Given the large number of modern air defense systems at the theater of operations, which are network-centric both with each other and with various aviation air defense and electronic intelligence systems, the use of standard military transport aircraft is in great danger to the crew and paratroopers. The stakes have shifted sharply to mobile, compact and versatile military transport units with high modernization potential, which in the US KMP have become the MV-22B Osprey multi-purpose convertiplanes
It is very difficult to perform an airborne operation in an area where there is a significant amount of enemy anti-aircraft missiles. Imagine a terrain with a very complex terrain. Even if most of the long-range anti-aircraft missile systems are suppressed with the help of air-based anti-radar and cruise missiles, numerous troop-based air defense systems and missile defense systems (including those with passive guidance systems) will continue to operate in the theater area. means of air attack, including military transport aviation. The landing in such conditions turns into a “deadly voyage” long before the opening of the ramp of the landing aircraft. For this reason, the development of an advanced concept of using the famous MV-22A Osprey military transport converting planes has begun in the US Marine Corps, which can fundamentally change our understanding of this kind of operations. To begin with, we propose to consider the essence of the shortcomings of the North Atlantic Alliance's rapid reaction forces in the European theater of operations.
NATO COMMAND REALIZES STRATEGIC "ATTAINMENT" OF EUROPEAN "ACUTE COPIES"
Recently, in the Western world, which is working on numerous mediocre military-strategic anti-Russian concepts to "contain the Russian Federation", various NATO operational units of rapid and "ultrafast" response have begun to gain popularity, which should cover most of the Eastern European members of NATO, as well as the Baltic states from the threat from our side. We saw the Abrams (M1A2 SEP) in Estonia and Georgia, we also observed the transfer of paratroopers from the 173 Brigade of the US Armed Forces to joint exercises with the Kiev junta near Lvov. But it all looks so wickedly, as well as the regular visits of the Aegis-destroyers of the US Navy's nuclear missile defense system to the Black Sea, where for panic of the entire officers of the American warship only one Su-24M with Khibiny on hangers is enough.
The situation is roughly the same with the rapid-reaction forces in Eastern Europe. Thus, the Allied Command NATO in Europe, having assessed the tactical distribution of forces between the CSTO and NATO in the Black Sea, in the Caucasus, on the border with Belarus and in the Baltics, announced a very important conclusion: the 5, the thousand-pointed operational group of Sharp Spears (VJTF, - Very High Readiness Joint Task Force) will not be able to carry out operational deployment, not to mention the performance of a defensive operation, in case there is an escalation of hostilities between Russia and NATO. Reports about it «Financial Times» with reference to the NATO generals. In addition, a brief overview of the situation was presented by the analyst of the famous newspaper Sam Jones. As a matter of fact, it is difficult to call it analytical, as it is represented by short “stubs”, statements and thoughts of Western military experts, but it can undoubtedly be a source for careful analysis.
One of the units of the largest operational group of rapid reaction forces VJTF should be on board the Dutch multi-purpose air transport tanker KDC-10. The aircraft is a modification of the US strategic transport tanker KC-10A "Extender", and is also capable of placing various cargoes and infantrymen on board. KDC-10 is able to transfer cargoes weighing up to 76,5 over a distance of 7000 km, which makes it possible to attribute it to a universal transport of a strategic level, but under conditions of an East European theater of operations, its use will definitely be a big question. All WFP key NATO air bases in this region will be damaged by the Russian Iskander-M and Iskander-K OTRKs, as well as the Caliber missile defense system. This will limit the mission of one of the key NATO PTSs to the transfer of military cargo and airborne units of the alliance between the rear zones of various North-Atlantic Alliance units in the European theater of operations, as well as refueling of NATO military aviation over Western and Central Europe, which forces the joint command to develop a completely different concept of conducting probable airborne operations, involving a larger number of compact military transport aircraft
