Military Review

Submarine with steam-gas turbine C-99. 617 project


The search for new types of power plants capable of providing high speed when submarines move underwater is conducted in Russia, and then in the USSR constantly. Especially widely they turned around in the thirties of our century. Then we took the path of using liquid oxygen to ensure the work of diesels in a submerged position. The pioneer in this field can be considered our talented engineer S.А. Bazilevsky. Following him, several other options for using liquid oxygen were proposed and implemented, some of which were introduced into the practice of shipbuilding. In addition, at the end of 1944, experiments were conducted on the use of hydrogen peroxide as the oxygen carrier. It was intended for the oxidation of fuel in the working chamber of the steam generator. These experiments did not arouse much enthusiasm, obviously, for two reasons - because of the low concentration of hydrogen peroxide used and the imperfection of the proposed scheme for its use.

In the 1945 year, after the end of the war, special groups of engineers were sent from the USSR to Germany to learn German experience in various industries. Among them were shipbuilders, submariners. Engineers Vladimir Konstantinovich Stankevich and Isaak Samoilovich Toltraf got acquainted with the original combined-cycle turbine previously ordered by the naval department in the Dresden-based firm Bruner-Kanis-Reder. She had the power of 7500 HP at 10000 rpm, and the time to get out of the cold state to full speed was 5 minutes. Its working fluid was steam gas, for which high-concentration hydrogen peroxide was used.

The development of the turbine led the bureau, which was called "Glukauf" ("happily upward" - it.). Former employees of this bureau were gathered around 15, and they were offered to resume work, starting with restoring the lost documentation on the project of the submarine of the XXVI series with the Walter afterburner turbine combined-cycle plant (PGTU). To this end, a “joint” design office was organized in Germany.

Submarine with steam-gas turbine C-99. 617 project

He was headed by engineer captain 1 rank A.A. Antipin, who headed the Leningrad Design Bureau (TsKB-18), which designed all the Soviet submarines of pre-war and military construction and grew out of a bureau created by an outstanding engineer-shipbuilder, designer of the first domestic combat submarines IG Bubnov. BD was appointed chief engineer of the new design bureau. Zlatopolsky, who headed the department of special power plants of the Central Research Institute of Shipbuilding, where in those years much of the work was concentrated on the problems of creating power plants designed to ensure high submarine speeds in a submerged position.

The new design bureau, named after the head of its “Antipin Bureau,” consisted of workers from TsKB-18, the Central Research Institute of Shipbuilding and German specialists, whose chief engineer was Dr. Stateshny. The number of employees of the bureau included S.N. Kovalev, who led the corps department, and V.K. Stankevich, who headed the mechanical department.

First of all, the bureau was engaged in the restoration of the German project of the submarine XXVI series, and then Antipin, Stankevich, the senior group of German specialists at State, visited all the companies that manufactured equipment for the steam and gas turbine installation and concluded contracts with them. It was possible to order a complete set of equipment, except for the screw compressor of the Lysholm company, since it was not in Germany, but in Sweden.

Work went fast. All the documentation prepared at the Antipin Bureau, as well as the equipment obtained for the steam and gas turbine installation, were sent to Leningrad. There, in the 1946 year, the Central Design Bureau-18 reinstated the design of the submarine of the XXVI series in the form of a pre-draft version, as presented by the Glukauf bureau. This work was done under the guidance of S.A. Yegorova, monitoring the course and consultations were conducted by BM Malinin - the first chief designer of the majority of Soviet submarines, who worked at that time in the Central Research Institute of Shipbuilding.

The project received an 616 number. However, a number of technical solutions used on submarines of the German XXVI series did not satisfy our naval sailors and designers (a small reserve of buoyancy, onboard torpedo tubes were sent to the stern; a large volume of compartments of a strong hull, etc.). Therefore, immediately after the critical review of this version, TsKB-18 began the development of a new submarine project with a steam and gas turbine unit, which was assigned the number 617.

On the submarines of this project, all the equipment, with the exception of the gas and gas turbine installation, was domestic. The predesign 617 appeared at the end of 1947. Works on it were conducted under the guidance of the most experienced mechanical engineer PS. Savinov, a participant in the creation of all Soviet submarines, and a young engineer S.N. Kovalev, who later became the general designer of nuclear submarines. The project was carried out under the supervision of a previously mentioned BM. Malinin, for whom he was the last in his life, cut short in 1949 year.

