Military Review

The main caliber of the Soviet Union: 406-mm gun at the Rzhevsky test site

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The main caliber of the Soviet Union: 406-mm gun at the Rzhevsky test site



In the closed territory of the Rzhev landfill there is an instrument that could rightfully be called the "Main caliber of the Soviet Union." With equal success, it can claim the title "Tsar Cannon". Still, after all, its caliber is no less than 406 mm. Created on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, the artillery installation was intended for arming the world's largest battleships "Soviet Union", "Soviet Belorussia" and "Soviet Russia". These plans did not come true, but the guns themselves served their good service during the defense of Leningrad, and by this alone they earned the right to take a worthy place in the museum. But while a unique monument stories domestic weapons does not even have the status of a museum exhibit ...

Whoever visited the Moscow Kremlin, of course, saw the famous “Tsar Cannon” there, cast by Russian gunsmith Andrey Chokhov in 1586. But few know that its Soviet counterpart exists. This is the most large-caliber artillery gun of the Soviet Union, on the eve of the war passed field testing, and in the years of the Great Patriotic War defended besieged Leningrad from the enemy.

In the early 1920s, naval and coastal artillery of the Soviet Navy fleet significantly lagged behind the corresponding artillery of the leading capitalist states. At that time, a whole galaxy of talented designers of naval artillery systems and the organizers of their serial production worked in the USSR: I.I. Ivanov, M.Ya. Krupchatnikov, B.S. Korobov, D.E. Bril, A.A. Florensky and others.


Designers Ivanov I.I., Krupchatnikov M.Ya., Grabin V.G. (from left to right)

The greatest success of the Soviet designers and artillery factories was the creation of a unique and complex 406-mm artillery system - a prototype of the guns of the main caliber of new battleships.

In accordance with the new USSR shipbuilding program, new battleships were laid on shipyards of shipyards: in the 1938 year the Soviet Union and Soviet Ukraine, in the 1939 year the Soviet Belarus and in the Soviet Union the 1940. The total displacement of each of the battleships that embodied the traditions of domestic shipbuilding and the latest achievements of science and technology was 65 150 tons. The power plant was supposed to provide speed 29 knots (53,4 km / h). The main armament of the battleships - nine 406-mm guns - was located in three armored towers, two of which were located in the nose. Such an arrangement of the main caliber made it possible in the best way to direct and concentrate the fire of 16-inches that fired thousands of kilograms of shells at a range of 45 km. The artillery armament of the new battleships also included twelve new 152-mm guns, eight 100-mm universal guns, and thirty-two 37-mm anti-aircraft guns provided the air defense of each ship. Artillery targeting was carried out with the help of the latest rangefinders, automatic fire control devices and four seaplane spotters, for which launch was provided a catapult.


The final technical design of the battleship 23, November 1938.

The designed 406-mm turret was a unique artillery system, for which all elements — from the gun itself to ammunition — were developed for the first time.

The very experienced MK-1 artillery mount was manufactured in less than a year.

By order of the People's Commissar of the Navy, Admiral N.G. Kuznetsova 0350 number of 9 June 1940 years for the production of ground tests 406-mm gun D-37, the swinging of the MK-1 to the gun D-37, landfill machine MP-10 and ammunition artillery system (shells, charges, gunpowder and detonators) was Commission appointed under the chairmanship of Rear Admiral I.I. Grenna. The test program developed by the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Artillery Maritime Research Institute) was approved by the Chief of the Naval Forces AU, Lieutenant General of the Coast Service I.S. Mushnovym. The test leader was appointed military engineer 2 rank S.M. Reidman.


Engineer-Captain 2 Rank S. M. Reidman. 1943

The ground tests began at the NIMAP (Naval Research Artillery Ground) 6 July 1940. The total amount of testing was determined in 173 shot with the expected survivability of the barrel 150 shots.

The ballistic characteristics of the gun were as follows: the initial velocity of the projectile with its weight 1 105 kg - 830 m / s, muzzle energy - 38 800 t. M., The maximum pressure of the powder gases in the barrel / 3 200 kg / cm2, the maximum range of the projectile - 45,5 km. The weight of the swinging part is 198 tons, the ratio of muzzle energy to the weight of the swinging part is 196,5 tons. The mass of the barrel with the breech and bolt B-37 was 140 tons, and the rate of fire of the gun - 2,6 shot per minute.

