Military Review

Kalashnikov automatic pistol (APC)

Both in the Soviet Union and abroad, the domestic combat rifle weaponfrom the second half of the 20th century, it is associated with four famous surnames: Kalashnikov, Dragunov, Makarov and Stechkin. Each of the listed weapons designers, with the exception of Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov, was brought to world renown by individual models of small arms that were adopted by the Soviet Army. And only the Kalashnikov assault rifle (AK) laid the foundation for a long list of assault rifles and machine guns, which are still in service with the armies of many nations of the world. But the interests of the famous designer, who worked in Izhevsk, were not limited to the creation of machine guns alone. At the beginning of the 1950-ies Kalashnikov tried his hand at creating an automatic pistol under the widespread cartridge 9x18 PM.

The idea, which concerned the adoption of a pistol that allows you to shoot bursts, after several decades became perceived as erroneous, but then it was promising and attractive to designers. After the end of World War II, work on the development of new submachine guns chambered for 9x19 mm did not stop abroad. And in the Soviet Union, automatic weapons under a pistol cartridge for a short period of time were undeservedly forgotten. At the same time, the issue of arming small arms with crews tanks and other combat vehicles, as well as the calculations of self-propelled guns, could not be solved either with the help of an automatic machine created under an intermediate cartridge, or with the help of a 9-mm Makarov pistol. The machine gun did not suit the military because of its considerable size, and the Makarov pistol in most cases was not effective enough.

In the end, Soviet tank crews, gunners and pilots had at their disposal a Stechkin automatic pistol, the famous APS, to which a wooden holster-butt could be attached. Stechkin pistol allowed to fire both single shots and bursts. The Kalashnikov automatic pistol (AIC) did not seriously compete for him, even reaching the stage of ground tests, since Mikhail Kalashnikov during the development, testing and adoption period, the APS was more focused on its main theme - machine guns and machine guns.

Nevertheless, the Kalashnikov automatic pistol came into the world, and the weapon was made in several versions that differed from each other. One of the Kalashnikov pistols is stored today in the Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Communication Troops in St. Petersburg. The museum has preserved the AIC with a plastic holster-butt from the MTA. Apparently, this pistol was equipped with this holster just before its transfer to the Petersburg museum, since at the time of creation the “native” for it was a wooden holster. In general, the Kalashnikov pistol was very simple in design, perhaps even too simple for an automatic weapon. Despite the fact that the Kalashnikov pistol did not take part in field testing, the appearance of its moving parts indicates that he had a lot of work in the factory dash.

Kalashnikov automatic pistol operated on the principle of recoil free shutter. The locking was carried out by the mass of the shutter, supported by a return spring. At the same time, the return spring was put on the barrel and was almost 2 times shorter than the spring of the Stechkin automatic pistol. The Kalashnikov experimental automatic pistol and its trigger mechanism provided the shooter with the ability to conduct both single and continuous fire. The gun was equipped with a hammer-type percussion mechanism with a rotary trigger. A spiral spring applied to the trigger through the pusher. The fuse box was simultaneously a translator of fire, it was located on the left side of the bolt and had three positions: automatic fire, single fire and the fuse itself. In the “safety” position, he blocked the trigger, bolt and trigger of the weapon. When setting the AIC on the fuse there was a smooth descent of the cocked trigger. In the trigger mechanism (USM) Kalashnikov pistol, unlike the Stechkin pistol, there were no special measures designed to slow down the rate of fire.

To simplify the design of the gun and at the same time improve the reliability of the self-cocking of the trigger was excluded. The power supply of the agrarian and industrial complex by cartridges was carried out from a two-row shop, in which the cartridges were arranged in a checkerboard pattern. The Kalashnikov automatic pistol, by analogy with the well-known Mauser system, had a rigid wooden holster that could be used as a butt for more rigid fixation when firing, especially when firing bursts.

