Military Review

The military is increasingly resorting to the use of 3D printers

22
In early August 2016, the U.S. Navy successfully tested the Osprey MV-22 tiltrotor. This aircraft in itself is not unusual. The twin-screw machine has long been in service with the American fleet (it was adopted in the second half of the 1980s), however, for the first time in stories Critical details were installed on the convertoplane (flight safety directly depends on them), which were printed on an 3D printer.


For testing, the US military printed a titanium mount to the wing of a convertoplane using titanium by direct laser-sintering. At the same time, a strain gauge was mounted on the bracket itself, designed to register possible deformation of the part. Each of the two engines of the convertible Osprey MV-22 is attached to the wing using four such brackets. At the same time, at the time of the first test flight of the convertoplan, which took place on 1 August 2016, only one bracket mounted on the 3D printer was installed on it. Earlier it was reported that on the convertiplane were also installed printed by the method of three-dimensional printing mount nacelles.

The development of parts printed for a tiltrotor was carried out by the Combat Application Center aviation US Navy, located at the joint base of McGuire-Dicks-Lakehurst in New Jersey. Osprey MV-22 flight tests with printed parts were performed on the basis of the US Navy Patxent River, the tests were recognized by the military as completely successful. The US military believes that due to the widespread introduction of three-dimensional printing technology in the future will be able to quickly and relatively cheaply produce spare parts for tiltrotor aircraft. In this case, the necessary details can be printed directly on the ships. In addition, the printed parts can then be modified in order to improve the performance of on-board units and systems.

The military is increasingly resorting to the use of 3D printers
Printed titanium engine mount


The US military was interested in three-dimensional printing technologies a few years ago, but until recently, the functionality of 3D printers was not so wide that it could be used in everyday mode to build fairly complex parts. Convertop parts were created using an additive printing 3D printer. The item is manufactured gradually in layers. Every three layers of titanium dust are sealed with a laser, this process is repeated as long as necessary to get the desired shape. After completion, the excess is cut off from the part; The item received is completely ready for use. Since the tests were completed successfully, the US military will not stop there, they are going to build 6 more important elements of the convertoplan, half of which will also be titanium, and the other - steel.

Three-dimensional printing in Russia and the world

Despite the fact that the printer type of production was successfully implemented in the USA and Russia several years ago, the creation of elements for military equipment is in the process of refinement and testing. First of all, this is due to the very high demands placed on all military products, mainly in terms of reliability and durability. Nevertheless, success in this area was achieved not only by Americans. For the second year now, Russian designers have been manufacturing parts for automatic machines and pistols under development using three-dimensional printing technology. New technologies save valuable time on drawings. And putting such parts on the stream can provide quick field replacements, in repair battalions, since the need to wait for parts from the factory to be received for the same tanks or unmanned aerial vehicles.

For submariners, military 3D printers will simply be worth their weight in gold, since during autonomous long voyage, replacement of parts by the forces of the submariners themselves will give the submarine an almost inexhaustible resource. A similar situation is observed with the ships sailing to sea, icebreakers. Most of these ships will soon receive drones, which over time will require repair or complete replacement. If an 3D printer appears on the ship that allows you to quickly print spare parts, then in a few hours the equipment can be used again. In the conditions of short-term operations and high mobility of the theater of military operations, the local assembly of various parts, assemblies and mechanisms on the spot will allow maintaining a high level of efficiency of support units.

Osprey MV-22


While in the US, the military are launching their convertoplanes, the Russian manufacturers of the Armata tank have been using the industrial printer for the Uralvagonzavod for the second year. With it, parts are produced for armored vehicles, as well as civilian products. But so far, such parts are used only for prototypes, for example, they were used to create the Armata tank and its tests. In the Kalashnikov Concern, as well as in TsNIITOCHMASH, commissioned by the Russian military, the designers make various parts of the rifle weapons from metal and polymer chips on 3D printers. The Tula Instrument Engineering Design Bureau named after Shipunov, famous for the CPB, which is known for a rich assortment of manufactured weapons: from pistols to high-precision missiles, is not far behind them. For example, a perspective pistol and an automatic gearbox, which is designed to replace AK74M and APS special forces soldiers, is assembled from high-strength plastic parts that are printed on a printer. For some military products in the PBC have already been able to create a mold, currently serial production of products is being worked out.

