of all the former "allies" of the Entente, attacked to snatch a piece and rob.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 6 February 2018 14: 17
        Of course, they had no intention of dismembering the country, they simply liquidated this country
        1. Knizhnik
          Knizhnik 7 February 2018 10: 31
          The Bolsheviks did not come from anywhere, the situation in the country was like that. History does not tolerate the subjunctive mood, but who knows, RI would survive the Second World War ... I personally think we would lose.
  9. Albatroz
    Albatroz 6 February 2018 12: 07
    One of the consequences of the Brest "obscene world."
    It cost the lives of many people.
    Russian troops in WWI captured all of Turkey, were 250 km per ter. Turkey - so on you, the Turks were the "winners", also received Kars with Ardagan and a number of other territories.
    1. Albatroz
      Albatroz 6 February 2018 12: 09
      Armenians are Russia's only reliable ally in the Transcaucasus, and friendship with treacherous Turkey, our geopolitical adversary, now borders on the betrayal of national interests.
      good good
      1. Ber
        Ber 6 February 2018 13: 05
        Armenians are Russia's only reliable ally in the Transcaucasus, and friendship with treacherous Turkey, our geopolitical adversary, now borders on the betrayal of national interests.

        This is your emotions, Russia has only two allies: the Army and the Navy.

        And at the expense of geopolitical opponents, you are fundamentally wrong, because EVEN with a geopolitical ally sometimes enter into armed confrontation, like the USSR and China over the Damansky Island, but time passed and we remained allies, the USSR fell apart and we still remained geopolitical allies.
        Or, for example, the United States when, during World War II, we fought against the Nazis together, but remained geopolitical opponents.
        Since the geopolitical adversary is not the attitude of individual leaders (personal) and not a story (Wars of Russia and Turkey) With the long-term coincidence of the combination of all mutual interests, and not for 100 years, but for whole epochs, they become a geopolitical adversary or ally not even at the mutual desire of the leaders of countries, and not because of the desire for friendship between peoples.

        So with the advent of a new strong US army in the world, after the First World War, and the greedy claim of the United States on all the resources of the planet, Turkey ceased to be a geopolitical adversary, this was understood by V.I. Lenin, and the Bolsheviks of Turkey helped with this.

        1. Those Turks with whom our ancestors fought died, just as our Russian wars fought then they fought, 100 years have passed since we did not fight the Turks, and children and grandchildren do not answer for fathers and grandfathers, especially great-grandchildren.

        2. Over the past 100 years, the situation has changed so much that Iran, Turkey and Russia have become geopolitical allies, and this is inevitable, despite possible conflicts in the future due to individuals who will pay the west both in Turkey and in Russia, naturally better than that to not allow.

        3. For border security, it is better for Russia to have allies, such as China, on the southern border.

        4. If the USA in America will continue to go in such a fairway of the world policeman then they will lose Turkey.

        Or do you want that in the event of a conflict, the entire Marine Corps brigade would die in Istanbul, ensuring the Black Sea Fleet’s access to the operational expanse of the Mediterranean Sea?
        In the USSR, Black Sea Fleet marines were prepared to capture and hold many points in the strait, so that the fleet could pass the Bosphorus, but then we still had warehouses with ammunition and ammunition in Poti (Georgia), the Bulgarians were allies, there was a group in Azerbaijan, and the USSR could withdraw the fleet, and now? former brothers sold out to the hegemon and now are enemies, and so on ...

        Tell me dear
        Albatroz Today, 12:09 PM
        Would you mind if Turkey leaves NATO? and the fleet is the only ally of Russia, will calmly pass along the Bosphorus, the strait of a state friendly to Russia?