After analyzing the various options for the pre-sketch project, the tactical and technical requirements for its further development were compiled and approved. This was given particular importance, since the expected high submarine speed of these submarines made it possible to evaluate in a different way the tactics of their use and their place in the Russian Navy.

For the further development of the submarine with new energy in May 1948, the second in the USSR underwater design bureau, SKB-143, was created. It consists of a group of specialists from TsKB-18, employees of the Antipin Bureau in Germany (including German specialists 10), as well as the staff of the department of special power plants of the Central Research Institute of Shipbuilding. A.A. was appointed the head of the bureau and chief designer of submarines of the 617 project. Antipin, his assistant - S.N. Kovalev.

It is worth noting that in the spring of 1953, the team that worked on creating the 617 project was returned to the Central Design Bureau No. 18 along with its entire “order book”, and SKB-143 was from this point redeployed to develop the project of our first nuclear submarine.

After creating the conceptual and technical parts of the 617 project, which did not significantly change the originally planned appearance of the submarine, the bureau staff handed over to the Sudomekh plant a set of working drawings for the construction of the ship. It should be noted that the uniqueness of the project led to the decision to build first only one experienced submarine, the question of building such a series was postponed until the end of its tests. In parallel, the designers have developed some more promising projects of submarines using low-water hydrogen peroxide (MPV), but this is a topic for a separate story.

When creating an experimental submarine project 617, the design bureau assumed a number of additional functions that were usually not the responsibility of the designer. For example, by power of attorney of the construction plant, the bureau employees received equipment from the supplying plants, carried out contract supervision and test maintenance of the steam and gas turbine unit; completely completed the installation of low-water hydrogen peroxide system, including storage bags for MPV. The purchase, transportation, storage and loading of low-water hydrogen peroxide on a submarine was also carried out by the design office.

Delivery of the basic materials for the test of a combined-cycle turbine plant (PGTU): MPV, fuel, catalyst for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and other things - to the builder of basic materials was carried out through the design office. In one of the workshops of the Sudomekh plant, transferred to the design bureau, there was a test stand, the main components of which were the storage for hydrogen peroxide and the hull of the turbine compartment of the future submarine. In this case, a bench-mounted steam and gas turbine unit was installed, which most closely corresponded to boat conditions and made of elements and parts obtained from Germany. The missing parts were made on site, in the mechanical workshop of the design office. To ensure the possibility of testing PSTU over the entire power range, up to the full, the hydraulic motor was installed outside the compartment, which with the help of interchangeable wheels reproduced the characteristics of the submarine propeller of the 617 project. It also housed "outboard" condensate cooler.

The test program for a bench-top gas turbine installation was divided into five main stages: Stage I - testing the hydrogen peroxide decomposition chamber in a special armored box; II - power unit tests: a three-component pump, a four-component regulator and a three-component switch; III - testing of the gas-vapor mixture generation unit; IV - tests of a condensate system consisting of a turbine condenser, a condensate outboard cooler and a condensate pump, and V - comprehensive tests of the entire installation, including the determination of start-up time and transitions from mode to mode, output to 100-percent power and 6-hour continuous operating mode at full power.

Testing at PSTU was headed by its chief designer V.K. Stankevich. The heads of the first four stages were engineers Evgeny Nikolaevich Gurfein, Ilya Moiseevich Ozerov, Petr Petrovich Petrov and Olga Vladimirovna Kovalevskaya. German colleagues participated in the work as consultants on a number of technical issues that arose and were located in a separate room. As they gained experience, their role became less and less, and in 1951, these specialists returned to their homeland.

At the very beginning of 1951, the PSTU bench tests were completed. In May of the same year, the PSTU bench was dismantled, all its mechanisms, devices and devices underwent a thorough audit and inspection. After eliminating the comments and replacing the elements that had developed their life, the installation itself and its control panel were mothballed and transferred to the Leningrad Sudomekh plant for installation on an experimental submarine, the construction of which was in full swing.

The laying of the experimental submarine project 617 with the tactical number С-99 took place on February 5 of the year 1951. Exactly one year later, this submarine was launched, and 16 June 1952 began its mooring trials.