In conditions when a new arms race is observed in the world, the timing of the release of new types of weapons becomes important. For example, in armored vehicles only the process of creating a layout and transfer from the drawings to the prototype usually takes a year or two times. When developing submarines, this period is already in 2 times more. “The technology of three-dimensional printing will reduce the time by several times to several months,” notes Alexey Kondratyev, an expert in the field of the navy. - Designers will be able to save time on the drawings when designing on the computer 3D-model and immediately make a prototype of the desired part. Very often, the details are reworked taking into account the tests and in the process of refinement. In this case, you can release the assembly instead of the part and check all the mechanical characteristics, how the parts interact with each other. In the end, the timing of the prototype will allow designers to reduce the total time for the first finished sample to reach the testing stage. Nowadays, the creation of an atomic submarine of a new generation requires about 15-20 years of time: from a sketch to the last propeller during assembly. With the further development of industrial three-dimensional printing and the launch of mass production of parts in this way, time can be reduced at least 1,5-2 times.

According to experts, modern technologies are today one to two years from the mass production of titanium parts on 3D printers. It is safe to say that by the end of 2020, military representatives at the enterprises of the military-industrial complex will receive equipment that will be assembled at 30-50% using 3D printing technology. In this case, the greatest value for scientists is the creation on the 3D-printer of ceramic parts that are characterized by high strength, lightness and heat-shielding properties. This material is very widely used in the space and aviation industries, but can be used in even larger quantities. For example, creating a ceramic engine on an 3D printer opens up horizons for creating hypersonic airplanes. With such an engine, a passenger plane could fly from Vladivostok to Berlin in a couple of hours.



It is also reported that American scientists invented a resin formula specifically for printing in 3D printers. The value of this formula is in the high strength of the materials obtained from it. For example, such a material can withstand critical temperatures that exceed 1700 degrees Celsius, which is ten times higher than the stability of many modern materials. Stephanie Tompkins, who holds the post of director of scientific management in advanced defense research, estimates that new materials created on 3D printers will have unique combinations of features and properties that have not yet been used. According to Tompkins, thanks to new technologies we will be able to get a strong piece that has a small mass and huge size. Scientists believe that the production of ceramic parts on the 3D printer will mean a scientific breakthrough, including in the manufacture of civilian products.

The first Russian 3D satellite

Currently, with the help of three-dimensional printing technology, parts are already being successfully manufactured right on board the space stations. But domestic experts decided to go even further, they immediately decided to create a microsatellite using the 3D printer. Rocket and Space Corporation "Energy" has created a satellite, housing, bracket and a number of other parts of which were printed on the 3D-printer. At the same time, an important clarification is that the microsatellite was created by Energia engineers together with students of Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU). The first printer satellite received the full name "Tomsk-TPU-120" (the 120 number in the name in honor of the university's 120 anniversary, which was celebrated in May of the 2016 year). It was successfully launched into space in the spring of 2016, together with the Progress MS-02 spacecraft, the satellite was delivered to the ISS and then launched into space. This unit is the first and only 3D satellite in the world.

The satellite, created by TPU students, belongs to the class of nanosatellites (CubSat). It has the following dimensions 300х100х100 mm. This satellite became the world's first spacecraft, the body of which was printed using three-dimensional printing technology. In the future, this technology can be a real breakthrough in the creation of small satellites, as well as make their use more accessible and popular. The design of the spacecraft was developed in the research and education center "Modern production technologies" TPU. The materials from which the satellite was produced were created by scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University and the Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS. The main purpose of the satellite was to test new technologies of space materials science, it will help Russian scientists to test several developments of the Tomsk University and its partners.



According to the press service of the university, the launch of the Tomsk-TPU-120 nanosatellite was planned to be carried out during the cosmonaut's exit from the ISS into open space. The satellite is a fairly compact, but at the same time, a full-fledged spacecraft with batteries, solar panels, onboard radio equipment and other instruments. But its main feature was that its body was printed on an 3D printer.