Kalashnikov automatic pistol (APC)
Kalashnikov automatic pistol (top) and Stechkin automatic pistol (APS)

The appearance of the Kalashnikov automatic pistol was caused not only by the need to counter anything with a Stechkin pistol, but also by Mikhail Timofeevich's desire to try his hand in a new direction for himself. However, as was to be expected, the solution of the tasks on the automatic machine-gun subject required maximum pressure from the gunsmith, and the Kalashnikov automatic pistol simply did not have enough energy or time. As a result, the agro-industrial complex, along with pistols, machine guns, carbines, sniper rifle, became one of the prototypes that had accumulated dozens of times more than the machine guns and machine guns that had gained worldwide fame.

The appearance and design of the experimental Kalashnikov automatic pistol, even for the start of the 1950-s, were restrained, if not spartan. The rigorous appearance of the pistol, the smooth features and edges that remotely resemble the APS are just an accident, which, according to historians, puts these two Soviet automatic pistols in one row. It should be noted that Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov was engaged in quite closely with automation and the theme of continuous fire, but the theme of personal assault weapons, which captured the minds of many brilliant designers of those years, for Kalashnikov was only a desire to master another direction in his work. Despite the serious shortage of time and effort, the designer managed to supply an automatic pistol with almost the main advantage of his own design weapons - excellent reliability.

“If we compare two automatic pistols to each other, then according to the rate of fire, for example, the agrarian and industrial complex looked even slightly better, since there were no constructive solutions aimed at deliberately reducing the rate of fire, in the Kalashnikov pistol. Accordingly, in the case when the shooting was conducted in bursts, the APC showed itself no worse than the APS. According to the accuracy of the automatic fire, both pistols went “nostril to nostril,” said Sergey Simonov, a veteran of the national special services, in an interview with the Zvezda TV channel.

The fate of the first automatic Kalashnikov pistol was not entirely successful. Due to the large workload, it was difficult for the designer to bring this brainchild to the mind and fully join in the competition for creating the best gun for personal protection in the army, however many experts familiar with the work on the subject of the agro-industrial complex believe that if Mikhail Timofeevich had enough and time to finalize this project to perfect condition, he could impose the struggle with a Stechkin automatic pistol, which, of course, was an excellent example of small arms.

Characteristics of the AIC:

Caliber - 9 mm, cartridge 9х18 mm.
Overall dimensions: length - 222 mm, width - 34 mm, height - 150 mm.
Barrel length - 140 mm.
Weight - 1,25 kg.
Weight in holster-butt - 1,7 kg.
Sighting range of shooting - 200 m.
Magazine capacity - 18 cartridges.

Information sources:автоматический-пистолет-калашникова
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  1. seregatara1969
    seregatara1969 13 May 2016 07: 57
    life is short - there was not enough time for the designer
    1. troyan
      troyan 13 May 2016 09: 10
      Who? This is Kalashnikov, or what? And where in this case, "life is short"?
  2. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 13 May 2016 09: 18
    If Kalashnikov were the owner of the patent and would receive a% of each product sold, there would be resources at the plant and design bureau for the production of a pistol. He had a lot of energy, we don’t even know half. But in Soviet times, the country did not need ten different pistols - there was no market for them. So we have a massive PM, a massive Stechkin, an award Margolin. The same with other weapons. The production of pistols should be given to private companies, and a tender should be held for the army and police. Won-get a contract, transfer the rights and license to the state.
  3. Wolka
    Wolka 13 May 2016 09: 25
    however, history does not know the subjunctive mood, because it was the APS that was adopted and quite deservedly by the way ...
    1. sau-t
      sau-t 13 May 2016 11: 17
      Quote: Volka
      APS was adopted and quite deservedly by the way ...

