Military Review

Ju-188: long road to the sky. Part I

34
When the program for the creation of new air forces was adopted in Nazi Germany in the 1930s, the joint concern Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke AG, known for its innovative aircraft during the First World War and successfully collaborated in the development of aircraft industry with the Soviet Union in the 1920s, proposed on announced by the Ministry aviation contest several of their projects.


Among other things, the success of the Junkers application for a qualitatively new type of bomber, the main feature of which should be high speed, received particular success. This was the concern’s response to the so-called Schnellbomber A project. This German company put out at once two variants of combat vehicles of a very wide range of applications: the two-kilowat Ju-85 and the one-kilo Ju-88, of which the latter became the prototype of the most common German front-line bomber. However, due to the need to take into account in the design many often mutually exclusive requirements, the serial Ju-88 in 1939-1940. proved not particularly good during the fighting. At the same time, the overall design of the aircraft turned out to be successful: it not only allowed the Ju-88 to be finalized without any problems, making it the most effective and most large-scale German bomber of the middle of World War II, but also turned out to have a very deep design basis for the future.

Ju-188: long road to the sky. Part I

Ju-188 in the winter camouflage of the end of the war


This became clear during the work of the aircraft concern “Junkers AG” on another project - Schnellbomber B, whose goal was to develop the concept of a second-generation speed twin-engine bomber that would not create a critical load on the Reich industry, but would be roughly comparable to the bomb load with 4-motorized bombers of the USA, Great Britain and the USSR. The main emphasis in the development of this program was placed on an ideal aerodynamic form, which, in combination with powerful engines, would allow developing a very high speed for a bomber of that era with a very large bomb load. This fighting machine, according to the Nazi leadership, was to be the basis of the German bomber aircraft in the 1940-s and used to wage a limited war in Europe that does not require long-range bombers. It was the air fleet “Schnellbombers of type B” that had to become the basis of the Reich bomber aircraft during the 1940-s before the transition to the turbojet aircraft (the fleet of which, according to the pre-war calculations of the German leadership, it was planned to create, in turn, at the end of 1940 - early 1950- ies).

According to the competition requirements of ReichsLuftfahrtMinisterium (RLM - Ministry of Aviation of the Third Reich) from 1939, Schnellbomer B had to reach a speed of at least 550-600 km / h with a bomb load of 3000-4000 kg (ideally - 650 km / h with a bomb load in 6000 kg) and have a range that allows you to perform return missions from the territory of Germany at least to the territory of Great Britain (possibly without Scotland and Ireland). The Junkers concern’s response to these requirements was again two projects: a certain intermediate variant, named “1-88 model” and which was essentially a deep modernization of Ju-88, and a qualitatively new machine - “2-88 model”. However, if the overall design of both variants was generally ready at the end of the 1941 of the year, the German engineers could not create the necessary engines with high efficiency and a good level of reliability until the 1942 of the year. Also, without a doubt, A. Hitler’s decision, made by him at the end of 1940, had an effect on the delay in commissioning this aircraft: to suspend the development of new types of weapons that cannot be commercialized during the year.

As a result, when it became clear to the German leadership (especially after Stalingrad and Tunisia) that the strategic situation was not at all in favor of the Reich, and the Allied air force was sharply increasing both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the Luftwaffe began to lose the ability to conduct bombing missions urgently launch into the series at least a “compromise” version of the Ju-188, which did not require a radical restructuring of production and made it possible to maintain a high level of production of the Ju-88 (which became the main strike aircraft of the stskih Air Force).

Thus, in October 1942, the program for the completion of the Ju-288 was slowed down, and all forces were devoted to the urgent introduction into mass production of the Ju-188. The process was successful, and in January 1943 a second prototype of the project was built - Ju-188V2, called “Racher” (“Avenger”). The name was due to the fact that the creation fleet of these aircraft was planned primarily as a response to the ever-increasing British nightly bombing raids against German industrial centers. It is worth noting that one of the important features of this aircraft was the versatility of the mounting structures of wing gondolas for engines and general balancing. Thanks to this, both BMW-801 engines and Jumo-213 engines could be installed on a single glider, which made it possible to increase output almost regardless of the degree of readiness and the level of supply of engines. But, despite some measures taken, Ju-188 production grew very slowly: in February – April 1943 it did not exceed 2 cars a week. Only after the introduction of the program for the total mobilization of industry did this total production of aircraft of this type reached 1943 units by the end of 283 (including 174 units in the version of a bomber and torpedo bomber (“torpedobomber”) and 109 units in the version of high-altitude and all-weather reconnaissance).