Different nanosatellite sensors will record the temperature on board, on batteries and circuit boards, the parameters of electronic components. All this information will then be transmitted to Earth online. According to this information, Russian scientists will be able to analyze the state of satellite materials and decide whether they will use them in the development and construction of spacecraft in the future. It is worth noting that an important aspect of the development of small spacecraft is also the training of new personnel for the industry. Today, students and teachers of the Tomsk Polytechnic University with their own hands develop, produce and improve the design of various small spacecraft, while receiving not only high-quality fundamental knowledge, but also the necessary practical work skills. This is what makes graduates of this educational institution unique specialists in the future.

The future plans of Russian scientists and industry representatives are the creation of a whole “swarm” of university satellites. “We are saying today that it is necessary to motivate our students to study everything that, one way or another, is connected with space - these could be energy, materials, and the creation of new generation engines, etc. We discussed earlier that the interest in space in the country has faded somewhat, but it can be revived. To do this, you need to start not even from the student's bench, but from the school one. Thus, we have embarked on the path of developing and producing CubeSat - small satellites, ”the press service of the Tomsk Polytechnic University reports, citing the rector of this institution of higher education, Peter Chubik.

Information sources:
http://www.utro.ru/articles/2016/08/15/1293813.shtml
https://nplus1.ru/news/2016/08/04/video
http://news.tpu.ru/news/2016/02/02/24769
http://ria.ru/space/20160401/1400943777.html
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  1. Leto
    Leto 16 August 2016 06: 55
    +6
    While the military is launching their convertiplanes in the US, Russian manufacturers of the Armata tank have been using an industrial printer at Uralvagonzavod for the second year.

    At the Kalashnikov Concern, as well as at TsNIITOCHMASH, on the order of the Russian military, designers make various parts of small arms from metal and polymer chips on 3D printers. Not far behind them is the Tula Shipunov Instrument Design Bureau, the famous PBC

    All this, of course, is wonderful ... But I would be more happy if the 3D printers used were of domestic development and domestic production. So then on the photo equipment of the American company Sciaky Inc, Chicago, Illinois ...
    1. kit_bellew
      kit_bellew 16 August 2016 10: 55
      0
      Quote: Leto
      But I would be more happy if the 3D printers used were domestic developments ...

      Well, a hen of a grain, Moscow wasn’t built right away :) And how would I be glad if the credit washes disappeared from the streets of our cities, printed, apparently, on the same 3D printer made of paper wassat
      Our auto industry was valuable in that the people who bought the car were forced to either become mechanics from God, or get drunk in garages. A kind of natural selection. This was done, quite obviously, so that on the future battlefields a person would not have to wait for his tank to be towed to the nearest service station and repaired inexpensively and in just a week laughing
      1. Leto
        Leto 16 August 2016 11: 48
        -1
        Quote: kit_bellew
        A kind of natural selection.

        That's right, normal people don't buy such a G, but make a choice in favor of high-quality cars, which is why the Soviet auto industry died in cramps, as you put it "natural selection" ...
  2. grau
    grau 16 August 2016 08: 10
    +1
    And they can also print soldiers
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 16 August 2016 20: 10
      0
      Biological structures print. And the soldiers will print. But not soon.
  3. Igor V
    Igor V 16 August 2016 10: 39
    +4
    As a mechanical engineering technologist, this story is not entirely clear to me. To impart the necessary properties to the steel part, heat treatment is carried out, that is, "changing the structure of the metal" (by definition). What does the structure look like in this case? If you sinter steel dust layer by layer, then all the carbon will burn out - hello to the structure! Maybe that's why they write everywhere about the production of some body and secondary parts, summarizing all the details. I did not work with titanium, but if everything is made of titanium and plastic, then you will have to abandon many wonders of civilization.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 16 August 2016 12: 12
      +7
      In the article they wrote: 3D printing method is not secondary,
      but critical parts.
      As in the article "engine-to-wing mounting bracket".
      NASA produces 3D printing nozzles for rockets.