Relatively short, with a slightly elongated hull, a small, well-rounded fencing of the access hatch shaft (there was no warhead) and the correct plumage by the designers, the C-99 showed the required speed and maneuverability characteristics. The boat had 6 compartments separated by watertight bulkheads: torpedo, battery (residential), central post, diesel, turbine, aft. In the double-hull space there were eight bingongstone tanks of the main ballast, fuel tanks and permeable fences with 32 plastic storage bags of low-water hydrogen peroxide.

A good reserve of buoyancy and the separation of a solid hull of the boat with waterproof bulkheads ensured the surface unsinkability of the submarine in case of flooding any of the compartments of the robust hull, together with the adjacent ballast tank adjacent to it.

The power plant has become the main feature of the C-99 submarine. As mentioned earlier, as the afterburner part of this installation, the PSTU was installed, the maximum power of which reached 7250 hp. When the submarine was moving at a depth of the order of 40 meters, the power transmitted to the propeller shaft was equal to 6050 hp, the rest was consumed by a screw compressor, which pumped carbon dioxide overboard the boat. The installation could be started at depths from periscope to 80 meters, the start time was 2 min 10 s; The forced cold start with the maximum power output was carried out in nine and a half minutes.

When operating PSTU at full power, the speed of the C-99 submarine exceeded 20 knots. Such a high submarine speed and 6-hour cruising range on it (120 miles) greatly expanded the combat capabilities of such submarines. Although today the schematic diagram of the operation of the combined-cycle turbine plant using low-water hydrogen peroxide (MPV) is well known, let us recall in brief for those who first meet with submarines of this type.

Seawater pressure MPV from flexible PVC bags was squeezed to the pumping and three-component pump (MPV, fuel, condensate) and fed to a special decomposition chamber, where it was converted into oxygen gas (37% by volume) and water vapor (63%) using a catalyst. Steam oxygen was sent to the combustion chamber, where kerosene was injected with a low content of impurities and a high flash point. The combustion products, as part of 15% СО2 and 85% of water vapor, passed through a heat accumulator, which served to equalize the thermal inertia of the vapor gas and entered the turbine. The temperature of the steam gas was constant (550 ° C), the pressure changed depending on the load and was about 21 kgf / sq. Cm during the rotation of the 9500 turbine rpm. After the turbine, the exhaust steam gas went into a condenser, where water was separated from carbon dioxide, which was compressed with a screw compressor to outboard pressure and was ejected using a special spraying device with 10000 small holes, which ensured a good dissolution of CO2. A self-flowing cooler was used to cool the condensate, located in the double-breasted space under the durable hull of the boat; part of the cooled condensate was used to adjust the temperature of the vapor gas.

The two-stage gearbox reduced speed to 480 rpm and transferred them to the propeller shaft. The movement of the submarine at lower speeds and in the surface position was carried out using a diesel-electric installation, consisting of the main eight-cylinder four-stroke and auxiliary six-cylinder diesel generators of the same design. The main diesel engine through couplings worked on the screw or only on the generator; the auxiliary provided either the charging of the battery or the work of the propulsion motors. It was possible to work both diesel engines on the propeller, both in the surface position and in the periscope with the help of a collapsing shaft of the RDP (the work of the diesel engines in the periscope position).

The electric movement was carried out by the main propeller motor or an economic stroke motor connected by a non-parting coupling to the shaft line passing inside it. Despite the long-term testing of the steam and gas turbine installation on the stand, a number of problems occurred during the mooring and sea trials of the C-99 submarine: leakage of hydrogen peroxide storage bags; the appearance of hydrogen peroxide leaks, in which from its rapid decomposition in contact with contaminated and, especially, oiled objects, fires and weak explosions, called “claps”, occurred; insufficient stability of the catalyst, etc.

During the factory tests it was also found that the zone of torsional oscillations of the main diesel engine has a greater range of revolutions than was calculated. Eliminating these shortcomings delayed the test period, and only 20 in March 1956, after successfully completing the state tests, the C-99 submarine was put into trial operation, which completed almost twelve years of its creation. The work of the design bureau, the construction plant of the submarine, a number of research and design organizations ended successfully.

From 1956 to 1959, the experimental submarine S-99, being in a separate brigade of training boats of the Baltic fleet, completed 98 exits to the sea, having covered more than 6000 miles in the surface position and about 800 miles in the underwater position.