Ju-188 in Mediterranean summer camouflage


But this number looked ridiculous when compared with the production of bombers in the anti-Hitler coalition allies. The Nazi leadership also understood this very well and demanded an even higher production rate, which was finally possible: in 1944, 918 Ju-188 was already produced (including 434 units in the bomber and torpedo bombers version and 484 units in the reconnaissance variant ), primarily due to the opening of assembly plants at the ATG plants in Leipzig and Siebel in Halle. However, then other factors began to play against the Nazi industry - in particular, in the summer of 1944, a number of Junkers factories suffered in Halle, Aschersleben, Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Yuteborg, etc., as a result of a series of strikes by the bomber aircraft of the Western alliance. .), including the assembly line Ju-188. In addition, since the fall of 1944, due to the air raids of the Anglo-Saxon Air Force, a traffic collapse on the Reich railways, a shortage of supplies of strategic raw materials and especially fuel began to affect. All this forced the leadership of Germany to decide on the curtailment of production of this fairly efficient and difficult to bring down aircraft, with the result that in January-February 1945 of the whole Ju-33 X-unit of the modified reconnaissance unit was manufactured.

Thus, out of a total of one hundred eighty eighths in 1234 units (601 at Junkers AG, 244 at Siebel, and 211 at ATG), 125 aircraft were destroyed during production, and from 1109 machines taken by the “Flugzeuge durch die Bauaufsichtsleitung” (BAL - Control Commission of the Ministry of Aviation), the entire 874 of the aircraft hit the front units. The remaining 235 units. were destroyed (mainly due to raids by the Western air force, and partly due to poor logistics or guerrilla actions of the European anti-fascist underground) during railway transportation, on the ground at factory-based bases and piloting by novice pilots during training. In addition, several dozen cars were handed over to the allied countries of Germany (in particular, in the Hungarian Air Force and, apparently, to the fascist Air Force of the Italian Republic of Salo and the Croatian Air Force, where the Ustashi regime was in power).

Being a deep revision of the Ju-88, in terms of design, of course, the Ju-188 largely retained the features of the forerunner, differing from that in the first place in the shape of the cabin. A new form and a different type of glazing made it possible to improve visibility and greatly reduce aerodynamic drag. The design of the Ju-188 wing also underwent significant changes: its scope was increased, and it received characteristic sharp tips. Also, not only due to new engines, but also because of the improvement of aerodynamics, the German designers managed to achieve a rather significant increase in flight speed with a much larger bomb load than the Ju-88. The defensive armament was also qualitatively different: the X-NUMX-mm MG-188 gun was mounted in the nose of the Ju-20 fuselage; from attacks from above on either side of the plane was protected by an 151-mm MG-13 machine gun in a flat transparent turret rotating on 131 °; there was a firing point with a coaxial 360-mm MG-7,9 machine gun from attacks from below; for the additional defense of the tail zone, another MG-81 machine gun was sometimes installed.

In general, as already noted, the mass production of Ju-188 for a number of reasons took a very long time to develop and did not reach large levels. Therefore, it proceeded in parallel with the already well-established large-scale production of Ju-88 (which became the basis of the Luftwaffe bomber formations in 1943-1944, the total production of various types of which amounted to more than 15000 units). Some researchers believe that such a decision was erroneous for the Reich, so that the release of a more advanced bomber was inhibited (this indicates that, of course, a delay of about a year in a more fatal nature was a type of bomber and the annual delay in deploying its large-scale production). Other researchers believe that this decision of the Nazis was quite reasonable, because input to the large Ju-188 series would still be long, and the transfer of a number of Junkers AG production facilities to the release of a new, but still not having absolute advantages model would inevitably entail a significant, albeit temporary, reduction in the supply of Ju-88. But anyway, thanks to this parallel production, successful technical developments created for one aircraft were introduced on the other, and vice versa, and the use of many universal parts in the design of both models also reduced the dependence of production on the supply of specialized components.

As well as his “older brother” Ju-88, the Ju-188 turned out to be a very versatile machine and was mass-produced in versions of a high-speed bomber, a torpedo bomber, and a high-speed long-range reconnaissance aircraft. Modifications Ju-188 A-1 and A-2 were the first bombers. At the end of the 1943 of the year, the Ju-188 C-1 had, with reduced speed data, stronger defensive armament (2х20mm guns and 4x13 mm machine gun) and increased bomb load (3000 kg). Ju-188 E-1 became an alternative serial bomber modification with BMW-801ML engines (1600 hp) due to the catastrophic shortage of more advanced Jumo-213 engines (2240 hp). Later, the Ju-188 G appeared, the bombing load of which reached 3500 kg. However, in general, we can say that as a bomber, this aircraft did not have a large qualitative superiority over the Ju-88. During the daytime bomber missions, the squadron Ju-188 still suffered heavy losses, because the maximum speed with a bomb load prevented them from escaping attacks not only from the latest Western allies fighters (such as Spitfair Mk-XIV, P-51 D Mustang and Tempest Mk.V), but also from the 1942- 43 The situation on the Soviet-German front was somewhat different, but first of all this aircraft was created for action on the Western front, and therefore the results of combat use there were particularly important for the Luftwaffe.