During this period, a lot of work was done on preparing the measuring base at the naval artillery ground, which reached a very high level by 1940 in the year and made it possible to widely apply instrumental methods of control, including oscillography of dynamic processes.

The preparation and testing was difficult and stressful, especially in terms of preparing ammunition (projectile weight - 1 105 kg, charge - 319 kg), it took a lot of time to dig them out of the ground after the shot, assembled and delivered to the laboratory for inspection and measurement. Many experiments in the testing process were innovative. So, when shooting at a distance of 25 km, in order to find out the reasons for the increased dispersion of projectiles, it was necessary to build ballistic frames with a height of 40 meters. At that time, the initial flight speed of the shells was determined only by chronographs, so after each shot on these target frames it was necessary to change the wire-wound winding damaged by the charge, which also presented great difficulties. Each shot from the B-37 gun was of high importance, so the tests were built very thoughtfully in the interests of the whole complex of tasks. The results of each shooting were considered in the subcommissions on the affiliation of issues and were often discussed at the general meeting of the commission.

October 2 1940, the ground tests of the B-37 gun, the swing of the MK-1, the MP-10 machine and the ammunition were completed.


406-mm (16-inch) B-37 cannon projectile. Central Naval Museum

The findings of the report of the commission noted: "The tests of the 406 / 50-mm guns B-37, the swinging part of the MK-1 and the polygon machine MP-10 gave quite satisfactory results." So many months of hard work of design engineers and test artillery testers were so succinctly noted.

The swinging part of the MK-1 with the B-37 tool was recommended by the commission for mass production with some design changes.

Admiral of the Soviet Navy N.G. Kuznetsov in his memoirs “On the Eve” recalls: “... In August [1941], I went to the Baltic ... The head of the sea range, Rear Admiral II Gren, asked to go on the test of a twelve-inch gun.“ The best gun in the world ”- he said. And, as life showed, he did not exaggerate. They showed me a sixteen-inch gun for future battleships. This weapon - a clear proof of our economic capabilities and talents of Soviet designers - also turned out to be excellent ... "


Rear Admiral I.I. Gren. 1942

October 19 1940, due to the exacerbation of the international situation, the Soviet government adopted a resolution focusing on building small and medium-sized warships and completing the construction of large ships with a high degree of readiness. The battleship "Soviet Union" was not among the latter, therefore mass production of 406-mm guns was not deployed. After the end of ground tests, the B-37 gun continued to remain at NIMAP in Leningrad.

22 June 1941, the Great Patriotic War began. In the first weeks, Hitler's troops managed to delve into the territory of the Soviet Union. In mid-August, 1941, fierce fighting began on the near approaches to Leningrad. As a result, the rapid advance of the enemy has developed a threatening situation. Mortal danger hung over the city. The Red Army troops in all directions courageously repelled the attacks of superior enemy forces.

The Red Banner Baltic Fleet, at the end of August 1941, concentrated in Leningrad and Kronstadt, greatly assisted the Leningrad Front with its powerful long-range ship and coastal artillery, which covered the entire blockade with a reliable fire shield covering the city.

Immediately after the start of the war, NIMAP took an active part in resolving issues related to the preparation of Leningrad for defense. In the shortest time possible, a skillful, fast and purposeful restructuring of his work in the interests of the defense of the city was carried out. Due to the heavy weight, the artillery installations of the sea range could not be evacuated, and they began to be prepared for the battle for Leningrad.

In July-August, the 1941 of the year at the naval artillery range was brought to battle all the available artillery weapons, formed and prepared for combat, the artillery division and the team MOPV (local air defense).

During the preparation of NIMAP for the defense of Leningrad, the barrel was changed and 406-mm guns (B-37) were booked, all gun mounts were prepared for round-up fire, pickup points were installed with a light reference point for night firing, four command posts of artillery batteries and two armored artillery cellars were equipped near firing positions.


1 military technician rank Kukharchuk, battery commander No. 1 NIMAP, which included a 406-mm gun. 1941

The entire artillery of the naval test site consisted of fourteen guns: one 406 mm, one 356 mm, two 305 mm, five 180 mm, one 152 mm and four 130 mm. The 406 mm caliber cannon was included in battery No. 1, which besides it also included one 356-mm and two 305-mm tools. These were the guns of the main caliber, the most powerful and long-range. The commander of the battery was appointed military technician 2 rank Alexander Petrovich Kukharchuk.