      Yes? Then a couple of questions, if possible:
      1. What was so "deserved" in him? In addition to strong bewilderment about its existence in general, for some reason, of course.
      2. And what, from production it was turned somehow undeservedly? Should have amused everyone further? So this "fun" was worth the money. And not small.
  4. lexx2038
    lexx2038 13 May 2016 09: 55
    Pistols are good, but a weak cartridge spoiled everything. It was necessary to start from the cartridge.
    1. alexej123
      alexej123 13 May 2016 10: 28
      I agree. Now there is an understanding that a weapon is a complex that includes a cartridge, the weapon itself, body kits (sights).
    2. The comment was deleted.
  5. sau-t
    sau-t 13 May 2016 10: 28
    Automatic pistol

    It’s more difficult to come up with a funny phrase.
    Kalashnikov automatic pistol

    For some reason I am not surprised by the result.
  6. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 13 May 2016 10: 29
    A powerful cartridge, heavier construction, others became needed .... Especially automatic shooting. For the sake of accuracy and unification with PM, 9X18 was used. What with ... minus me ?! Or are you several?
    1. sau-t
      sau-t 13 May 2016 11: 01
      Quote: Zaurbek
      and unifications with PM applied 9X18

      Everything was exactly the opposite. PM was unified with the "automatic pistol" through the. Those. the cartridge was originally selected for the "automatic pistol". That makes him (patron) so ... strange.
      As a result of yet another "ingenious economy" and crazy ideas, they got nothing at all. Although for the police / police the PM is not bad at all.
      1. Berg194500
        Berg194500 13 May 2016 11: 18
        The cartridge and PM were developed together. Under a new gun, a new cartridge. That is rare. Based on the browning 9 * 17. The sleeve was extended by a millimeter since the kurts was low-power. The cartridge 9 by 18 is analogous to 9 to 18 parabellum ultra. For the civilian market.
        1. sau-t
          sau-t 13 May 2016 12: 05
          Quote: Berg194500
          Cartridge and PM were developed together

          If it was poorly understood last time, then again, the PM cartridge was developed for an "automatic pistol". And the PM himself dangled there according to the residual principle, something like "a weapon for officers with medium stars" (senior officers). The main one was to be just the "automatic pistol".
          Therefore, as a result, nothing was done for the army. The delusional nature of the idea of ​​an "automatic pistol" was realized in the early stages of its production. Therefore, the PM, for lack of anything else, "armed" everyone in a row. Although it is possible to call a Soviet officer with a PM armed only with great imagination.
          Quote: Berg194500
          Browning 9 * 17 is the basis. The sleeve was lengthened by a millimeter since the kurts was low-power. The cartridge 9 by 18 is the analogue of 9 by 18 parabellum ultra. For the civilian market.

          What is this for? Do you demonstrate erudition? Will not work.
          The PM cartridge "for Western money" is not 9x18 mm, but 9,2x18 mm. Those. there are almost no analogues to its caliber. And 9x18 Police along with the .380 ACP don't quite roll out here. Because their caliber is 9,0 mm. There are also very large differences in the characteristics of the bottom.
          The PM sleeve was made from a 9x19 Luger cartridge sleeve.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 13 May 2016 11: 28
        My young friend, if you studied the history of the matter, then the cartridge and pistol were commissioned by the army. For the army, a cartridge of 7,62x25 and 9x19 seemed redundant in view of the adoption of the AK as the main weapon. PM was needed to equip commanders and he coped with it perfectly. In APS, the 9x18 cartridge behaves stably, gives good accuracy and allowed to reduce the weight of the gun. As the cartridge for 9x18 PP is weak, no one argues here. By the way, in Europe, the 9x17 cartridge is unprotected in the police; it fully meets the needs of the police.
        1. sau-t
          sau-t 13 May 2016 11: 45
          Quote: Zaurbek
          My young friend

          You have a young friend in your pants, I suppose. You, when you turn to him, do not write under my comment.
          Quote: Zaurbek
          For the army, a cartridge of 7,62x25 and 9x19 seemed redundant in view of the adoption of the AK as the main weapon.

          PPC. Why are you writing about small arms? They also agreed on the multiple launch rocket system.
          Quote: Zaurbek
          PM was needed to equip commanders and he coped with it perfectly.