19 May 1959 on C-99 there was a serious accident. At the next launch of PSPU at a depth equal to 80 m, an explosion occurred in the turbine compartment - the installation did not start. The boat commander gave the command to immediately blow the main ballast with an emergency blowing system. The boat floated with aft on the stern. A report was received from the diesel compartment: “Fire and explosion in the 5-m (turbine) compartment, irrigation in the 5-th compartment was given.”

On the ship declared an alarm. Using the viewing glasses of adjacent compartments, it was established that the 5 is filled with water. Since the submarine kept afloat, the commander decided to get to the base under its own power. They launched high-pressure compressors and continuously inflated damaged tanks of the main ballast. A few hours later, C-99 returned to base. After draining the turbine compartment, it was found that the onboard valve of the hydrogen peroxide loading pipeline collapsed; a through hole with a diameter of 80 mm, through which the turbine compartment was flooded, was punctured in the upper part of the robust case. The explosion caused the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide due to dirt entering the valve.

After the accident, the experienced C-99 submarine was not restored, because it needed to replace a significant part of the PGGU mechanisms, which required considerable expenses. By this time, the first nuclear submarine of the 627 project, the K-3, entered the Soviet Navy. The complex and interesting search for new power plants has ended. The C-99 submarine was disarmed and scrapped, but the experience gained in using combined-cycle turbine plants on the submarines played a very significant role in the creation of nuclear steam-turbine installations for submarines.

Badanin V. “Single U-Boat Submarines”, St. Petersburg: Gangut, 1998. C. 48-86.
Boechin I. Soviet and British Walters // Technique-Youth. 1996. No.5.C.32-36
Shirokorad A. Submarine project 617. // Soviet submarines of post-war construction. M .: Arsenal Press. 1997. C.160-166.
Spassky I., Semenov V. Project 617 // Sea collection. 1995. No.7. C.65-69.
Antonov A. Iz stories creation of submarines with steam-gas turbines. // Shipbuilding. 1994. No.5-6. C.64-67.
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  1. semirek
    semirek 12 May 2016 07: 10
    An interesting article, I think these boats would get a ticket to life if nuclear power had not come into the submarine fleet.
  2. qwert
    qwert 12 May 2016 07: 35
    220 km at a speed of 20 knots, quite well. It is a pity that the only accident stopped further work.
  3. code54
    code54 12 May 2016 07: 36
    Very interesting! An alternative such mover! The first time I heard that they planned on the submarine.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 12 May 2016 08: 00
    Quote: semirek
    An interesting article, I think these boats would get a ticket to life if nuclear power had not come into the submarine fleet.

    The French are still working on submarines with a single engine of this type. The article is interesting because the work on work on a power plant of this type is described in detail. On work on a submarine with a single closed-cycle engine running on liquid oxygen, I met the materials several times. In TM and it seems TV there were descriptions of the first power plants in the thirties. Then materials on "Lighters" appeared. Submarine of project A-615. There was an article about a power plant of this type in TM, but only about a German boat of the XXVI series. I have already forgotten the details, but it seems that the Germans' problems were due to the lack of profit centers.
    1. bionik
      bionik 12 May 2016 13: 56
      Quote: Amurets
      still working on submarines with a single engine

      In 1903, engineer S.K. Drzewiecki proposed to build a submarine with a "single" engine for surface and underwater passage.

      As a single engine, two four-stroke gasoline engines of the Panar and Levassor firm with a capacity of 130 hp were assumed. each, using gears, worked on a propeller shaft with a four-blade propeller.

      In the above-water position, gasoline engines worked according to the usual scheme - exhaust gases through the muffler and non-return valve were released into the atmosphere; in the underwater position, the air stored in 45 air guards at a pressure of 200 atmospheres was supplied to the engine room to ensure the operation of gasoline engines. The total air supply was about 11 cubic meters and was supposed to ensure the operation of gasoline engines for 4 hours.

      Air pressure from 200 atmospheres to 18 was reduced in the pressure reducing valve (expander), after which the air entered the piston pneumatic engine, which actuated the gas pump, pumped the exhaust gases through a superstructure, which served as a kind of silencer, into the exhaust pipe located under the keel and had a large number of small holes. Leaving in small streams from the numerous openings of the outlet pipe, the exhaust gases (mainly carbon dioxide) had to dissolve in water.

      In a pneumatic engine, air pressure decreased from 18 to 1,2 atm. and at the same time, safe for personnel pressure, air entered the engine room.