At the end of August 1941, the artillery of NIMAP was ready to start combat missions, and on the eve of this, the following message was published in the Leningradskaya Pravda newspaper: "Starting from August 22, test shooting will be conducted from the Leningrad Landfill, which is publicly reported The military commandant of the city of Leningrad, Colonel Denisov. "

The NIMAP fired its first combat shots on August 29, 1941, according to the concentration of enemy troops in the area of ​​the Krasny Bor farm on the Kolpino direction precisely from the B-37, the most powerful and long-range weapon of the USSR Navy. And already at the beginning of September a column of enemy troops was moving in the same direction tanks with the goal of breaking through to Leningrad, and again the powerful explosions of 406 mm shells lying in the head and tail of the column caused confusion among the enemy and forced him to stop. The surviving tanks turned back. The militia fighters from the Izhora battalion, who defended Kolpino, always with great gratitude recalled the artillerymen of the naval firing range who, with their fire, helped them keep the defenses on the outskirts of Leningrad.

From 29 August to 31 December 1941, the artillery of NIMAP opened fire 173 times, destroying large concentrations of manpower and equipment of the enemy and suppressing its batteries. During this period, the 406-mm cannon launched a 81 projectile (17 high-explosive and 64 armor-piercing) at the enemy.

In 1942, the naval artillery range completed 9 combat firing. February 10 gun B-37 its fire supported the offensive operation 55-th army in the settlements of Krasny Bor, Yam-Izhora and Sablino. Three shells were expended. On the results of this operation it is known that: "... in the area where the 55 Army was holding the defense, the artillerymen distinguished themselves. In one day they destroyed 18 guns and 27 machine guns, destroyed 19 bunkers and dugouts." The 406-mm gun of the naval artillery range also contributed to these losses of the enemy.


The command and engineering staff of the Scientific and Testing Naval Artillery Range (NIMAP). 1942

Here is how an eyewitness to those events, a participant in the defense of Leningrad, Nikolai Kislitsyn describes his impressions of the B-37 combat use: “I remember how, among the familiarly sounding explosions of shells and shots of our artillery, a muffled, powerful sound that shook the glass was occasionally heard somewhere. I was perplexed until I met with one artilleryman. It turned out that in the pre-war era, the design and construction of the latest high-class surface ships had been deployed. For them at the marine training ground near Leningrad tests of a 406 mm caliber guns with fired shells carried out with long range over a certain area of ​​the firing range.The gun was successfully tested. objects deep in the enemy’s location.The stock of shells turned out to be small, and when it was used up, the gunners began to dig shells buried deep in the ground during the tests and bring them to ooya state. Enemy aviation in vain sought the firing position of this giant, skillful disguise helped him to remain undetected ... "

8 December 1942 of the Year The Supreme Command of the Red Army issued a directive to conduct an offensive operation to break the blockade of Leningrad.

The operation began on 12 on January 1943 of the year in 9 hours 30 minutes. During 2 hours, 20 was storming with artillery hurricane at the positions of the enemy; and 4 gunboats. The Red Banner Baltic Fleet artillery also included an 500-mm gun of the naval artillery range.

On January 12, during the 3 hours of 10 minutes, it conducted a systematic fire at the enemy’s resistance centers around the 8 Hydroelectric Power Station, a high explosive 22 projectile was used.

February 13 it also led artillery fire on defensive lines, fire weapons and enemy manpower in the area of ​​8-th hydroelectric station and 2-th Working village, 16 shells (12 high-explosive and 4 armor-piercing) were spent.


The ruins of the 6 Hydroelectric Power Plant after the shelling of the 406-mm gun during the operation to break through the blockade of Leningrad. January 1943

At the end of 1943, Leningrad continued to remain on the front line of fire. If the enemy’s planes were no longer able to bomb the city either in November or in December, then shelling from large-caliber guns continued. Artillery shelling kept Leningrad in constant tension, it was necessary to rid the city of them. Considerations of a strategic plan demanded a complete lifting of the blockade of Leningrad and the expulsion of the German fascist invaders from the Leningrad Region.