The first thing that can be summed up from it is the complete vulnerability of the operational units of the Allied Forces of NATO in Poland and the Baltic countries for promising means of air attack of the Russian Aerospace Forces. Their base includes: the airbase in Redzikovo (Poland), Emari airbase (Estonia), Avb Zokniai (Lithuania), where the 27 of April was visited by a link of their 2-American F-5A Raptor fighters, as well as many other Polish military facilities placed at the disposal of the US Army, including Avb Laski, military facilities in Ciechanow, Hoshina and Skwierzyna and many others. All these objects lie within the radius of destruction of our operational-tactical missile systems Iskander-M and Iskander-K, as well as the upgraded Smerch multiple-launch rocket systems and the promising Belarusian-Chinese MLRS Polonaise. Creating specialized fortified areas and strongholds for “Sharp Lances” of NATO in these zones has absolutely no tactical value, they will be quickly destroyed by Russian missile strikes, from which even a dozen of Patriot PAC-22 and SAMP-T batteries cannot be saved. or "SL-AMRAAM". Heavy military transport planes with light and heavy armored vehicles, as well as paratroopers will not be able to arrive at the above air bases, because, firstly, their canvas will be damaged in advance by our missile-bombing attacks, and secondly, aircraft operating over the western regions of the Russian Federation Airborne A-3U will be detected even over the western part of Poland’s airspace, then long-range MiG-50BM interceptors equipped with P-31С air-to-air missiles with a range over 33 km will come into action. All this in the alliance has long been considered. For example, Polish diplomats who are not even very knowledgeable in technical intricacies realize that the transfer of 280 battalions of NATO’s main flagships (USA, Great Britain, France and Germany) to the Baltic countries is an “absolute minimum” of measures taken, and some effect they will only have before the massed rocket and air strike of our VKS.
As a result, the whole point of maintaining the sharpness of the Sharp copies and any other units of the Allied Combat Forces of NATO smoothly fits the bar of the 4 article of the NATO Charter, according to which the allied states of the North Atlantic Alliance should conduct multilateral consultations with each other and also coordinate the actions of internal security forces. if the situation has a “hybrid” character and can move into a phase of military conflict involving foreign military units. It is worth noting that the West’s obsession with the “hybrid” conflicts began immediately after the liberation of the Republic of Crimea by the Russian army.
But in the context of the 5 Article of the NATO Charter, which is considered to be the basis of the entire defense capability of the bloc, the latest positions are assigned to Sharp copies today, which characterizes the level of the unit close to the reinforced police forces and internal troops; to collective defense against external threats here is very far.
In view of this, the most critical, situation of NATO's rapid reaction forces in the light of the unprecedented technical and numerical reinforcement of units of the Aerospace Forces and the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation in the ZVO, the leading members of the alliance accelerated work on improving the methods of military transport operations, including the modernization of transport units themselves.
THE STARTING PROGRAM FOR THE UPDATE OF THE MULTI-GOAL MILITARY-TRANSPORT CONTROLLER MV-22 "OSPREY" DAN START: THE MACHINES WILL GET THE POSSIBILITIES OF INDEPENDENT FIRE SUPPORT OF YOUR OWN CHAIRMAN
Despite the unique functionality of convertoplanes of the V-22 "Osprey" family, the accident rate of these machines remained very high until recently. This is evidenced by the stages of testing the first prototypes "Osprey" and the initial period of operation of the machines. And the most significant is the period between the first flight of the experimental machine (19 March 1989 of the year) and the beginning of the adoption (8 of December 2005 of the year), which was 16 years. Many technical problems V-22 associated with the abundance of the most complex units of the engine nacelle rotation system, hydraulic mechanisms located in close proximity to the fuel tanks of the wing and other equipment, often led to emergencies and disasters. So, July 20 1992, the 4 th prototype of the convertoplan crashed over the Potomac River, right in front of the US congressmen invited to the demonstration flight. The cause of the fall of the Osprey in the Potomac was the leakage of fluid from the hydraulic system of the transmission in the area of the transmission mechanism from the shaft of the right TVD to the shaft connecting the right engine to the left engine for flight mode on one engine. The leak occurred during the period of horizontal flight, and fluid accumulated in the lower part of the engine nacelle. Then, when going into vertical flight mode, the liquid got into the working area of the engine, which led to a strong ignition of the engine, fuel system and the tiltrotor crash. Then 11 people died and flights were stopped for almost a year. Hydraulic system finalized. And all the flammable elements of the units were optimally spaced at a safe distance. Serious and long-term tests were also carried out in the field of aerodynamic changes during the transition between helicopter and aircraft modes. The most thoroughly studied is the “vortex ring” phenomenon, which occurs with a low horizontal flight speed and a high descent rate for rotorcraft. Its essence lies in the fact that the blades of the rotor of the aircraft when falling fall into the region of low pressure generated by the same rotor in the swept area. The lifting force is sharply reduced, and in case of low productivity of the computerized control system of the machine, uncontrolled stalling of the machine may begin. The minimum limit of the descent rate at which the Osprey hit the “vortex ring” was 8,1 m / s; this phenomenon was most pronounced at the rate of descent 10,2 m / s. All these qualities were taken into account when updating the software of the on-board convertible plane.