        And the citizens of the Russian Federation will relax in Turkey, do business with Turkey, the country will sell gas to Turkey, and will build several nuclear power plants in Turkey.
        And the ugly pages of history are needed by the peoples, so as not to repeat the mistakes of the past in the future.
        1. Albatroz
          Albatroz 6 February 2018 13: 19
          This is your emotions

          Well, maybe not only emotions. Indeed so history shows.
          Just as history has shown that Turkey is not able to be a friendly state of Russia - in spite of any southern flows or holiday in resorts.
          Turkey will never quit NATO. Voluntarily. And on pan-Turkic maps, the Turks draw the hoo where - beyond the Caspian. The value of the Straits, too, has not been canceled.
          However, wait and see. What will happen next)
          Allies are now appointed (as someone said once in Napoleonic times) - in accordance with the release of the morning bulletin))
          1. Ber
            Ber 6 February 2018 19: 28
            Just as history has shown that Turkey is not able to be a friendly state of Russia

            Yes it is a fact but the matter is not in the intentions of the Turkish military or business elite, even if we encounter a military confrontation with Turkey, we will still remain Geopolitical allies, but not as allies in a military or other bloc as the Warsaw Treaty countries used to be. The world over the past 100 years, even over the past 150 years, has changed a lot. Now comes to the fore, not even economic ties (tourism, Turkish construction companies, import of Turkish tomatoes) namely, strategic ties, because after the coup attempt that the Americans arranged, the Turkish elite realized that they wanted to make a banana republic from Turkey, a country as a base for US aviation and control on the Bosphorus. And EU membership is a carrot, for donkeys, lure, not even when Europeans let the Turks into the EU economic system, and Erdogan understood this, making it clear to the whole Islamic world, dismissively waving his hand towards Merkel, especially under the cameras, and Germany is the center of the EU.

            Therefore, if the Russian leadership succeeds in helping Turkey withdraw from NATO, this will be the largest victory over the Anglo-Saxons since 1857. Which is beneficial to both Turkey and Russia, but it is worth a lot. Russia benefits from the independent course of Erdogan and the strengthening of Turkey, since it will not only snarl at the United States as it is now, but will send specifically to the United States and Britain and the EU, because trade markets have long shifted to China, Korea and Japan, and now India amplified.

            The whole essence of conflicts with Turkey, besides the usual conquering wars of those times that were waged by all the countries of Europe and Asia, was probably the most important one is the religious conflict, and not on the contradictions of Islam and Christianity, but because of mutual claims on Constantinople, on the religious center both for the Orthodox Church and the Ottomans. Moscow is the third Rome and the fourth will not happen, and as soon as the religious confrontation disappeared under the Bolsheviks, then gradually generation after generation, relations slowly began to improve, it is clear that another century will pass until everything settles down, because the United States is across the ocean, and from Turkey to Crimea three hundred kilometers , that's why a thin world is better than an ax in the back, this began to understand the elite in Turkey after a failed coup.

            Turkey will never quit NATO. Voluntarily. And on pan-Turkic maps, the Turks draw the hoo where - beyond the Caspian. The value of the Straits, too, has not been canceled.

            And this is the stupidity of the yellow press, no one in their right mind, without their own nuclear weapons, will climb into a country with the second largest arsenal in the world, Sorry, but this is nonsense about the magazine paid by both the Fed and Britain, this is their handwriting.
            It is easiest for Turkey to expand to the South, having previously agreed with Iran, since the field of defeat of Iraq and the weakening of Syria does not have a holy place, the Turks also have their own intelligence, and they understand perfectly well what the Saudis bought for 30 lard for weapons.
      2. Buka001
        Buka001 6 February 2018 13: 25
        The Armenians are the most unreliable allies. This is indicated by constant protests against Russia and separate negotiations with Western enemies. Everything Russian except military bases has long been erased in Armenia. Another thing is the Turks in the person of the above republics, including Turkey and Azerbaijan. Great interest in Russians and in Russian culture. The opening of Russian schools. For example, in Azerbaijan, after the collapse of the USSR, not a single Russian school was closed. On the contrary, new commercial lyceums teaching in Russian have opened. And the so-called “Armenia” ally, on the contrary, almost closed everything. The influx of Russians into Turkey and Azerbaijan, as well as the number of people living there, is huge and constantly increasing. But alas, you can’t say about Armenia. There are few Russians there !!!!
        1. already a Muscovite
          already a Muscovite 6 February 2018 18: 26
          Quote: Buka001
          There are few Russians there !!!!