The Supreme High Command Headquarters, planning military operations to liberate the territory of the Soviet Union, decided to launch the 1944 year with an offensive operation near Leningrad and Novgorod (First Stalin strike).

On 14 January, 1944 was scheduled to begin operations for the complete liberation of Leningrad from the enemy blockade.

On the morning of January 14, during 65 minutes, enemy positions were shelled by artillery of the Leningrad Front and the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, 100 thousands of shells and mines hit the enemy’s battle formations.

January 15 troops of the Leningrad Front struck a powerful blow to the enemy from Pulkovo Heights. 200 guns and mortars 100 minutes crushed the enemy fortifications, literally plowing trenches and message strokes, pillboxes and bunkers. More than 200 guns of the naval and coastal artillery of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet beat the positions of large-caliber artillery, resistance centers and enemy strongholds.


An enemy pillbox, destroyed by 406-mm cannon fire. Red Village. January 1944

In the offensive, the Leningrad Front supported artillery of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet as part of 215 guns with a caliber from 100 to 406 mm. Attracting large-caliber coastal (stationary and railway) and naval artillery ensured the defeat of targets located at a considerable distance from the enemy’s advanced defense.

15 January 406-mm gun fired at planned targets in the vicinity of the town of Pushkin, 30 shells were spent.

20 January it bombarded targets in the area of ​​the village Koporskaya and well. D. station Antropshino, it was spent three shells.

From 15 to 20 in January 1944 of the year during the offensive operation of the Leningrad Front to completely liberate Leningrad from the enemy blockade, 37 projectile (33 high-explosive and 28 armor-piercing) were launched with the B-5.

In the course of this operation, target No. 23 (height 112,0) was destroyed - the enemy’s resistance node on the approaches to Pushkin from the north.

On the destruction of this target 406-mm gun naval artillery range former commander of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet Admiral V.F. Tributs recalled this: “I had known about this so-called target number 23 before. But I checked my assumptions by telephone, called the commander of the fourth [artillery] group, engineer-captain 1, rank I.D. Snitko. He confirmed my information, and I instructed him to fundamentally engage in a malicious “nut.” The 406 mm gun managed to split it. At the height of 112, an explosion soon took off and a huge fire broke out. As it turned out, the reinforced concrete command post was destroyed, long-term facilities and air ammunition depots were lifted.

The artillery of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet fulfilled the tasks assigned to it to secure the offensive of the troops of the Leningrad Front and free Leningrad from the enemy blockade. During the 14 days of the offensive operation, she spent 1 005 firing, firing 23600 shells of various calibers from 100 mm to 406 mm to the enemy.

After the defeat of the Nazi troops in the south-west direction for Leningrad, the threat from the north-west, from Finland, whose army occupied the defense on the Karelian Isthmus for about three years, remained.

In the Vyborg offensive from the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, 49 naval ships (130 – 305 mm) took part; Coastal 125 (100 – 406 mm). In accordance with the order of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet artillery commander No. 001 / OP from 2 June 1944, two long-range guns of the sea range, 406 mm and 356 mm, entered the third artillery group.

During the first four days of the offensive, the Red Banner Baltic Fleet launched 582 firing and spent more than 11 000 shells with a caliber from 100 mm to 406 mm.

June 9 gun B-37 fired at planned targets, while it was spent 20 shells, and 10 June it also fired at one unplanned target, and it was spent 10 shells. All shells were high-explosive.

According to the results of the inspection of targets hit near the railway station Beloostrov, the following results were obtained:

- fire on the target G-208 - command height, which was part of the overall system of the enemy's resistance node. The fire led 406-mm gun. Were destroyed: machine-gun point along with the calculation, two machine-gun nests, armored observation tower. Trenches and a section of the road were also destroyed, forcing the enemy to throw four 76-mm guns. On the road, many corpses of enemy officers and soldiers are left lying;

- fire on the target G-181 - command height in the village of Pebbles. The fire led 406-mm gun. Direct intersection of the projectile destroyed the intersection of roads from three directions, which prevented the enemy from taking out anti-tank and anti-aircraft batteries. In the area of ​​the 152-mm and 210-mm positions of enemy artillery batteries were craters from hitting 406-mm shells.

As a result of the Vyborg offensive operation, a large group of Finnish troops was defeated and the northern part of the Leningrad Region was liberated, after which the battle for Leningrad was finally completed.