What do we know about the list of tasks performed by various modifications of Ospreev? The concept of using convertiplanes in the US Armed Forces was first born back in May, 1977, when Bell took the Bell XV-15 prototype into the air. The experimental machine was almost 2 times smaller than the future Osprey in overall dimensions, but its performance was about the same level, which made it possible to use all the aerodynamic parameters when designing the V-22. The Ospreev era began on 12 years later, in March 19 1989, when an experimental product was lifted into the air. In the autumn of the same year, the 20-ton rotary-wing machine had already successfully demonstrated a professional transition from helicopter to airplane flight mode. Rotates 97 degrees nacelle with 2 most powerful 6150-strong turboshaft engines Rolls-Royce T406 (AE 1107C-Liberty), allow a vertical (helicopter) rise even at takeoff weight close to the maximum (23900 kg), with a short takeoff weight may be 25900 kg, and with a long - 27500 kg. For loads: the maximum load can approach 9072 kg (with a long run), with vertical take-off - 5450 kg, which allows, in addition to 24 equipped paratroopers, to take an additional load, both on the cargo compartment and on the external suspension points, which is embodied in 4 of the famous Osprey projects, and to be embodied in the most ambitious 5-m project of a shock-transport convertoplan.
The developed versions of the V-22 have a huge modernization potential, as evidenced by the previously announced plans of the US Air Force command to replace a number of tactical military transport and multipurpose helicopters and airplanes for the MTR of the US Armed Forces with Osprey. Their list included the MH-53J “Pave Low III” military transport helicopter (despite its highly sensitive infrared viewer of the AN / AAQ-10 PTS review and the radar following the terrain relief AN / APQ-158), the MC-MC military transport aircraft 130E "Combat Talon I" (equipped with an obsolete complex of aircraft revealing searchlights with special filters for synchronization with thermal imaging systems), as well as military transport aircraft refueling HC-130N / P "Combat Shadow", also intended for search and rescue operations in deep rear areas prot willow The replacement is fully justified, since the MV-22 has both speed and range characteristics that are inaccessible to the heavy Pave Low III helicopter and helicopter qualities that are inaccessible to most versions of the Hercules. The most well-known versions being developed are: MV-22 (for the US KMP), HV-22 (for the US Navy), CV-22 (for the MTR) and SV-22 (the anti-submarine tilt-turn for the US Navy).
The most important technological feature that combines all versions of the Osprey convertiplanes is a special synchronizing shaft, which allows for flight and proper landing even when one of the engines is out of order, which greatly increases the survival rate of the vehicle in combat conditions. All modifications of the V-22 can be taken on external hangers up to 3-x PTB with a total capacity of 4884 l. The range in such a configuration, with a small payload, can reach 1200 - 1400 km, which is very important for the anti-submarine version of the SV-22, capable of deploying the RSL on the maritime theater of war without attracting Orion and Poseidon. Capable "Osprey" for much: for example, modifications for the Air Force and KMP are equipped with a compact refueling unit such as "hose-cone", installed under the ajar upper sash of the cargo compartment. The total amount of fuel placed in 4 groups of tanks (2 - in the wing consoles near the engine nacelles, 2 more - in the fuselage sponsons) and additional tanks in the cargo compartment and on the suspensions, can be 13700 kg, which allows for one near flight to 75 % Refuel a link from two deck fighters F / A-18E / F "Super Hornet" or F-35B. But these abilities are more related to maintaining the combat potential of aviation of the ILC and Navy; But what about direct participation in hostilities?