          and it's true, how unfortunate ....
        2. Maz
          Maz 9 February 2018 17: 20
          The Armenians are still Orthodox. And for us it’s a lightbulb that what you have there is a civil strife in Nagorno-Karabakh and there is no mind to agree. But we need peace on the borders. And even if it comes to that, God forbid, we remember who Israel sold and upgraded on-site electronics for tanks, missiles, converted aircraft, communications systems and installed drones with birds. But the greed of Azerbaijani bonzes and Armenian nationalists is our most important weapon. And while all-conquering.
          1. Homeland
            Homeland 9 February 2018 21: 45
            Armenians are just not Orthodox. They have an apostolic church, and in Byzantium they were generally considered heretics. The Orthodox are Russians and their “closest friends” Ukrainians and Georgians. So do not connect the “sincere friendship” of the Russian and Armenian peoples with Orthodoxy.
      3. sir_obs
        sir_obs 6 February 2018 18: 17
        It’s not for nothing that you think so, the army, who have long lived in Russia and those who are there, are completely different people.
        Such nationalists still look. As one girl in Krasnodar said, the katalikos teaches us to give birth to many children in order to survive the Russians from the region, since this is our land. What? And so it is, by the way.
      4. Alber
        Alber 6 February 2018 23: 44
        Quote: Albatroz
        Armenians are Russia's only reliable ally in the Transcaucasus, and friendship with treacherous Turkey, our geopolitical adversary, now borders on the betrayal of national interests.
        good good