For the B-37 gun it was the last combat shooting.

Over the entire period of Leningrad’s defense, 406 rounds were fired from 185-mm guns, while 109 high-explosive and 76 armor-piercing shells were fired.


A memorial plate commemorating the military achievements of the 406-mm guns of the Red Banner NIMAP. Central Naval Museum

After the end of World War II by the decision of the command of the Navy, a memorial plate was installed at the B-37, currently stored in the Central Naval Museum in St. Petersburg. The following is stamped on it: "406-mm artillery installation of the USSR Navy. This is the gun of the Red Banner NIMAP from 29 in August 1941 of the year to 10 in June. 1944 of the year took an active part in the defense of Leningrad and defeating the enemy. resistance, destroyed military equipment and manpower of the enemy, supported the actions of the Red Army units of the Leningrad Front and the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the Nevsky, Kolpinsky, Urytsko-Pushkinsky, Krasnoselsky and Karelian directions. "


406-mm gun mount at the Rzhevsky range. 2008

In order to preserve this unique weapon for posterity, it is necessary to create a museum of naval armament and equipment on the Rzhevsky proving ground, which will house exhibits that, because of their weight and size characteristics, do not fit in other military historical museums. And such exhibits, in addition to the B-37, are already available. For example, the 406-mm coastal gun 305, which also defended Leningrad during the Great Patriotic War, and the barrel on it, by the way, is inherited from the battleship Empress Maria, standing next to the 1915-mm artillery unit.

The museums of military equipment and armaments — tank, aviation, automobile, etc. — whose interest is constantly growing, already exist in other regions. So maybe it is time to organize a similar museum in St. Petersburg - a museum of naval weapons and equipment? In the same place it will be possible to present also test work of the Navy landfills. And it does not matter that this museum will be located not in the historical center. After all, there are museums away from the city center, visited with no less interest. It would be interesting to know the opinion of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation and the Governor of St. Petersburg on this issue, because the decision to create a new state museum at the Rzhevsky testing ground needs to be taken today.
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  1. PKK
    PKK 12 June 2016 06: 34
    +22
    Unlucky were the unfortunate people who fell within the reach of 16 inches. The explosions of such shells gave rise to longing for the Germans for their beloved Elsa.
    1. Kars
      Kars 12 June 2016 14: 53
      +5
      Copy-paste photo review)
      http://topwar.ru/16733-406-mm-glavnyy-kalibr.html
      1. Duke
        Duke 13 June 2016 06: 32
        +27
        Here are more photos from the Rzhevsky range.




    2. Petr petrov
      Petr petrov 13 June 2016 19: 13
      +17
      It would be necessary to save ..... put in order !!!!!!
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 14 June 2016 12: 49
        +10
        Quote: Petr petrov
        It would be necessary to save ..... put in order !!!!!!

        Save is not the right word! It's sad when you see such a swinish attitude to your own history. At one time, we had about the same attitude to old cars. When it came to what was happening, how many unique machines were missing! Enthusiasts manage to save other equipment. But they have no way to the landfill, and judging by the photo, the landfill management is a sample of unique equipment "to the lantern." Although, perhaps, the point is a banal lack of money. There would be no training ground, but the front facade of the army, probably the means would have been found. Although, from my point of view, a museum of such equipment is no less interesting than a tank museum in Kubinka or an aviation museum in Monino. You just need a competent approach and promotion, like the military Disneyland in Alabino.
    3. Verdun
      Verdun 14 June 2016 12: 54
      +4
      Quote: PKK
      Unlucky were the unfortunate people who fell within the reach of 16 inches. The explosions of such shells gave rise to longing for the Germans for their beloved Elsa.