Ju-188 in summer European camouflage attacks a group of ships


Quite effectively, Ju-188 has proved itself in the role of a sea torpedo bomber. Thus, the main production version of this modification, the Ju-188 A-3, could lift as many as two torpedoes LT-1 (b) or F-5 (b), placed at the bases of the wings, which was a relative rarity in aircraft of a comparable class. On the Ju-188 E-2 variant, the navigation equipment was further improved and the FuG-200 radar was installed, which made it possible to search for ships in bad weather and at night, which allowed aircraft of this modification to successfully avoid enemy day fighter attacks (although, of course, from - due to the imperfection of the equipment of that time, the problem of reaching the target was quite acute).

However, probably the most advanced in the Ju-188 lineup were reconnaissance options. The Ju-188 D-1 was the same Ju-188A, but with Rb 50 / 30, Rb 70 / 30 and NRb 40 / 25 automatic cameras installed at various viewing levels. In addition to this, the Ju-188 D-2 model received the FuG-200 radar and improved navigation equipment, which allowed to fly to reconnaissance at the end of the night so that, with the first rays of dawn, it was already above the front line, and also to reconnoiter over the sea (zielfinder - “target designator”) for shock groups. The modification Ju-188 F, created in 1944 year, received more high-altitude engines BMW-801 G-2 (1700 hp), so that the maximum airspeed of this type of machine at an altitude of 6200 meters reached 600 km / h at a distance of 3400 km


Ju-188 layout scheme (


The Ju-188 S-1 modification, which had no weapons, was classified as qualitatively different, but was classified by the Germans as an “high-altitude invasion attack aircraft”, since thanks to redesigned engines with a special forcing GM-1 with a relatively small bomb load in 600-800 kg (small, by the standards of the Luftwaffe; for example, by Soviet standards, the normal bomb load of the main front-line bomber Pe-2 was 600 kg, when overloaded 800 1000 kg it could reach speeds up to 685 km / h with a ceiling height of 11.500 m). So the Luftwaffe had a plane that even in the summer and autumn of 1944 of the year, under conditions of absolute domination of the allies in the sky, was able to carry out not only nightly, but even with some luck and daytime bombing, not to mention the excellent capabilities of the scout.

The Ju-188 T variant, which could develop (thanks to Jumo 213 E-1 motors (2020 hp)) maximum speed over 700 km / h at an altitude of 9500 m, i.e. Even without having defensive weapons, it was virtually inaccessible for most of the piston fighters of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition to intercept.This seemingly fantastic speed for a WWII piston bomber made vehicles of this type really universal "invasion planes" that even without an escort and without armament, it was perfectly possible to carry out daytime bomber missions, and indeed, the aircraft of this modification were rightly classified by the Germans as Höhenaufrlärer (in English, the same term Intruder) and were intended to carry out “demonstrative” daytime bombing as positions of Allied forces at the front , and for strikes against targets far beyond the front line (for example, cities in the territory of the same England). But since the end of 1944, the Reich industry has more and more plunged into a state of collapse. Fortunately for the Allies, the Germans were able to produce only 80 machines of the Ju-88 T variant.

So, we got acquainted with the features of the creation of this little-known aircraft, and in the next part we will consider the features of its further development and combat use.
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  1. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 3 June 2016 07: 14
    +6
    The article is very informative, thanks. I really hope for a cycle of 3-4 articles or further along the line: 288, 388, 488, judging by this article, the author’s potential (material) is not bad. I have only one remark: why do you think that the universality of engine mounts for various engines was a feature only (or only started with) the Ju-188? This was a hallmark of the entire German design school. Any aircraft (military, of course) could land at any airfield and receive quality maintenance: refueling, oil, charging ammunition, special gases and liquids, as well as routine repairs with equipment replacement up to replacing engines. Unlike the Soviet Union in Germany, all these conditions were carefully taken into account on a par with flight performance characteristics when applying for design. If we had at least some semblance it would have been possible and so many planes would not have lost at the beginning of the war
    1. Warrior2015
      3 June 2016 18: 19
      +1
      Quote: Fil743
      I really hope for a cycle of 3-4 articles or further along the line: 288, 388, 488

      Yes, I hope it will.