      It is important for you, as a machine-building technologist, to understand: what happened
      a revolution in material processing technology, the most important of which is not
      it was hundreds of years old. Professions of a turner, milling machine operator, driller,
      carver and many others are endangered.
      The rectangular box of the 3D printer replaces them all.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 16 August 2016 14: 40
        +5
        Quote: voyaka uh
        It is important for you, as a machine-building technologist, to understand: what happened
        a revolution in material processing technology, the most important of which is not
        it was hundreds of years old. Professions of a turner, milling machine operator, driller,
        carver and many others are endangered.
        The rectangular box of the 3D printer replaces them all.


        It's a delusion.
        Geometrically accurate on a modern 3D printer blank with an accuracy not higher than the thickness of the feed material of 0,5 mm or sintering point of 0,1 mm, which is not sufficient accuracy for most mechanical mating structures. Many parts and their interfaces are manufactured on machine tools with an accuracy of + -0,05 + - 0,01 - this is an order of magnitude more accurate than what modern industrial 3D printers can do. I'm not talking about the pairing of precision precision.

        So, at present, 3D printers are a production of PREPARATIONS, which require further refinement at the machine park and the profession of a milling and turning operator will be in demand for a very long time.
        True, these specialties are now occupied by highly qualified specialists - who work at PROCESSING CENTERS. A modern machining center performs parts from workpieces with high precision and from a single installation.
        One engineer (I can’t presume to call him a turner) can service 4-5 machining centers and produce products - for which a workshop filled with highly specialized machines used to work and hundreds of qualified milling turners worked.

        Here is an example of such production in China: 5 centers MAZAK (Japan) one specialist and minus 120 units of the machine park (I personally saw this workshop 5 years ago and a year ago - the difference is impressive).
        By the way, this factory does not make airplanes - bulldozers!
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 16 August 2016 14: 56
          +3
          It seems to me that your information is out of date.
          Laser priners (metal)
          https://www.stratasysdirect.com/solutions/direct-metal-laser-sintering/

          DMLS is available in several resolutions. At its highest resolution, the layer thickness
          is 0.0008 ”- 0.0012” (0.02 mm - 0.03 mm - my translation, am I not mistaken?)
          and the X / Y resolution is 0.012 ”- 0.016”. The minimum hole diameter is 0.035 ”- 0.045”.
          1. DimerVladimer
            DimerVladimer 17 August 2016 10: 53
            +1
            Quote: voyaka uh
            It seems to me that your information is out of date.
            Laser priners (metal)
            https://www.stratasysdirect.com/solutions/direct-metal-laser-sintering/

            DMLS is available in several resolutions. At its highest resolution, the layer thickness
            is 0.0008 ”- 0.0012” (0.02 mm - 0.03 mm - my translation, am I not mistaken?)
            and the X / Y resolution is 0.012 ”- 0.016”. The minimum hole diameter is 0.035 ”- 0.045”.


            Let's take the best parameters indicated in the advertisement:
            layer thickness 0,008 "= 0.002 mm - the impression is that it is not bad with accuracy along the Z axis, however, the thinner the layer, the lower the output sintering power should be, so that material erosion (burnout) does not occur, and the printing speed drops accordingly.
            Resolution 0,012 "= 0,03 mm - seemingly an impressive parameter - responsible for positioning the contact patch? But I would not compare it with the parameter + -0,03 machining - since we have not a surface, but a round contact patch (physically - flat droplet), which leads to surface roughness along the XY axes and size fluctuations from about 1/3 of the contact patch diameter
            Next:
            the minimum diameter of the sintered spot is 0,035 "= 0,0889 mm (which is very close to 0,1 which was indicated in the previous post).
            I will not go into recounting accuracy, maybe someone has more experience in 3D printing, but in my opinion, the accuracy of this technology is + -1 / 3 of the diameter of the contact spot (according to XY) or + -0,03.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 16 August 2016 14: 17
      +5
      Why burn out? The printer can print in a closed volume filled with inert gas.
      But you are right - the crystal lattice will not work, the workpiece obtained on a 3D printer using laser melting will experience internal stresses and have an uneven structure, which will lead to an unexplored growth of fatigue cracks.
      1. APASUS
        APASUS 16 August 2016 18: 56
        +2
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        But you are right - the crystal lattice will not work, the workpiece obtained on a 3D printer using laser melting will experience internal stresses and have an uneven structure, which will lead to an unexplored growth of fatigue cracks.