      A curious moment. The article contains an extract from the newspaper Leningradskaya Pravda.
      "Starting from August 22, test firing will be carried out from the Leningrad naval range, which will be brought to everyone's attention. The military commandant of the city of Leningrad, Colonel Denisov."
      And this is in the besieged city, constantly subjected to shelling and bombing. We took such a step so as not to spread panic among the residents. When shells of this caliber flew over the houses, glass squeezed air out of the air and tore off poorly fixed roof sheets.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 12 June 2016 07: 12
    +10
    << On October 19, 1940, in connection with the aggravation of the international situation, the Soviet government adopted a decree on the concentration of efforts on the construction of small and medium-sized warships and on the completion of laid down large ships with a high degree of readiness. The battleship "Sovetsky Soyuz" was not among the latter, so the serial production of 406-mm guns was not deployed. After the end of the field tests, the B-37 gun continued to remain at the NIMAP in Leningrad. >> Around the same time, it was decided to strengthen the coastal defense of the DKBF. I have a question for the author: does he know that it was planned to build a 4-gun coastal battery and Where was it planned? In addition to the mention in the book by Yu. Perechnev "Soviet coastal artillery" pp 51-53, I did not find any more mentions. And so the article is good, I saw some photographs for the first time, and a report on the combat actions of this gun. Although mentions about this implements aren't that rare.
    1. Severok
      Severok 12 June 2016 13: 20
      +6
      In the Leningrad direction it was planned to put gun mounts on Hanko. On the Murmansk direction, coastal gun mounts were installed on the Rybachy Peninsula and the Ainu Islands.
  3. bionik
    bionik 12 June 2016 07: 17
    +27
    Soviet ship 406-mm gun B-37 in a single-barrel range installation MP-10 in the workshop №5 Novokramatorsky machine-building plant.

    Such guns were supposed to equip battleships of the type "Soviet Union". After the cessation of the construction of battleships of the Soviet Union type in July 1941, work on the creation of the B-37 gun was stopped.
  4. blind
    blind 12 June 2016 08: 50
    0
    powerful babah. interestingly how far would a person standing next to the gun be thrown back at the moment of the shot?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 June 2016 10: 46
      +12
      Quote: blind
      powerful babah. interestingly how far would a person standing next to the gun be thrown back at the moment of the shot?

      Looking where to stand? Read the book "The feat of the 30th battery". It describes what a shot with a blank projectile is 100mm smaller, "only 305" mm. At the very end of the book, when the battery ran out of even training blanks.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 12 June 2016 10: 38
    +15
    Thanks for the article, but I did not know about such fluff. It needs to be put in order, and it’s painful to watch. If the photo was taken in 2008, then the condition is probably even worse.
    1. thinker
      thinker 12 June 2016 14: 56
      +31
      There is a photo of 2012, looks decent.
      1. Siberia 9444
        Siberia 9444 12 June 2016 16: 56
        +5
        Thanks for the photo pleased hi
  7. Gray 43
    Gray 43 12 June 2016 11: 15
    0
    I wonder what was the resource of this gun?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 June 2016 12: 51
      +7
      500 shots. Generally speaking, they did not test the execution, but one of the guns fired 173 shells without problems.
      1. Mooh
        Mooh 12 June 2016 14: 04
        +3
        And in article 150 it is written. request
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 12 June 2016 15: 19
          +3
          300 shots (expected). 500 fiction even for british with americans
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 June 2016 15: 54
            +7
            It was found that with a combat charge of 310 kg, the initial velocity of a projectile weighing 1108 kg reaches 830 m / s, and the firing range of 250 cabs (45,67 km). It was originally assumed (in the TTZ for the initial project of the gun) that 1105 kg of the projectile would accelerate to a speed of 870 m / s, providing a range of 49,8 km. However, this had to be abandoned, since due to an excessively high pressure in the bore during the shot (up to 3200 kg / cm2) it is unacceptable
            its survivability would decrease. The Commission, however, recommended that the assignment
            bots to bring the initial velocity of the projectile to 870 m / s. Gun barrel survivability
            B-37 was rated at 500 shots
            (at a pressure in the bore of 3000 kg / cm2).