      Quote: Fil743
      Was the versatility of engine mounts for various engines a feature of only (or only started with) the Ju-188? This was a hallmark of the entire German design school.

      Thanks for the valuable comment. A feature of this particular model was the universal mount for various engines from different manufacturers, while many aircraft were simply equipped with the same engines, which were simply manufactured at different plants. And here motors from completely different manufacturers.
  2. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 3 June 2016 07: 23
    +1
    As I recall, the Germans planned to put Jumo-288 engines on the Ju-222, with which the fail came out. For this reason, work on the 188th was urgently activated.





    Pictured is a Ju-288 with a Jumo-222 in flight.

    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 3 June 2016 07: 28
      +3
      It's funny, therefore, offtopic, an engine with the same cylinder arrangement was produced with the Star under the brand M-503 (ChNSP16 / 17) and others like them, with 42 and 56 cylinders.

      1. iouris
        iouris 3 June 2016 11: 26
        +4
        No wonder: we reached Berlin. This is the only way to "import" high technologies into Russia.
        1. Rash
          Rash 3 June 2016 14: 11
          0
          Where to continue? wink
  3. Ruby
    Ruby 3 June 2016 08: 51
    +2
    That's how you read about German developments, and involuntarily think about it. How did we manage to defeat them.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 3 June 2016 09: 35
      +4
      Quote: Yakut
      That's how you read about German developments, and involuntarily think about it. How did we manage to defeat them.

      here the main thing is not to fall into Germanophilism
      1. Ruby
        Ruby 3 June 2016 18: 42
        +2
        It’s like I’m not at the same age that I would fall into all sorts of branches and phobias :)
        But if in fact, unfortunately, our aircraft until the end of the war could do little to oppose the German high-altitude scouts. Single victories are semi-random in nature. We had neither an adequate detection system, nor guidance of aviation at the target. And not every fighter could intercept a high-altitude target. It is not in vain that the main part of those not many Spits, Mustangs and Kingcobras that came to us under the lend-lease in air defense were kept, they had at least some chances.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 4 June 2016 15: 56
          +1
          Ruby

          The early air raid warning system in the USSR was good. But intercepting high-altitude speed targets is very difficult technically and not because of the capabilities of the aircraft only. More important is the coordination of early warning services. Minimal lack of coherence, gave a negative
          1. Ruby
            Ruby 4 June 2016 20: 02
            +1
            Well, I actually mean the same thing. Discover a little. It is necessary to classify, notify aviation, take the interceptor to the target. And this despite the fact that the fighter must act at its highest altitudes, where its characteristics in speed and climb are comparable to a scout. Only very well-coordinated actions could lead to success. And given the fighter’s limited fuel supply, there was usually no chance of a second attack.
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 3 June 2016 10: 34
      +3
      Quote: Yakut
      How did we manage to defeat them.

      When Fersman Alexander Evgenievich (an outstanding geochemist) was asked about the victory, he said that by April 1945, Germany would have exhausted its potential. The forecast was made in the summer of 1941.
    3. Warrior2015
      3 June 2016 18: 22
      +2
      Quote: Yakut
      How did we manage to defeat them.

      Great blood unfortunately and not without the help of the Western Allies. For example, most of these machines were knocked out precisely by the Anglo-Saxon Air Force.
    4. NordUral
      NordUral 3 June 2016 21: 26
      +6
      The Soviet engineering school and the country's leadership managed to squeeze the maximum out of the minimum, realizing that there is no limit to perfection, but there are resources. Relatively simple combat vehicles, often inferior to more technically advanced ones, but produced on stream, eventually brought us victory. And one cannot discount the ideology of socialist society. There is no need to talk about the role of Stalin.
  4. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 3 June 2016 10: 42
    +1
    informative article. and I would like to continue. and the German school of aircraft engineering in the Second World War was strong. The maximum possible unification was put at the forefront ...
    1. Forget
      Forget 3 June 2016 12: 37
      0
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      the German school of aircraft engineering in the second world was strong

      if you pay attention to the wings, you will see that they are pointed towards the end, a very competent solution to reduce inductive resistance.
      1. Warrior2015
        3 June 2016 18: 24
        +1
        Quote: Forget
        if you pay attention to the wings, you will see that they are pointed towards the end, a very competent solution to reduce inductive resistance.

        Thanks so much for noticing. This was a characteristic feature of Ju-188, according to which it was recommended to distinguish them from, for example, Ju-88 in the English instructions for combat counteraction.
      2. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 June 2016 16: 03
        0
        Forget

        These wing tips are generally controversial. It is not known when the designers agreed on how to make them for maximum efficiency. There were problems with these wing ends even after the war.
        MIG-21, a good example. There they cut off the tip of the wing triangle.
      3. AK64
        AK64 4 June 2016 17: 12
        0
        a very competent solution to reduce inductive resistance.