Now, as an upgrade of the MV-22 KMPs, the possibility is being considered of installing a computerized fire control system on converters, as well as equipping Helfire / JAGM and AGM-176 "Griffin" tactical missiles of the air-to-ground class, as well as GBU guided bombs -44 / B "Viper Strike". This includes not only the installation of a complex shooting complex, but also the updating of the INS, including the MRLS to ensure low-altitude flight in the following terrain mode, which is necessary for the successful and covert use of AGM-114 missiles. The elemental and experimental base for the two main systems is almost ready and requires only proper installation and some improvements in terms of software synchronization and missile integration.
High-precision air-to-ground tactical missiles are not the only weapon variant of the updated MV-22 “Osprey” considered by the USMC. We decided to use the Viper Strike controlled UAB GBU-44 / B as an auxiliary precision instrument. A small guided munition has a hull length and wingspan within a meter, and its mass is 20 kg. The design of the case is characterized by the wide use of composite materials. GBU-44 / B is a version of the famous BAT (Brilliant Anti-Tank) self-aiming combat element used in the cluster head of the MGM-164A (ATACMS Block II) and MGM-164B (ATACMS Block IIA) tactical ballistic missiles. The P3I BAT ammunition was initially equipped with a combined infrared-acoustic homing head, which was completely autonomous and did not require illumination with various radar and laser tools, since the ATACMS OTRK itself was intended to destroy targets in the depth of the territory controlled by the enemy, where the actions of the UAV are targeting and ground forces with similar Illumination systems can be severely complicated. GBU-44 / B, on the contrary, should hit its targets directly in the operating area of its carrier, and therefore the combined guidance system received completely different channels: the GPS satellite module was used for correction, and a semi-active laser guidance channel was used for the final guidance segment. The target can be highlighted with a laser target designator, installed both on the Osprey itself, and on another aircraft or ground unit. GBU-44 / B "Viper Strike", due to the small ESR and physical dimensions, as well as the composite hull, poses a threat even to modern air defense systems, moreover, the external suspension MV-22B can take more 10 similar ammunition, and the cargo cabin - more 20 (along with a reset system installed above the ramp), but only if this tiltrotor is not loaded by marines. There can be a lot of models for using the MV-22B impact vehicles, since there can be several types of outwardly indistinguishable Ospreeys in one airborne squadron. Each machine can carry “Helfire” and “Viper Strike” on the suspensions, but the “stuffing” of the cargo compartment can be different for everyone. For example, the 8 of the following MV-22Bs can carry 192 fighter KMP USA, and the four leading vehicles - jet fuel to refuel the transport part of the squadron or the Super Hornet deck fighters covering it
In the presence of modern air defense systems, the effectiveness of using tactical missiles of the AGM-114 family is quite low, since their average flight speed does not exceed 1400 km / h, and it can be shot down another half way to the target. This drawback is most noticeable when it is launched from a carrier flying at altitudes greater than 50 - 100 m, which allows ground-based radar and optical-electronic means to start monitoring in advance of the threatening direction. "Osprey" have a lot of advantages for low-altitude approach to the target, which is beneficial both at the time of landing and when performing an attack with tactical missiles.
Firstly, this is a helicopter flight mode. “Rivet Joint” and “J-STARS” detect in advance the places of the anti-aircraft missile systems deployed by the enemy, determine their type and estimated range of action. Coordinates are then transmitted onboard the enveloping terrain of the MV-22, and at a distance of 50 km the Osprey pilots lead the engine-nacelles to angles more than 80 degrees, dropping to 15 — 25 m above the surface to prevent the presence of airborne the absence of the enemy DRLOI aircraft over the theater). Later, depending on the type of air defense missile system, the pilots decide whether the AGM-114 or JAGM missiles (from 10 to 45 km, respectively) can reach the target. It is logical that it will be much easier to get close to troop-based air defense missile systems than to long-range systems. If the tactical situation allows, the MV-22 will be able to pre-release all JAGM suspensions using air defense systems, carrying out the so-called “glut” of the multi-purpose radar system of the air defense missile system at the very moment when the marines will land. For the breakthrough of the echeloned air defense, represented by several divisions of various class air defense missile systems, the Ospreev pilots will put in priority the section of the air line where the number of long-range complexes is the least, information about what will be received from the sides of reconnaissance aircraft.