      There were no rowing motors and a battery on this boat.

      To illuminate the interior, a dynamo was used, driven by a 5 hp petrol engine of the same company, and the same petrol engine powered the steering machine.
      The submarine proposed by S.K. Dzhevetskiy, was highly appreciated by A.N. Krylov, who was at that time acting. Chairman of the Marine Technical Committee and was ordered by the "Company St. Petersburg Metal Plant" at the expense of the "Special Committee for Strengthening the Navy on Voluntary Donations."

      The project was developed by the Metal Plant under the direction of Dzhevetsky and submitted for approval in 1905.

      Despite the fact that the operation of the Pochtovy submarine confirmed the possibility of diving with internal combustion engines operating in a submerged position, the submarine of this type remained the only one.
      It was not possible to achieve the trace of the boat’s movement under water - the bubbles of exhaust gases were noticeable on a light ripple, an oil trail stretched for 2-3 boats behind the boat. The power of the gas pump turned out to be insufficient for pumping exhaust gases from both gasoline engines, so only one left engine was working in the underwater position. The complexity and low structural reliability of the mechanisms required an extremely high qualification of the personnel serving the boat. Great complaints were caused by high noise of gasoline engines; it took 2 to 3 days to charge the air fuses.
      1. bionik
        bionik 12 May 2016 13: 56
        Mortgaged in 1906 at Metallichesky for water in St. Petersburg for voluntary donations and on August 30, 1908 was added to the lists of the ships of the Baltic Fleet, launched in 1908, entered service in 1909: it was the first underwater in the world boat with a single propulsion system.

        November 29, 1906 was transferred to Kronstadt, where her preliminary tests began. In 1907-1908 the factory eliminated the comments of the selection committee and carried out the necessary alterations. In March 1909 she was enrolled in the Scuba Diving Squad. June 4, 1909 was listed in the Training Unit.

        July 27, 1913 was withdrawn from combat, disarmed, deposited at the St. Petersburg military port. August 5, 1913 expelled from the BF.

        In September 1913, at the suggestion of the chief of the submarine brigade and the head of the training detachment, Rear Admiral Levitsky, she was transferred to the Baltic Plant, where it was supposed to conduct experiments on the use of an oxygen engine proposed by Midshipman M. Nikolsky. In October 1914, it was used near Kronstadt to determine the effect on submarine structures of submarine explosions. September 16, 1924 transferred to the State Collective Funds for dismantling and cutting for metal. November 21, 1925 is excluded from the lists of the ships of the RKKF.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 12 May 2016 15: 29
          Quote: bionik

          In September 1913, at the proposal of the chief of the submarine brigade and the head of the training detachment, Rear Admiral Levitsky, was transferred to the Baltic Plant, where it was supposed to conduct experiments on the use of an oxygen engine proposed by Midshipman M. Nikolsky

          Further work on the gas-oxygen cycle was the work on the boats REDO R-1 and M-401. The NKVD carried out the work. A-401 project came out of the development of the M-615 submarines.

          Submarine S-99, this is another type of non-volatile SSU. There is also a Stirling engine and fuel cells. These are two more types of VNEU
  5. inkass_98
    inkass_98 12 May 2016 08: 02
    Interesting design. Thanks to the author.
  6. Zeeke
    Zeeke 12 May 2016 10: 27
    It would be nice now to think about finding alternative sources. Still not eternal nuclear submarine reactors. article is great!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 May 2016 12: 09
      Quote: Zeeke
      It would be nice now to think about finding alternative sources. Still not eternal nuclear submarine reactors. article is great!

      Above, I dropped the link to anaerobic engines for submarines, but in my opinion there is no alternative to nuclear power plants. The French are building a nuclear submarine of the "Barracuda" type for themselves, but on the VO it was that the French were building a diesel-electric version of this submarine for India and Australia on the basis of this nuclear submarine The variant is called "Scorpena."
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Nitarius
    Nitarius 12 May 2016 12: 59
    "Perpetual motion machines" in the service of the Third Reich! They are machines of a great resource!

    ... actually my research in this area began with this source, “British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1946:“ The Invention of Hans Coler Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power, p. 2 "." It is reported that the device was started by development in 1933, and the technology for generating electricity was known in Germany 6 years before the start of the war. It is reported that in Germany found practical application of this device in submarines providing the latter with the characteristics of the submarine range as in modern nuclear submarines. But, the device, structurally, was much simpler and cheaper than nuclear reactors.