        Well you smoked hash ...
        Is Armenians a reliable ally? Yes, they will sell at any time for a snuff of tobacco, when it will be profitable for them
      5. aldaruni
        aldaruni 8 February 2018 13: 41
        It does not border, it IS a betrayal of national interests. Unfortunately, in Russia, often, national interests are crushed in favor of selfish ones.
  10. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 6 February 2018 13: 04
    Such articles should be made compulsory for reading by the inaugurating deputies of the State Duma, senators and ministers of the Government of the Russian Federation.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  11. Gopnik
    Gopnik 6 February 2018 14: 18
    Yes, the Bolsheviks did business, having betrayed the Russians and Armenians into the hands of the Turks. And then they also supported Turkey their beloved Ataturk in their war against Christian Greece and Armenia.
  12. Mamka pula
    Mamka pula 6 February 2018 14: 36
    Turks-killers, the genocide of Christians created
    Unified Armenians especially
    Tricky and deceitful Turks
    Heavy topic
  13. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 6 February 2018 21: 49
    [quote = lekalpan] Dagestan do not shove the list. Dagestanis are Caucasian ethnic groups (Indo-European race) and Mongoloid Turks are not related! [/ quote
    There is no such “Indo-European” race (moreover, my dear, “race”, not “race”). There is an Indo-European group of languages ​​and Caucasians, including the Dagestanis, have nothing to do with it! And there is a "European race." The peoples of Dagestan also belong to the European race (Caucasian type). Turks and Azerbaijanis are also Europeans, and this does not depend on anyone’s will. ...... The Turkic-speaking Kumyks and Nogais also belong to the peoples inhabiting Dagestan. In addition to them, the North Caucasus is also inhabited by other Turkic-speaking peoples: Balkars and Karachais ...
  14. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 6 February 2018 22: 33
    The article is clearly paid by the Turkophobes, most likely by the Armenians. The author here about the “interesting personality” of Andranik Ozanyan tells the story, almost with tears of tenderness. Unlike the author, who does not bother to cite minor sources and other documentary evidence, besides the mythical “German diplomats” I will give an opinion from a source, moreover, Armenian same (!). Oh, by the way, where do the legs of these notorious "German diplomats" grow from the next Turkophobic article to the article (moreover, the text is the same everywhere, but the authors are different laughing ) I will also tell ... So about the Armenian "warrior" Andranik - the favorite of A. Samsonov. With whom did he so "bravely" fight? The Armenian historian A. Lalayan writes: The “voluntary” movement is characterized by the fact that the Dashnak groups led by bloodthirsty hmbapets (Andranik, Amazasp and others) showed maximum “courage” in exterminating Turkish women and children, the elderly and the sick. Turkish villages occupied by Dashnak detachments were freed from living people and turned into ruins filled with disfigured victims. (...)
    Thus, one of the outcomes of the Dashnak volunteer movement is the destruction of tens of thousands of working Turk people. ” (Source: A. Lalayan, Counter-revolutionary “Dashnaktsutyun” and the imperialist war of 1914-1918 // Revolutionary East. 1936. No. 2–3. S.92–93.).
    You can also bring The 65-page “Report on the activities of Armenian armed forces in Turkey and the Caucasus to the First World War”, written in 1915 by the Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Caucasus Army, Major General Leonid Bolkhovitinov, reported to the Viceroy of the Caucasus on the atrocities of the Armenian forces against civilians occupied with Russian (!) troops. Speaking of "atrocities" against Armenians and Greeks, the author forgets that this is the East and ... war. Most often, tragic events are a vicious circle of responses that entail a response from the “affected” side. And it is not necessary to whitewash those who are “entrusted” or to sympathize and defame the opposite side, not knowing the true background to the events. The so-called “affected” peoples, in this case and always, are just losers. Having won, they usually, with no less ardent fervor, dealt with what they actually blame their offenders and winners ... For example, knowing the Kurds (their vengeance and tendency, let's say, to tough answers), one could roughly assume what can happen when the Kurdish irregular cavalry Hamidiye returns and finds the above-described events and ... the following: A report addressed to the commandant of the Kars fortress from the Russian commander of the 589th foot squad of January 19, 1915 from Turkey captured by Russian troops. Here, in particular, it is noted: “... local Greeks and Armenians, .. traveling in large groups around Kurdish villages, rob Kurdish villages and rape Kurdish women. All Greeks and Armenians are armed ... ” (Russian State Military Historical Archive (RGVIA) .- Ф.2100.Оп.2.Д.460.Л.110.) ...
    1. Scorpio05
      Scorpio05 6 February 2018 23: 26
      In general and in general with copyright and links to sources, A. Samsonov has big problems. Pearl about the "German diplomats" depicting Turkish "atrocities" does not really belong to him. Although this "source" does not at all pretend to present documentary and objectivity. The author of the aforementioned pearl is a writer (!) (Apparently, Pikul’s laurels haunt him) with a technical background, a cossack Cossack Valery Shambarov in the world, suffering from everything else and a penchant for tautology. So this tear story about the "massacre" of Russians, Armenians and so on. The "German diplomats" who reported (apparently personally to Shambarov and his follower A. Samsonov, since it is not displayed anywhere else) took place at once in several opales of Shambarov: "The last battle of emperors. A parallel history of the First World War" (another storyteller Bushkov), then " Return to Arzrum "(as Arzrum writes)))) instead of Erzrum and" For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland ". And everywhere the same thing))) The author’s attitude to the sources deserves attention. The bibliography (moreover, in only one book I found links) was compiled without indicating the exact location of the links (there are no page numbers, chapters, etc.). That is, look for him, fistilize him) So, dear A. Samsonov, I can write referring to some "German diplomats" reporting on the sadomite inclinations of some authors of the Military Review. Believe the word?) Unfortunately, I'm not far from the truth here, I remember about Edichka, the almost regular author of Regnum and on top.ware he noted by the way. This is how myths are born ...
    2. Maz
      Maz 9 February 2018 17: 22
      Whoever remembers the old is over there, and who forgets the two, is a useful article. The Turks didn’t come to us from Mars. I know one thing my wife is Armenian. Great-grandfather and his family right there under Erzurum - 18 people were cut out by the Turks. The five-year-old grandfather was hidden in a jug for wine. He saw how his mother was tied to a tree, and then set dogs on - there are such evil shepherds found among shepherds ... My wife still weeps as she recalls how his grandfather cried when he told them. They took everything, land, home, household. Do you really think my arm will tremble if that? and I will read these extracts from the archives? Turks slaughtered one and a half million Armenians from three million then living. Even Hitler slaughtered less than half of the Jews living in the world during the Second World War. In general, as the commander-in-chief orders me, I will do so. But God forbid anyone gets caught.
  15. Scorpio05
    Scorpio05 9 February 2018 18: 33
    Quote: Maz
    Whoever remembers the old is over there, and who forgets the two, is a useful article. The Turks didn’t come to us from Mars. I know one thing my wife is Armenian. Great-grandfather and his family right there under Erzurum - 18 people were cut out by the Turks. The five-year-old grandfather was hidden in a jug for wine. He saw how his mother was tied to a tree, and then set dogs on - there are such evil shepherds found among shepherds ... My wife still weeps as she recalls how his grandfather cried when he told them. They took everything, land, home, household. Do you really think my arm will tremble if that? and I will read these extracts from the archives? Turks slaughtered one and a half million Armenians from three million then living. Even Hitler slaughtered less than half of the Jews living in the world during the Second World War. In general, as the commander-in-chief orders me, I will do so. But God forbid anyone gets caught.