        Apparently, Americans also understand this.
        At the same time, a strain gauge was mounted on the bracket itself, designed to record the possible deformation of the part.

        I think this is primarily the development of technology
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 16 August 2016 20: 11
          +4
          Quote: APASUS
          I think this is primarily the development of technology

          At one time, with similar enthusiasm, they tried to promote powder metallurgy technologies. But the problem is that stable valence bonds (if someone else remembers what it is smile) in many alloys occur only under certain temperature and chemical conditions, which are very difficult to reproduce in a 3D printer. At the same time, the surface of many details, no matter what method of manufacturing - cast, milled or printed - has to be hardened - by forging, cementation, thermal or electric hardening. It is impossible to do this in a 3D printer. And after such processing, the geometry of the product changes significantly and that means that additional machining will still be required. Volumetric printing looks quite attractive from the side. But so far there are more questions on this technology than answers. At the same time, looking at the photo of the bracket studded with load cells, the following can be noted.
          1. An arm is a part that does not require high precision manufacturing.
          2. Why did I have to print an expensive titanium bracket? Does this mean that brackets printed from cheaper metals at given sizes do not withstand the necessary load?
  4. PSih2097
    PSih2097 16 August 2016 11: 45
    0
    Quote: Igor V
    If steel dust is sintered in layers, all carbon will burn out - hello to the structure!

    as far as I know, now there are polymers that are not inferior to steel in terms of characteristics.
    Quote: Leto
    But I would be more happy if the 3D printers used were of domestic development and domestic production.

    but "toner" laughing they already use domestic.
  5. PKK
    PKK 16 August 2016 12: 51
    -1
    It is noteworthy that adult laboratories work behind the hill, and in Russia, students make nanosatellites. Talented youth can not but rejoice.
  6. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 16 August 2016 15: 19
    +3
    As for printing in the future ALL of the details on a 3D printer is an exaggeration.

    1. Modern printers cannot achieve high accuracy (yet) for several reasons - insufficient manufacturing accuracy of + -0,1 mm, while in the automotive industry they require accuracy of up to 0,02 mm, and in aircraft and engine manufacturing up to + - 0,005 mm. And therefore, 3D printing is getting BILLETS for further processing on the machine to obtain the necessary accuracy - therefore it is worth discarding FANTASIES about printing any exact parts in submarines and field workshops, for example, you can print traction for bolted joints or shovels for snow removal on the underwater boat ...
    These are all fantasies of students who are far from production.

    2. For the same reason, problems with surface roughness have not been resolved - that is, without additional polishing-honing-finishing operations, the required surface quality cannot be achieved by 3D printing. After 3D printing, plastic parts, usually to add gloss and reduce roughness, are dipped in an appropriate solvent. That is - all the same, FINISHING of even inaccurate parts obtained by 3D printing is NEEDED.

    3. 3D printing IS NOT SUITABLE for MASS PRODUCTION due to the high cost of the final product and high energy costs for heat treatment of the material. In most modern 3D printing systems, the material either completely melts, or it is light-cured (for example, in UV light), or sintered from a filler wire-powder. This method is much more expensive than fur. processing (although there is one point to optimize the redistribution of steel and mechanical production).

    At the present stage of the achieved cost, the lot of 3D printing is prototyping - piece production of 1-100 parts or small-scale production of high-value parts (for example, the aviation industry) - conditionally 100-1000 parts.

    If only 100-300 aircraft are manufactured, it makes sense to work out 3D printing technologies in order to get 300-600 blanks for further processing - this can be economically justified - saving on technological equipment (for example, casting molds), production preparation (preparation of mold drawings is not required , special devices, transportation operations if production is not limited to one workshop, etc.)