Secondly, the helicopter mode is supported by the installation of the on-board multi-function radar AN / APQ-174D, which implements the following mode of the terrain and in airplane mode, at speeds over 450 km / h. Osprey are becoming much more operational than the Apaches, and are reaching the level of the now-scandalous A-10A attack aircraft: speed here is of paramount importance. But the V-22 navigation complex and functionality are several orders of magnitude better than the Firechild performance, in addition to, of course, the titanium armor plates capable of protecting the A-10A pilot from 23-mm projectiles. A large cargo compartment with a volume of 21 m3 allows you to install a variety of on-board radio-electronic equipment, turning the military transport convertoplane into the most complex airborne electronic intelligence complex or EW. The MV-22 “Osprey” version, which is simultaneously equipped with search and rescue equipment and missile-bomb armament, may have great prospects. Such vehicles are capable of conducting search and rescue of catapulted pilots of tactical aviation shot down over enemy territory, as well as take out units of the USMC surrounded by enemy units from the theater. Striking spot strikes with Helfire missiles at the most dangerous enemy targets that pose a threat to friendly forces surrounded, Osprey will be able to significantly increase the safety of the rescue operation, which was previously unavailable to almost all search and rescue helicopters. The modernization base of Ospreev is so wide that in the long run HARM anti-radar missiles for stripping from air defense systems of the territory designated for landing can appear on the suspensions, as well as SACM-T anti-missiles for defense against enemy missiles and air-to-air missiles of enemy fighters.
In addition to the various “optional” chips offered to the Bell-Boeing Group by the US Marine Corps, very rational options for upgrading the V-22 were offered by the security forces of Great Britain and India. According to the Western and Indian media, the naval forces of these countries are interested in creating a long-range radar detection and control tiltrotor based on the V-22 to equip aircraft carrier strike groups led by the aircraft carriers Queen Elizabeth and Vikramaditya. Standard for the Navy of the countries of NATO and their allies deck aircraft EARLY and E-2C can not be used with the British and Indian aircraft carriers, because instead of a steam catapult, they are equipped with a springboard, which does not allow the turboprop "Hokayam" to gain the necessary take-off speed. “Osprey” does not need a catapult, and takeoff and landing can be carried out not only on the deck of an average helicopter carrier, but also on a small helipad of British destroyers of the type “Daring” or Indian destroyers of the 15A project of the “Calcutta” class, which offers a number of advantages in military naval tactical level, even in the absence of the leading aircraft carrier.
In a large sea confrontation, completely unpredictable tactical turns may occur: AUG may lose an aircraft carrier as a result of a powerful anti-ship strike, or the carrier-based strike force will be forced to split when deck aircraft are required to perform operations off the coast of a particular state, and the remaining CUG will receive an order for duty and anti-submarine defense in a remote square ocean theater. Such a group finds itself in a difficult situation, since its air defense, in the absence of deck-based multi-role fighters, is limited to 25 - 30 km, if enemy fighters set up their star-raid missile from a distance of 150 - 200 km. Knowing that India is actively modernizing its fleet exclusively in connection with the strengthening of the Chinese Navy in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region, then we will consider the model of using the Opprais convertible plane based on the likely Sino-Indian conflict that may occur even by the middle of the XXI century .
The Indian Navy is armed with the 3 class Calcutta destroyer: D15 Kolkata, D63 Kochi and D64 Chennai. The basis of the radar appearance of these ships is the Israeli multifunctional radar station IAI Elta EL / M-65 MF-STAR, represented by a pyramid antenna post with an 2248-way active phased antenna array. The detection range of a typical target with an 4 m3 EPR is more than 2 km, and a low-altitude anti-ship missile with an 250 e0,1 EPR is about 2 km. The YJ-25 anti-ship missiles launched from the Chinese J-15S and Su-30MK2 will be “captured” by the MF-STAR decimeter radar at a distance of about 83 km, after which their interception will begin using the Barak-23 airborne warning system. If the number of Chinese anti-ship missiles is dozens, the Barak canal is not enough to destroy all YJ-8, the complex’s computing facilities will be overloaded with a rocket swarm, and the destroyer Calcutta will be destroyed. In order to avoid such a situation, only the Airborne Air Force A-83EI complex, which, due to the extensive theater of the Sino-Indian conflict, most likely will be needed to coordinate air battles with Chinese fighters over Indian territory, can become the only way out. And the V-50 “Osprey” radar modification can be a real saving wand for the CUG devoid of an aircraft carrier in the depths of the Indian Ocean.