    Everyone has their own truth, they don’t want to know someone else’s ... I told you the war ... When the "proud and independent" people win (usually with the help of another brother), it is a "heroic liberation" victory, when they give them the same , this is genocide, the massacre of "atrocities" and so on. His prank does not count. It’s kind of in the order of things ... Read to your wife, now about the art of the Armenians ... Or is it possible with the Turks, Kurds and Azerbaijanis? They say Muslims ... I didn’t want to put it here, but ... But, unlike you, I will not describe the "stories" of the late grandfather here, who "sitting in the jug" saw how they set dogs, and I’ll give a source : https: //

    The historian Hassan Hshyar Sardi in his work on the Kurdish exodus “My life and my vision” in the chapter “Exodus of the population and difficulties in Kurdistan”, chapter 18, pp. 13-47, 1960, writes: “After a year, the Ottomans retreated every day , the front line was approaching Erzurum, Van and Mush. Kurds from these areas were forced to abandon their native lands and head towards the lower Kurdistan. With the defeat of the Ottomans, they with emptied souls left the inhabited native places, which were then occupied by Russian troops. One of the reasons The Kurdish flight was as follows: the arrival of Russian troops on their lands was accompanied by the arrival of Armenians who brutally, mockingly killed the Kurds. They killed for the fact that they were killed by the Turks. As they say, they "took revenge on the saddle of a donkey." They did not remember the words of their fellow tribesmen that “the Kurds didn’t kill us, they hid our wives and children, saved us from death.” In gratitude for this kindness and philanthropy, the Armenians ripped open pregnant Kurdish women’s stomachs, removed the child and tore it in half am And they made an incision in the form of a pocket on the skin of a body of a still alive baby, put their little hands in there, laughed and exclaimed: "What a good pocket you have, Kurdo!"

    There was a war, chaos reigned everywhere. The more weakened the position of the Ottomans, the more atrocious the Armenians. Kurds of six vilayets - Erzurum, Van, Mush, Bitlis, Sirte, Kars, as well as the territories around them, as a result of the onslaught of the Russian troops and attacks by the atrocious Armenians, were forced to abandon everything without cargo, in a hurry to leave their native land .

    The Russians drove the Ottomans further and further, and the Armenians greatly assisted them. The more territories the Russians occupied, the more Armenians were vicious against Muslims. Stunned by the shed blood, the Armenians brutally and ruthlessly killed the Kurds, slaughtered entire families with wives and children, plundered property, took sheep and cows. With the connivance and silent indifference of the Russians, the Armenian Dashnaks treacherously dealt with everyone, sparing neither old nor young. Abdurazak Badyrkhan in his book Autobiography of Abdurazak, translated by Jalile Jalil, Matin Publishing House, December 1999, Dohuk, p. 58, writes : “Most of the Russian officers treated the Armenians better than the Kurds. Because of the false statements and fabrications about the Kurds, they / Russians / sometimes undeservedly negative attitude towards them.
  16. Homeland
    Homeland 9 February 2018 19: 09
    A very dumb article written by an Armenian or pro-Armenian author, which is full in Russia. Like, they protect the interests of Russia, but in fact they protect the Armenians. One name is already obviously false. What is the intrusion? Who invaded where? Ottoman Turks never invaded Transcaucasia. All wars began here after the Russian invasion of eastern Turkey under the pretext of saving the local Christian population of Armenians from "Turkish oppression". Before Russia arrived in the Caucasus, no one killed Armenians in Turkey at all. But in Transcaucasia there were no Armenians at all. They were resettled here by the Russians as a result of the Russian-Iranian and Russian-Turkish wars. Before the advent of the Russians in the Caucasus in the 18th century, there were only Azerbaijani khanates and the Georgian kingdom.