    But if you need to get 10000 bumpers for a car, then it’s more profitable to order a mold and molding the desired number of parts by injection molding and it will be much cheaper than 3D printing.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 16 August 2016 15: 34
      +2
      Laser Sintering Printers
      Seitzas metal gives an accuracy of 16 - 20 microns (0,016 - 002 mm)
      What is enough for mechanical engineering. And I think that in a couple of years they will reach
      and to precision engineering.
      Only grinding remains (where it is needed).
      Neither grind nor mill after manufacturing is required.
      Another thing is the manufacturing time. But this is solved by parallel launch.
      many printers.
      So "FANTASY" turns into reality. And you have to be ready for change
      if you don’t want to stay overboard. fellow
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 17 August 2016 14: 16
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Laser Sintering Printers
        Seitzas metal gives an accuracy of 16 - 20 microns (0,016 - 002 mm)
        What is enough for mechanical engineering. And I think that in a couple of years they will reach
        and to precision engineering.
        Only grinding remains (where it is needed).
        Neither grind nor mill after manufacturing is required.
        Another thing is the manufacturing time. But this is solved by parallel launch.
        many printers.
        So "FANTASY" turns into reality. And you have to be ready for change
        if you don’t want to stay overboard.


        Of course, the accuracy of 3D printing will increase - progress is noticeable. But they will not replace mass production,
        As colleague Verdun correctly wrote:
        Quote: Verdun
        At the same time, the surface of many parts, no matter how manufactured, cast, milled or printed, has to be hardened - forged, cemented, thermally or electrically quenched. It is impossible to do this in a 3D printer. And after such processing, the geometry of the product changes significantly and that means that additional machining will still be required.


        Many questions on crystallization in 3D sadness - because the size and location of the crystal in metal parts directly affect strength. Here it would be worthwhile to conduct a series of studies. Judging by the fact that the Americans have already placed the sample on the aircraft (moreover, one of the most vibrationally loaded), they successfully completed the stage of laboratory tests.

        The indisputable advantage of 3D printing is the manufacture of complex structures with extensive internal cavities of complex shape.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Igor V
      Igor V 16 August 2016 19: 28
      +1
      Thanks for the comments, I am an instrumentalist myself, "to shoot half a hundred" is a common thing here. Somehow I tried to find an explanatory article about this case, but everything was at the media level. Either everything is still very damp, or they are secret. smile
  7. bunta
    bunta 18 August 2016 21: 55
    +1
    At the Kalashnikov Concern, as well as at TsNIITOCHMASH, by order of the Russian military, designers make various parts of small arms from metal and polymer chips on 3D printers.

    Come on.
  8. rapusa
    rapusa 19 August 2016 00: 01
    0
    The start of operation (and acceptance for arming) of the Osprey MV-22 tiltrotor began only in 2007, and not in the 80s. Before that there were development, the first flights, tests.
    The device itself can be considered one of a kind, which is mass-produced and really flies (like a tiltrotor).
    His tests have passed (as is clear) for a long time (not ONLY THAT, as indicated in the article). The miracle of 3D-printed parts is no longer a miracle (at least for Dipatment Of Defense - DOD), but a very real and ordinary technology used in the US aerospace industry.
    If we talk about something new for this device, then for the Osprey MV-22 it is an extension of its functionality - in which they really experience it - for example, the development on its basis of an air refueling system with which Osprey can refuel F / fighters in the air A-18 Hornet / Super Hornet, F-35B Lightning II and heavy transport helicopters CH-53 Sea Stallion / Super Stallion / King Stallion. The promising system is called VARS. It will be a modular refueling equipment with fuel tanks, a control station, pumps and a retractable hose with a cone. The equipment will be made suitable for quick installation and dismantling. At the first stage, the capacity of the system will be 1,8 tons of fuel, but by 2019 it will be increased to 4,5 tons. Thus, the military will receive a relatively cheap decked "flying tanker".
    Tests began in May 2016. So far, I have no information about their fate. But, understanding the prospects of the direction, I think they will be brought to a logical successful.
  9. gridasov
    gridasov 18 October 2016 21: 51
    0
    3D printing is an integral part of industrial evolution. Scientists are exploring spatial models of hydro-gas-dynamic flow outflow, which allow you to create new devices that can implement them. Such devices can only be reproduced on spatial printing.
    Speaking of konvertoplana we can say that this is an attempt to sinking to catch at least for something. The idea of ​​a design engineer should work in anticipation. What can or where else can I attach a propeller engine to make this aircraft fly well. Yes, nowhere! As long as there is a correlation between the used power and weight gain and fuel consumption, this is the way to nowhere. So you need to look for cardinal methods of destruction of this proportionality and relationship. And the matter is not so hopeless and there is already some solution.