        Due to what?
  5. qwert
    qwert 3 June 2016 11: 11
    +1
    It is only strange that the author decided not to indicate the source, or the source. It’s kind of like a standard article requirement
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 4 June 2016 00: 22
      +1
      The plane is well described in the book by N.V. Shunkov "Luftwaffe Aviation" Moscow, 2000 Some parts of the article simply repeat it.
  6. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 3 June 2016 18: 29
    +2
    But this amount looked ridiculous when compared with the production of bombers in the allied countries of the anti-Hitler coalition.
    So simple, universal among the Allies, produced in large quantities, defeated the Nazi, but produced in small quantities, quality. You know the war, it is like that - it requires simplicity! request
    1. AK64
      AK64 4 June 2016 17: 14
      0
      So simple, universal among the Allies, produced in large quantities, defeated the Nazi, but produced in small quantities, quality. You know the war, it is like that - it requires simplicity!


      Economically, the Germans lost guaranteed: you can’t argue with the United States on the rampart, but in numbers with the USSR + USA.
      Therefore, their only chance was to try to replay on quality.

      In principle, it could burn out.
  7. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 05
    +2
    The article is detailed and informative. She repeats in many respects what is rather well described in the popular and scientific and technical literature. Everything is relative. If the author writes about the advantages of the aircraft compared to the Allied aircraft, you need to indicate which and due to what they were achieved. There is nothing of this, except for a reference to the possibility of replacing the DB-801 engines with Yumo-213. This was for all the warring parties. On our Pe-2, it was also possible to replace the M-105 with the more powerful M-105 PF-2. Not in this "highlight" of the German aircraft.
  8. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 05
    +3
    I will try to supplement the author.
    AIRCRAFT DESIGN
    Yu-188 was originally conceived as a further development of the Yu-88. The new aircraft was false, possessing, above all, greater range, speed, better protection and defensive weapons. To carry out bombing from a gentle dive, an air brake and an automatic pick-up from the peak were provided, which were then abandoned. It was believed that the Yu-188 would be more effective for bombing from horizontal flight.
    The aircraft is designed as a multi-purpose twin-engine all-metal midplane with retractable landing gear.
    The fuselage was a semi-monocoque of dural construction with a trapezoidal cross-section with 33 frames and a sheath of smooth sheets. It was easier to manufacture than the fuselages of the American A-20, B-25 and B-26. Traditionally, the fuselages of twin-engine bombers were divided into parts: the cockpit, which was attached to the fuselage, the middle part with the attachment points of the planes and the rear. Most often, the crew consisted of three people. On the Yu-188, he was out of 4 people, but on a number of modifications then they returned to the triple version. The pilot sat on the front left, the navigator-scorer in the lower right, behind the pilot the radio operator gunner, in the lower gondola - the gunner.
    The cabin was partially booked. So, for example, the pilot's seat had an armored back, and the shooter's place was protected by armor plates. The cabin lantern was completely glazed. The Germans used biconvex glazing, which improved visibility and artificially expanded the dimensions of the cabin. The lantern was equipped with locks for emergency dumping of its rear. The lower gondola was equipped with a machine gun installation and opened for crew access to the aircraft. In contrast to the Yu-88, the 7,9mm machine gun at the shooter was coaxial. An optical bomb sight was located in front of the crew cabin. The so-called Kuto Nase, a device for cutting the ropes of enemy air defense balloons, could also be installed there.
    In the middle part of the fuselage there were two bomb compartments, which were equipped with holders for hanging bombs or additional fuel tanks. At the top of the fuselage was a compartment for a rescue boat. The American cars had one bomb bay, but they had special planes for reconnaissance, the German machine was conceived as a universal one.
    The wing was a two-spar wing with smooth sheet skin and had two detachable consoles. Reinforced ribs served simultaneously for mounting the main supports of the chassis and engines. The toe of the wing was made hollow - to supply hot air from engines to it. Spreading, hot air heated the leading edge of the wing, thereby contributing to the removal of ice from it. American designers did not guess before that, but in vain. The back of the wing was equipped with flaps and ailerons. The trimmer was installed only on the left aileron. On the lower part of the wing there were aerodynamic brakes for the automatic withdrawal of the aircraft from the dive.