            These are Vasiliev, "Soviet Union-class battleships." For what I bought, for what I sell
            1. Alex
              Alex 12 June 2016 21: 35
              +4
              500 shots is, EMNIP, when firing a reduced charge. When firing a conventional charge, it was estimated in 150 shots. The Commission believed that by reducing the initial speed by 10% (to 800 m / s with a pressure of up to 3000 kg / cm ^ 2), survivability in 300 shots can be achieved. In general, the gun came out pretty good, with quite decent characteristics.
            2. 73bor
              73bor 13 June 2016 00: 30
              0
              Judging by the installation of the guns, a good flat trajectory of fire for the 305's is more cool ballistics!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. Kenneth
    Kenneth 12 June 2016 15: 30
    +1
    And that the Soviet Union should be the largest battleship ... the author has not heard about Yamato. And the article is good, detailed. True, the adversaries mass-produced such ship broads and even 18 inches, but still cool. The Germans probably first appeared flying tanks
    1. Hog
      Hog 12 June 2016 16: 43
      +7
      Amendment, no one knew about the performance characteristics "Yamato" at that time, and therefore, formally, Ave 23 was the largest NK in the world at that time.
    2. ZAV69
      ZAV69 12 June 2016 21: 31
      +3
      Yamato entered service in December 41. TTX naturally no one knew. Yes, probably until the end of the war and did not recognize
  9. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 12 June 2016 16: 13
    0
    Good article, informative. Shooting armor-piercing 12-inch shells at a long range on a ground target is probably for shooting, because in order to hit the target in this case you need a direct hit. On the other hand, in this case there is no rupture of the projectile; it is difficult for the spotter to watch the projectile fall.
    1. Alex
      Alex 12 June 2016 22: 39
      +7
      Quote: Aviator_
      Shooting armor-piercing 12-inch shells at a long range on a ground target is probably for shooting, because in order to hit the target in this case you need a direct hit. On the other hand, in this case there is no rupture of the projectile; it is difficult for the spotter to watch the projectile fall.

      Shipborne BB shells are not land shells; they have an explosive charge. This is to increase the damaging effect: an explosion behind the ship’s armor does much more damage than simply breaking through the armor.
      1. Kukuruzka
        Kukuruzka 13 January 2019 13: 56
        0
        They also contain "detonating" explosives. Without any fuses! Even if such a projectile explodes when piercing the armor, inside it. This will increase the damaging effect by 50-70%. The tip will just drive in.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 14 June 2016 16: 43
      0
      Quote: Aviator_
      Good article, informative. Shooting armor-piercing 12-inch shells at a long range on a ground target is probably for shooting, because to hit a target in this case you need a direct hit

      Most likely, this is just shooting what it is.

      Ours were also lucky that they managed to make and deliver land mines to the B-37. In a similar situation, according to the report of the commander of the defenses of Malaya, the British 15 "in Singapore did not have a single land mine in the BC. The fleet was able to allocate 1 (one !!!) high-explosive 15" round to the coastal defense.
      As a result, the attacking Japanese were beaten with armor piercing. In a swampy area, yes ... The only time they got a more or less dry target with a hard surface was when the Japanese from the 18th division took Tengah airfield. Here on it BB worked fine (the Japanese also confirm this).
  10. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 12 June 2016 16: 40
    +2
    why no one wrote "this would be to Syria." And I liked the above dispute, so I gave everyone pluses!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 June 2016 17: 24
      +1
      Quote: Kostya Andreev
      why no one wrote "this would be to Syria." And I liked the above dispute, so I gave everyone pluses!

      Because it takes about 2 months to stationary installation of such a gun, this is one thing and the other is that there are no goals for this gun. All the same, the gun is marine. With its power and survivability, it is not suitable for the ground forces.
    2. Alf
      Alf 12 June 2016 20: 45
      +1
      Quote: Kostya Andreev
      why no one wrote "like this to Syria."

      Because she is not needed there. Estimate the cost of the gun, its percentage of hits compared to those Caliber and its resource. Do not forget also that the production time of a barrel of this caliber is from 8 to 10 months.
  11. overb
    overb 12 June 2016 18: 02
    +1
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    but the guns themselves did a good service during the defense of Leningrad and this alone earned the right to occupy a worthy place in the museum

    Not guns, but guns. In the amount of 1 pc. In total, during the defense of Leningrad, she fired 81 shots.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    At the beginning of the 1920s, the ship and coastal artillery of the Soviet Navy was significantly behind the corresponding artillery of the leading capitalist states. At that time, a whole galaxy of talented designers of naval artillery systems and organizers of their mass production worked in the USSR: I.I. Ivanov, M.Ya. Krupchatnikov, B.S. Korobov, D.E. Bril, A.A. Florensky and others.