    I talked with one grandfather about work, talked about the war, told him that I was interested in the secret weapons of the Third Reich, and grandfather told me an interesting thing. He turned out to be the old man on a mine minesweeper. In 1945, a submarine was seized in Poland at the pier, the guard was from the NKVDshnikov. Their minesweeper was engaged in towing the boat to Leningrad. The convoy was of seven ships! To the questions: what are we going to tow?
  9. Nitarius
    Nitarius 12 May 2016 13: 02
    The following is a message cited from British intelligence of the Subcommittee, (BIOS Report No. 2394: C31 / 4799), entitled: Hans Kohler’s invention relating to the supposedly new energy source (BIOS Final Report No. 1043: Clause 31), as provided UK Public Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Library of Crediting for Science and Technology. Report by R. Hurst, Department of Supply.

    And now for "Andromeda": the tachyonator is a development of the hexagonal tachyonator of Hans Kohler. Differs in increased size and power. And it is not single row. Produced at the Siemens plant, apparently since 1942, in small quantities. Conceptually similar to the Roshchin-Godin platform, but with increased revs and several rows. The boats on which it was installed are identified as pl XVI series. Their displacement matches the data of the British naval intelligence. Tachyonators on boats were used with the Marconi vortex dynamo, but I could not find anything on the network with it. It is believed that it could provide more power generation than conventional electrodynamic generators. The prototype of the Hans Kohler tachyonator in 1934, during tests, developed a power of 60 kilowatts (the same hexagonal scheme) (the mentioned platform showed a power of 7 kilowatts).
    According to the description of the operation of the tachyonator on the boat, the situation is as follows: The engine starts from the starting motor of the engine spinning the rotor to critical revolutions of energy self-sufficiency, when the tachyonator stops consuming electricity for work. At this moment, the electric motor is disconnected from the engine and the electric motor itself is turned off. At the same time, the generator is connected, and the engine starts work on generating electricity, without needing it to ensure its operation. Next, the battery is charged and direct electric power is transmitted to the propeller motors.
    According to the tachioners of Hans Kohler, it is known that after the war not a single engine model was found. The prototype was restored somehow in 1989. There were several design diagrams of the apparatus and only the circuit was restored - which includes six permanent magnets located in a hexagon-shaped plane. Coils generating output power are wound on each of the magnets.
    The anti-tachyonator "Tula" produced by AEG was able to carry out calculations (the main parameters were taken from the Roshchin-Godin platform) - residual induction 0,85 T, coercive force Нс ≈ 600 kA / m and magnetic energy W ≈ 150 kJ / m3 and other technical parameters his platform since there is no such data on German tachyonators. It turns out that: If we calculate on the basis of the data indicated for the experimental engine, then we get the following: power generation - 138,6 kilowatts at 600 rpm; with a load delay - 277,2 kilowatts at 600 rpm. When using a pulsed magnetic field generator 4a - no data. Anti-gravity - 693% at 600 rpm.
    For a 10-row tachyonator - power generation - 1386 kilowatts at 600 rpm; when the load is delayed - 2772 kilowatts at 600 rpm. Antigravity - 6930% at 600 rpm.
    "Thule" - tachyonator 70, 23,1 meters in diameter. Control: pulse generator of magnetic field 4a.
    There is also no information about the pulsed magnetic field generator, therefore it is not involved in the calculations, although it should be taken into account.
  10. sub307
    sub307 12 May 2016 16: 16
  11. sub307
    sub307 12 May 2016 16: 19
    Walter's turbine:
  12. sub307
    sub307 12 May 2016 16: 24
    General layout of the EU with the Walter turbine:
  13. pimen
    pimen 12 May 2016 18: 47
    most likely, the power plant of non-nuclear submarines will remain combined: an ordinary turbine (steam and gas generator) or diesel (stirling), plus batteries and fuel cells. In principle, the power of an air-independent installation should ensure that the batteries are charged under water (and, if possible, fast!) - this is important, not the main move. Fuel cells will be spent sparingly and in force majeure
  14. archi.sailor
    archi.sailor 12 May 2016 19: 24
    thanks to the author, informative and interesting article
  15. proud
    proud 12 May 2016 19: 31
    Great article - thanks for the work!