    The tail unit - all-metal, single-fin with a freely supporting two-spar stabilizer - had a symmetrical profile and was trapezoidal in plan. Aerodynamic elevators and directions equipped with trimmers. Their drive was carried out mainly with the help of rigid rods and rockers, and when withdrawing from a dive, a hydraulic system was automatically connected to them, reducing the pilot's efforts on the controls. On the machines of the allies, this was not.
    Chassis - a classic scheme, with a rear wheel. All supports were supplied with pneumatic oil shock absorbers. When cleaning, the main supports were turned 90 ° around their axis, so that the wheels fit horizontally in the chassis niches. Flaps of the niches were opened only during the cleaning or release of the chassis. The dimensions of the main wheels are 1140x410 mm, the rear - 560x200 mm. The scheme with the nose wheel is preferable, but since Yu-88 was taken as the basis, the Germans refused to rework the nose.
  9. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 06
    0
    POWER POINT
    The power plant of the aircraft consisted of two 14-cylinder engines of the type BMW 801MG2 or BMW 801 TC air-cooled with a star-shaped arrangement of cylinders. The engines were equipped with VDM three-blade metal propellers equipped with a liquid anti-icing system.
    FUEL SYSTEM
    Fuel was poured into four wing tanks, two of which were located between the fuselage and the engines and two more were on the outside of the engines. Bomb compartments were also used to suspend additional fuel tanks: a 1280-liter tank was installed in the front, and 600-liter in the rear. All tanks were self-sealing. In addition, two more containers of 900 l each could be suspended under the wing. There was an emergency fuel drain system through a pipe in the rear of the aircraft.
    Hydraulics provided the stabilizer operability, landing gear cleaning and release, closing and opening landing gear flaps, flaps, aerodynamic brakes and wheel brakes, as well as turning the upper machine gun mount. This compares favorably with the U-188 from American cars.
    RADIO EQUIPMENT
    The Ju 188E-1 radio equipment included: FuG 16 VHF radio, FuG 25 identification system radio, FuB1-2 low visibility landing system. On aircraft of the E-2 series there was a FuG 200 radar. On American and British aircraft, there were no landing systems in conditions of poor visibility. excluding landing lights.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 11
    +1
    The article is detailed and informative. She repeats in many respects what is rather well described in the popular and scientific and technical literature. Everything is relative. If the author writes about the advantages of the aircraft compared to the Allied aircraft, you need to indicate which and due to what they were achieved. There is nothing of this, except for a reference to the possibility of replacing the DB-801 engines with Yumo-213. This was for all the warring parties. On our Pe-2, it was also possible to replace the M-105 with the more powerful M-105 PF-2. Not in this "highlight" of the German aircraft.
  12. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 12
    0
    I will try to supplement the author.
    AIRCRAFT DESIGN
    Yu-188 was originally conceived as a further development of the Yu-88. The new aircraft was false, possessing, above all, greater range, speed, better protection and defensive weapons. To carry out bombing from a gentle dive, an air brake and an automatic pick-up from the peak were provided, which were then abandoned. It was believed that the Yu-188 would be more effective for bombing from horizontal flight.
    The aircraft is designed as a multi-purpose twin-engine all-metal midplane with retractable landing gear.
    The fuselage was a semi-monocoque of dural construction with a trapezoidal cross-section with 33 frames and a sheath of smooth sheets. It was easier to manufacture than the fuselages of the American A-20, B-25 and B-26. Traditionally, the fuselages of twin-engine bombers were divided into parts: the cockpit, which was attached to the fuselage, the middle part with the attachment points of the planes and the rear. Most often, the crew consisted of three people. On the Yu-188, he was out of 4 people, but on a number of modifications then they returned to the triple version. The pilot sat on the front left, the navigator-scorer in the lower right, behind the pilot the radio operator gunner, in the lower gondola - the gunner.
    The cabin was partially booked. So, for example, the pilot's seat had an armored back, and the shooter's place was protected by armor plates. The cabin lantern was completely glazed. The Germans used biconvex glazing, which improved visibility and artificially expanded the dimensions of the cabin. The lantern was equipped with locks for emergency dumping of its rear. The lower gondola was equipped with a machine gun installation and opened for crew access to the aircraft. In contrast to the Yu-88, the 7,9mm machine gun at the shooter was coaxial. An optical bomb sight was located in front of the crew cabin. The so-called Kuto Nase, a device for cutting the ropes of enemy air defense balloons, could also be installed there.
    In the middle part of the fuselage there were two bomb compartments, which were equipped with holders for hanging bombs or additional fuel tanks. At the top of the fuselage was a compartment for a rescue boat. The American cars had one bomb bay, but they had special planes for reconnaissance, the German machine was conceived as a universal one.