The ability to land on the Calcutta helipad makes it possible for the tiltrotor to operate autonomously without the need for the presence of a helicopter carrier or a land landing site. Repair of the Osprey and refueling may occur right on board the destroyer, which does not require an air tanker. And the essence of the use of Osprey with the destroyer comes down to the Indian fleet on two main points. Firstly, this is the long-range radar detection of tactical or strategic aircraft of the Chinese Air Force, as well as the detection of distant overseas surface ships capable of striking an Indian destroyer. The radio horizon in this case increases from 25 km to more than 700 km. And the most important thing here is that anti-ship missiles launched from Chinese aircraft will be detected by the Osprey radar complex at a distance of up to 150 km (several times farther than the MF-STAR shipborne radar).
The snag here is that the Barak-8 SAM has an active radar homing head, as well as a target designation channel receiver from the ship's MRLS or other targeting equipment. This tool will be the radar version of the V-22 "Osprey". Like most airborne radars, the Osprey dorsal radar will operate in the most acceptable resolution and penetration through the atmosphere of the S-band decimeter wave, which is often used for targeting SUR interceptors with ARGSN. Such a bundle will allow the interception of anti-ship missiles YJ-83 at a distance of 70 km, which will allow to fully unleash the potential of the Barak-8 missile. Additional 50 km of over-the-horizon interception range will allow Calcutta to destroy several dozen anti-ship missiles launched by Chinese aircraft and surface ships: the probability of maintaining the combat stability of the CUG of the Indian fleet will increase to more or less normal indicators.
Given that the computational base of modern radar systems DRLO is distinguished by high performance and advanced display equipment of automated workplaces (AWP) of operators, the whole 2-x or 3-x air observation operators will be enough for one Osprey. They can be placed in a small hermetic extension in the front part of the V-22 cargo compartment, the remaining 12-15 square meters of the compartment can be loaded with several dozen active-passive radio-hydro-acoustic buoys that can be successfully used in the anti-submarine defense of the Indian CCG.
Due to the high speed of the Osprey flight (of the order of 520 km / h with a fairing of the dorsal radar), the speed of the RSL will be at the level of the Orion anti-submarine patrol aircraft. Buoys can be placed within a radius of 3 - 900 km from the naval strike group, which will create a decent long-range control of underwater conditions. And the adaptation of V-1200 suspension points to torpedo weapons will also allow hunting for enemy submarines approaching the ship’s grouping. The broadest functionality of the upgraded versions of the famous American convertiplane can lead to the continuation of serial production as a "branch" for the American customer (ILC, Navy, MTR), and for export "branch" for the UK, India, Japan or Australia. But as you know, Washington is not in a hurry to develop and distribute various versions of the V-22, including radar, even among the countries of the friendly camp, since the car has several strategic advantages, the main of which is to provide full-fledged echelon air defense and missile defense groups not possessing an aircraft carrier. This almost equalizes the defensive capabilities of the Navy of these states with the capabilities of individual AUG of the American fleet, even taking into account the 22 available in aircraft carriers. Such a prospect does not suit Americans at all, and the 11 millionth Osprey, exactly like its production license, remains at the disposal of the Bell Boeing Group.
It is not known whether the serial production of the improved V-22 “Osprey” will continue, but around 115 the MV-22B vehicles remaining in the Marine Corps will be gradually upgraded to a promising attack-airborne modification capable of operating under the dominance of enemy ground forces. Deployed on the Turkish, Romanian and German air bases "Osprey" will be able to cover the territories of the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Crimea, the Kaliningrad region and Belarus without refueling in the air, and the strike missile weapons will allow to make a "breakthrough" in the most weakened sectors of the front, where the military air defense and air defense VKS will be in the minority.
To counteract the assault landing Ospreyam, a complex tactic is needed for the interaction of DRLOiA air points with ground calculations of Igla-S / Verba MANPADS and ZRSK Tor-M1 / 2 / Pantsir-С1 families. The latter will be forced to use TV / IR channels of optical-electronic sighting systems for targeting airborne radars, since radar modes will be detected by RC-135V / W radio reconnaissance aircraft, and for the time being it remains to closely monitor the program for improving these complex and flexible application of machines.