          Who told you that? Oh, "young friend"?
          I would at least think why it is suddenly "PM has ceased to cope".
          Quote: Zaurbek
          In APS, the 9x18 cartridge behaves stably

          What is it like? Many people know the word "stable". Not everyone shoves it all over the place.
          Quote: Zaurbek
          gives a good accuracy

          In such categories, it is customary to operate with specific numbers. And on their basis to draw conclusions. Opposite, by the way.
          Quote: Zaurbek
          allowed to reduce the weight of the gun.

          And what is this "key factor"? Anyone who cannot hold an army pistol in his hand should wipe his pants in the office. Drawing up an annual report.
          Another thing is that there is no need to make funny products like "automatic pistol". Actually, in normal countries, no one in the mind could have done them en masse.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 13 May 2016 11: 54
      Do not pay attention, minus for the name, and for the flag, and confusing, and inattentively reading, and for the fact that once "washed" in another topic. Better pay attention to comments
      1. Knizhnik
        Knizhnik 13 May 2016 12: 13
        Minus score toolaughing
  7. Verdun
    Verdun 13 May 2016 10: 34
    associated with four famous surnames: Kalashnikov, Dragunov, Makarov and Stechkin
    Where did Tokarev and Degtyarev go? The TT, at least previously, was extremely popular with the yakuza. As for the "workload", with all due respect to Kalashnikov, any design, as a rule, is created not by one person, albeit a genius, but by a whole engineering team. It is only in the impressionable brains of artists and writers that the image of a talented loner awake above a drawing board appears. And the fact that the leader of this collective does not manage to bring up associates equal in talent to himself is not very good. And if the team took up the development of a topic, then it must bring it to the end, not being discouraged by the lack of time. As the saying goes, "took up the tug ..."
    1. Zigmars
      Zigmars 13 May 2016 11: 28
      Quote: Verdun
      As for the "workload", then, with all due respect to Kalashnikov, any design, as a rule, is created not by one person, albeit a genius, but by a whole engineering team.

      There is a very interesting book - "Notes of a gunsmith designer", which was written by Mikhail Timofeevich himself. Reading it, you understand in what literal agony and difficulties the legendary AK was born, how many countless time and efforts were spent on its fine-tuning and putting into mass production. But the notorious "whole engineering team" worked - and the people in it were so engrossed in work that they did not sleep for days, did not go home for 12 months a year, the growing up children could hardly remember their parents returning from such business trips. Just one sample of the machine! But then there were AKM, RPK, PK, AK-74 ...
      Therefore, there is nothing surprising here) By the way, I recommend it to everyone who has not read it yet.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 13 May 2016 11: 45
        and the people in it were so absorbed in work that they didn’t sleep for days, weren’t at home for 12 months a year
        I myself am an engineer by profession, and I also used to sleep at work. I can say the following in this regard. Such situations most often arise due to errors in planning, which is launched from above. The brain of a good designer works on a problem all the time. To solve it, it’s not at all necessary to be at a workplace without any problems. A true thought can just as well come home, over a cup of tea. Sturmovschina, with attempts to complete the task in a short time, often on the contrary, numb the designer, is the reason for serious miscalculations.
        1. cast iron
          cast iron 13 May 2016 23: 38
          The whole point is that such Korolevs, Tupolevs and Kalashnikovs, who worked 16 hours a day, created their own products, and people like you, who talk about "planning errors", did not create NI CH E G O.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 15 May 2016 23: 04
            The whole thing is
            The whole point is that ordinary scientists and designers in no way could influence the processes due to which in the nineties they were pulled to pieces. During my engineering career, I participated in eight projects, but not one of them was brought to an end due to the collapse of the industry. It just so happens that scientific and engineering ideas require for their implementation a serious production base, which the state gave to Korolev, Tupolev and Kalashnikov. Where is this production base now?
            here are the Queens, Tupolevs and Kalashnikovs, who worked 16 hours a day,
            I repeat once again that the brain of a good scientist or engineer works to solve the problem 24 hours a day. Living at work is not necessary for this. From the fact that someone stupidly looks at a kulman board or a computer screen, new thoughts and ideas are not added to the head.
  8. uskrabut
    uskrabut 13 May 2016 11: 21
    I have never heard of agribusiness before. Informative article.
    An interesting trunk, but I doubt that you can get into something 200 meters from it.
    The cartridge is like a PM, and from a PM at 30 meters, you can hardly even get into a standard target.
  9. Skubudu
    Skubudu 13 May 2016 11: 58
    We were too lazy to make a pistol under 9x19, in the same place there should be a barrel locking.
    9x18 deadlock for pistol development
    1. cast iron
      cast iron 13 May 2016 23: 40
      What a dead end? At the time of creation, it was quite a normal cartridge. After all, there were practically no SIBZs in any army in the world, not to mention the police.
  10. Zigmars
    Zigmars 13 May 2016 12: 06
    Quote: Verdun
    The brain of a good designer works on a problem all the time. To solve it, it is not at all necessary to be at a workplace without any problems.