    The wing was a two-spar wing with smooth sheet skin and had two detachable consoles. Reinforced ribs served simultaneously for mounting the main supports of the chassis and engines. The toe of the wing was made hollow - to supply hot air from engines to it. Spreading, hot air heated the leading edge of the wing, thereby contributing to the removal of ice from it. American designers did not guess before that, but in vain. The back of the wing was equipped with flaps and ailerons. The trimmer was installed only on the left aileron. On the lower part of the wing there were aerodynamic brakes for the automatic withdrawal of the aircraft from the dive.
    The tail unit - all-metal, single-fin with a freely supporting two-spar stabilizer - had a symmetrical profile and was trapezoidal in plan. Aerodynamic elevators and directions equipped with trimmers. Their drive was carried out mainly with the help of rigid rods and rockers, and when withdrawing from a dive, a hydraulic system was automatically connected to them, reducing the pilot's efforts on the controls. On the machines of the allies, this was not.
    Chassis - a classic scheme, with a rear wheel. All supports were supplied with pneumatic oil shock absorbers. When cleaning, the main supports were turned 90 ° around their axis, so that the wheels fit horizontally in the chassis niches. Flaps of the niches were opened only during the cleaning or release of the chassis. The dimensions of the main wheels are 1140x410 mm, the rear - 560x200 mm. The scheme with the nose wheel is preferable, but since Yu-88 was taken as the basis, the Germans refused to rework the nose.
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 15
    0
    The article is detailed and informative. She repeats in many respects what is rather well described in the popular and scientific and technical literature. Everything is relative. If the author writes about the advantages of the aircraft compared to the Allied aircraft, you need to indicate which and due to what they were achieved. There is nothing of this, except for a reference to the possibility of replacing the DB-801 engines with Yumo-213. This was for all the warring parties. On our Pe-2, it was also possible to replace the M-105 with the more powerful M-105 PF-2. Not in this "highlight" of the German aircraft.
  15. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 02: 15
    0
    I will try to supplement the author.
    AIRCRAFT DESIGN
    Yu-188 was originally conceived as a further development of the Yu-88. The new aircraft was false, possessing, above all, greater range, speed, better protection and defensive weapons. To carry out bombing from a gentle dive, an air brake and an automatic pick-up from the peak were provided, which were then abandoned. It was believed that the Yu-188 would be more effective for bombing from horizontal flight.
    The aircraft is designed as a multi-purpose twin-engine all-metal midplane with retractable landing gear.
    The fuselage was a semi-monocoque of dural construction with a trapezoidal cross-section with 33 frames and a sheath of smooth sheets. It was easier to manufacture than the fuselages of the American A-20, B-25 and B-26. Traditionally, the fuselages of twin-engine bombers were divided into parts: the cockpit, which was attached to the fuselage, the middle part with the attachment points of the planes and the rear. Most often, the crew consisted of three people. On the Yu-188, he was out of 4 people, but on a number of modifications then they returned to the triple version. The pilot sat on the front left, the navigator-scorer in the lower right, behind the pilot the radio operator gunner, in the lower gondola - the gunner.
    The cabin was partially booked. So, for example, the pilot's seat had an armored back, and the shooter's place was protected by armor plates. The cabin lantern was completely glazed. The Germans used biconvex glazing, which improved visibility and artificially expanded the dimensions of the cabin. The lantern was equipped with locks for emergency dumping of its rear. The lower gondola was equipped with a machine gun installation and opened for crew access to the aircraft. In contrast to the Yu-88, the 7,9mm machine gun at the shooter was coaxial. An optical bomb sight was located in front of the crew cabin. The so-called Kuto Nase, a device for cutting the ropes of enemy air defense balloons, could also be installed there.
    In the middle part of the fuselage there were two bomb compartments, which were equipped with holders for hanging bombs or additional fuel tanks. At the top of the fuselage was a compartment for a rescue boat. The American cars had one bomb bay, but they had special planes for reconnaissance, the German machine was conceived as a universal one.
    The wing was a two-spar wing with smooth sheet skin and had two detachable consoles. Reinforced ribs served simultaneously for mounting the main supports of the chassis and engines. The toe of the wing was made hollow - to supply hot air from engines to it. Spreading, hot air heated the leading edge of the wing, thereby contributing to the removal of ice from it. American designers did not guess before that, but in vain. The back of the wing was equipped with flaps and ailerons. The trimmer was installed only on the left aileron. On the lower part of the wing there were aerodynamic brakes for the automatic withdrawal of the aircraft from the dive.