    Does the author have cognitive dissonance? So "talented designers" or "significantly lagged behind"? To be honest, these Soviet talented constellations have already got them. Fighting was basically done with weapons of the Tsarist era. In a pinch, German, Weimar times. All of these numerous pleiades were not worthy of more.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    embodied the traditions of domestic shipbuilding and the latest achievements of science and technology

    This is not even funny. It is great happiness that they did not begin to finish building them. Although, probably, the freed up mattresses still squandered on some completely unnecessary garbage.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    and the air defense of each ship was provided by thirty-two 37-mm anti-aircraft guns.

    I said, great happiness, that they did not begin to finish building. The Germans would simply roll them into a pancake from the air.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    "The best gun in the world," he said. And, as life has shown, he did not exaggerate.

    And then. The Bolsheviks did the "best in the world" things in large numbers. It was very bad with the good ones, or at least not bad ones. And the "best in the world" was full.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    During this period, the 406-mm gun fired 81 shells at the enemy (17 high-explosive and 64 armor-piercing).

    Those. it fired only 17 times. And another 64 times simply litter of money and imitated activity. For to understand the meaning of firing armor-piercing small things on land is impossible at all. Well, really, from guns on sparrows.
    Quote: Lukin Valery Evgenievich
    Over the entire period of Leningrad’s defense, 406 rounds were fired from 185-mm guns, while 109 high-explosive and 76 armor-piercing shells were fired.

    According to alternative sources, "During the period of hostilities, 37 shots were fired at the enemy troops from the B-81 cannon."
    And with a planned barrel survivability of 150 shots, 185 shots, this is a bit much. The first barrel, it was not lane, as the second, in pre-war tests withstood 173 shots. In theory, a lined barrel without a replacement liner should have withstood less. After all, to dismantle the barrel and send it to the plant to replace the liner during the war, was it possible?
  12. evge-malyshev
    evge-malyshev 12 June 2016 18: 32
    0
    The data of this gun is impressive: the caliber, the mass of the shell, and the firing range. But at the present time it can hardly be claimed. These artillery monsters were replaced by aviation with missiles for various purposes and ground-based missile systems.
  13. demiurg
    demiurg 13 June 2016 19: 45
    0
    After the appearance of at least KSSh, with a firing range of 40 km, and warhead 800 kg, the meaning in such guns disappeared. The oldest PCR already had GOS, and was mounted on destroyers. That is, it had comparable data with a 16-inch shell, but it had many times more accuracy, a much lower price, and could be mounted on ships with a displacement of 3-4 thousand tons. The 4 Bedovs were fired in a salvo of 8 PCRs, and this is actually a Bismarck salvo.
  14. Eugen
    Eugen 14 June 2016 09: 26
    +4
    Such broads are usually shown in other countries. It must be saved unambiguously. Itself would have looked, otherwise such a caliber I only came across in the photo.
  15. primers
    primers 14 June 2016 12: 31
    0
    I measured on the maps the distance from the intended location of the gun on the Rzhevsky range to Krasnoye Selo. About 45 km. That is, the gun fired at the limit of its range. And she could only beat the Finns on the Karelian Isthmus. She reached Sestroretsk and could only help in the north at the beginning of the offensive for 44 years. The front line was right on the line of fire. Or I'm wrong?
  16. aba
    aba 14 June 2016 19: 47
    0
    It is gratifying that they served the Motherland perfectly!
    1. Kukuruzka
      Kukuruzka 13 January 2019 13: 57
      0
      And how the Baltic Fleet anti-aircraft gunners served the Motherland! Dresden is quietly jealous!
  17. tyu2k8
    tyu2k8 15 June 2016 17: 18
    0
    a rocket is certainly good, but still, in fact, it’s a land mine, and a steel fool weighing a ton will have a more shocking effect on the ship, both literally and figuratively.
  18. Evil like Putin
    Evil like Putin 17 June 2016 09: 35
    0
    Hmm .... a terrible tool !!! Big March is resting!
  19. Monarchist
    Monarchist 19 June 2016 21: 52
    0
    I read about this gun and other guns at Shirokorad. I advise you to read
  20. INTA_VEGA
    INTA_VEGA 21 June 2016 10: 02
    0
    There is an inaccuracy in the article: the shooting at a certain hydroelectric station-8 is mentioned, which in the Leningrad Region is not and was not in this region. With the support of the blockade breakthrough, the gun fired most likely at GRES-8 (Dubrovskaya CHPP). After the war, it was restored and renamed to TPP-8.