    About the "good constructor". Did you mean yourself? "Not some kind of Kalashnikov"?
    Second. When the task is to prepare a sample in an extremely short time (especially during the second or third stage of the arms competition, when the strongest compete), and in ONE DAY you have to test several samples of the same machine with the design changes made, identifying the best only empirically ( and this is tens of thousands of shots from each!) - it would be interesting to see what you, an engineer, would have achieved in such a competition, sitting every evening "with a cup of tea and a fresh newspaper." And, imagine, performing all the drawings and calculations not on a computer (as you must be used to), but manually - on paper. On whatman paper and drawing boards.
    Third. You can call this an assault, but I, being a historian by education, perfectly understand why it was needed, what we were preparing for then and what was happening in the world at that time. I would venture to suggest that you also remember "something like that". Probably, then such a rush would not surprise you.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 13 May 2016 12: 51
      When the task is to prepare a sample in an extremely short time
      Once again, I note if you have not read my comment carefully, that such a task arises in most cases due to mediocre leadership. Errors made in a hurry often negate all the work of the designer.
      And imagine, performing all the drawings and calculations not on the computer (as you must be used to), but manually on paper
      I began my career as a simple draftsman and drew on a kulman. True, for this I did not use paper, but whatman and tracing paper. The computer also mastered, but it was later. In this regard, I can tell you the following. Creating a drawing is much faster and easier with a pencil, drawing pen or rapidograph. Unless, of course, you take such a specific area as plaza developments. The computer simplifies further adjustments to the drawing, working with blocks and libraries that were once created. In this case, the main workflow is in the head of the designer. And if nothing happens there, then the computer is unlikely to help.
  11. Verdun
    Verdun 13 May 2016 12: 43
    In APS, the 9x18 cartridge behaves stably
    Everyone somehow forgets that there was an APS variant chambered for 7.62x25 mm. He himself happened to try to shoot from both options. From my point of view, APS under 7.62 looked preferable.
  12. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 13 May 2016 14: 01
    There was info about Stechkin’s new gun. There it was possible to put different trunks of 7,62 and 9 mm. But lately not heard.
  13. Moric
    Moric 13 May 2016 19: 43
    dear shot both with Makarov and APS themselves if they fired it is a slingshot and a crossbow I don’t understand how you can talk about what YOU had in your hands
  14. psiho117
    psiho117 14 May 2016 04: 12
    If we compare with each other ... then in terms of rate of fire, ... the agro-industrial complex looked even a little better, since there were no Kalashnikov pistols in the Kalashnikov pistol in any design decisions, aimed at intentionally reducing the rate of fire.

    In my opinion, it sounds like nonsense. According to him, it turns out that Stechkin was an idiot, for some reason stuck a moderator in the APS, but the agro-industrial complex, which crap with a pace of 1300-1500 in \ m, is cool.
    And this cannot be just by definition.

    It is unclear whether this "veteran of the special services" is talking nonsense, or whether the journalists misrepresented him ...
  15. Thompson
    Thompson 14 May 2016 15: 28
    By design, Kalshnikovsky is neater.