    The tail unit - all-metal, single-fin with a freely supporting two-spar stabilizer - had a symmetrical profile and was trapezoidal in plan. Aerodynamic elevators and directions equipped with trimmers. Their drive was carried out mainly with the help of rigid rods and rockers, and when withdrawing from a dive, a hydraulic system was automatically connected to them, reducing the pilot's efforts on the controls. On the machines of the allies, this was not.
    Chassis - a classic scheme, with a rear wheel. All supports were supplied with pneumatic oil shock absorbers. When cleaning, the main supports were turned 90 ° around their axis, so that the wheels fit horizontally in the chassis niches. Flaps of the niches were opened only during the cleaning or release of the chassis. The dimensions of the main wheels are 1140x410 mm, the rear - 560x200 mm. The scheme with the nose wheel is preferable, but since Yu-88 was taken as the basis, the Germans refused to rework the nose.
  16. rubin6286
    rubin6286 4 June 2016 07: 51
    +1
    ARMAMENT
    The defensive armament of the Ju 188E-1 consisted of a 151 mm MG 20/20 cannon with 250 rounds of ammunition mounted movably in front of the glazing (on the right), 131-mm MG 13 large-caliber machine guns in the turret on top of the crew cabin and in the upper rear cabins with ammunition of 500 rounds and 250 rounds - stock. In the gondola under the cockpit there was a twin MG 81Z machine gun of 7,9 mm caliber with a stock of 1000 rounds.
    MILITARY APPLICATION
    Depending on the modification, the Yu-188 was used as a bomber, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance.
    The Ju 188E-1 aircraft carried up to 3000 kg of bomb weapons. There were several options for bomb loading, but the most commonly used option was with two bombs of 1000 kg or four bombs of 500 kg, six of 250 kg or 18 of 70 kg. Ju 188E-2 could carry torpedoes of the type LTF 5B, LT 1B or LMA aviation mines of 500 kg (4 pcs.) Or LFB of 1000 kg (2 pcs.) On external suspension. Bombs weighing 250 and 500 kg were also hung on underwing holders.
    Ju 188E airplanes hit the KG 6 headquarters squadron, based in Quirel (France), in May 1943, and the first combat missions of three Ju 188E-1s from 4 / KG 66 took place on the night of August 18-19, 1943 — they bombed factories in Lincoln (east of England).
    More widespread use of Ju 188 was in October 1943 - after replacing the aircraft of group 1 / KG 6 with aircraft of this type in the amount of 29 units. Most often, they performed the role of scouts who aimed at the target of strike groups of aircraft. For the first time, the Ju 188E-1 was shot down on the night of October 8-9 by the English Mosquito plane.
    In November and December 1943, Ju 188E-1 entered service with the 1st and 2nd groups of KG 6.
    In September 1943, Ju 188F-1 entered the long-range reconnaissance group operating in Ukraine. At the end of the year, the same aircraft were delivered to units that fought on the Eastern Front and in France, and to the KG 26 squadron, based in Norway, were the torpedo bombers Ju 188E-2 and reconnaissance 188F-2.
    In 1944, such units as the Stab, 188st and 1nd groups of KG 2, 2rd group of KG 3 and 26st group of KG 1 were armed with Ju 200 aircraft.
    The main combat use of aircraft in the KG 6 were night bomb attacks. These are the operations of Steinbok and Gisela. The latter involved 56 units of Ju 188, which bombed eastern England. KG 200 aircraft took part in battles on the Eastern Front. Ju 188F-2 and D-2 reconnaissance group 1. (F) / 124, based in Kirkenes (Norway), mainly worked on the routes of sea convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk.
    The aircraft was better than the Yu-88, but inferior to the Dornier-217Z5, which was a carrier of guided missile weapons, in a number of parameters and combat effectiveness.
    References: N.V. Shunkov. Luftwaffe Aviation. Moscow 2000
    V. Kudrin "Model Designer" №3 1997
  17. AK64
    AK64 4 June 2016 16: 49
    0
    However, due to the need to take into account the design of the many often mutually exclusive requirements of the serial Ju-88 in 1939-1940. showed themselves not particularly well during the fighting.


    What does the author actually mean? (I'm about the highlighted, not about requirementsthat really were ... not entirely reasonable)
  18. AK64
    AK64 4 June 2016 17: 17
    0
    By the way, the author notes as a curiosity.
    Already after the war, at the end of the 40's, German engineers developed a draft front-line bomb for the USSR. It was based on the same recognizable Junkers.

    The project was not accepted in the USSR: IL-28 already promised more
  19. Warrior2015
    9 June 2016 10: 34
    0
    Quote: AK64
    u-88 in 1939-1940 showed themselves not particularly well during the fighting.

    Well, it is precisely the fact that these aircraft proved to be worse than the same He-111, and demanded multiple modifications, eventually becoming the largest bomber in Germany.

    Quote: AK64
    Already after the war, at the end of the 40's, German engineers developed a draft front-line bomb for the USSR. It was based on the same recognizable Junkers.
    Yes, funny, the Germans helped all the winners - both us and the overseas non-partners.