AK-12 and А-545 (АЕК-971) automatic rifles undergoing state tests have the accuracy of shooting (less) times in 1,5-2, which is less than AK-74, which is unconditionally considered an improvement.
However, in the Russian Federation there is already an automaton, the accuracy of the first two bullets of which is significantly, according to some information, up to 20 times better. This is a Nikonov AN-94 assault rifle, which has been in service for quite a few years, but has not received the kind of distribution that it would seem to be guaranteed with such good accuracy. A more complex AH-94 device is constantly being noted, but there is no significant increase in combat effectiveness — an increase in the probability of hitting real targets in battle. If you do not understand the reasons for the lack of demand for better accuracy of AN-94, then AK-12 and A-545 will repeat his fate.
It is known that the best accuracy of fire guarantees an increase in the probability of hitting only if the average hit point (STF) does not go beyond the contours of the target. If STP is behind the contours of the target, then the best accuracy can reduce the probability of hitting [1, section 4.10. Optimal dispersion of shots]. On Fig.1 it is shown that, reducing the accuracy, we though increase the density of the fire inside the dispersion ellipse, but reduce the area of the target covered by the dispersion. Therefore, if the STP is beyond the contours of the target, the probability of hitting will increase or decrease while the shooting accuracy decreases, it is necessary to calculate for each specific case.
Fig.1. Scheme compiled by the author
It is important to understand that Fig. 1 is not an abstraction, this is exactly what happens in combat with AK-74: at ranges of 150-300 and the main number of bullets go above the dead infantry. The fact is that AK-74 sights are optimized for a direct shot at too high - a chest target whose height is 0,5 m (Fig.3, target No.6). The AK-74 Guide [2, article 155] requires you to shoot a direct shot from the “P” or “400” marks to the range of 4 m. At the sector sight AK-74 there is a special mark “P” - the range of a direct shot at the chest target. And almost all mounted sights for AK-74 - collimator, optical, night, thermal imaging, etc. - do not have target marks less than “4” (400 m), for example, 1P29 optical sight, 1P77, 1P78, night sight 1PN93-2 AK-74 (Fig.2) and others. On the collimator sights, the only aiming mark is also reduced to the 400 m range. That is, with mounted sights, the machine gunner does not even have the technical capability to shoot at 400 meters from a different mark than the 4.
Fig.2. Figure from Guide to the 1PN93-2 sight
The height of the trajectory “4” is equal to 0,4 m [2, “Basic table AK-74”], and therefore a direct shot from this tag is effective only for targets not lower than 0,4 m. The height of the trajectory “P” is even greater - 0,5 m, and therefore a direct shot with this tag is effective only for targets not lower than 0,5 m.
And in battle, man instinctively seeks to hide behind the parapet. Behind the parapet, they demand that foreign armies, for example, the US Army , take the position and instructions of foreign armies. Therefore, the main goal in the battle for our machine gunners is the shooter behind the parapet . Veterans of the fighting in Afghanistan recall: “In battle, only the“ caps ”of the dushmans were visible above the stones. It was into these “caps” that one had to fall! ”
Fig.3. Matching targets #5 and #6 to real goals
The shooter behind the parapet has the height of the entire 0,3 m (Fig.3, target No.5) and in our course of shooting is indicated by the head targets №№ 5, 5a and 5б. The “4” trajectory rises above the arrow behind the parapet at distances from 150 to 300 [2, the table “Exceeding trajectories over the aiming line, AK-74”]. Therefore, at these ranges, the AK-74 has an insufficient probability of hitting the main target (Fig. 4, label "4").
Fig.4. Calculated by the author
The “P” trajectory (440m) is even higher than the “4” trajectory, and therefore the probability of hitting is even worse - at the 200m range of AK-74, it falls to unacceptable 0,17 (Fig.4, label “P”). The label "P" (440м) can not be used, it must be removed from the sights. Actually, on many mounted sights for AK-74, the “P” label is already absent, and it is necessary to do the same on all sights and to prevent this label from appearing in the future, since with it the A-545 has a chance of hitting it altogether down to 0,07 (Fig .5, label "P").
Because of the lack of probability of hitting the target with a height of 0,3, machine gunners are on the course of firing the Defense Ministry at head targets and are not firing. None of those exercises of the course of shooting, which are carried out by one submachine gun, has no main goals. Neither in primary, nor in training, nor in control or qualification shooting machine gunners do not shoot at the head target. Moreover, the head target is not found in any exercise of the discharge norms of the unified All-Russian sports classification for the machine gun [the current course of shooting, the 19 application]. Thus, not only during training, control or qualification, but even in the sports category up to the title of “master of sports in shooting sport from a machine gun” machine gunners do not shoot at the head target.
The same thing in the course of shooting for the Interior Ministry troops.
For machine gunners in the exercises of the shooting course, the lying infantry is simulated in a simplified way - high (0,5) targets No. 6, which correspond to the arrow leading the fire while lying on level ground with elbows (Fig.3). This simplification allows machine gunners to get on the shooting range, but leads to ineffective shooting in battle, as in battle a rare crank takes up a position on level ground without a parapet, mostly infantry — this is target number XXUMX (Fig.5).
Simplification is necessary to stop, and for this it is necessary to increase the likelihood of an automaton hitting the main target - the arrow behind the parapet. To hit the target with a height of 0,3, the main way of shooting a machine gunner - with a direct shot - you need to add a mark to the sight, the height of which will be 0,3; we denote this label by “P 0,3”.
With modern sights, reducing accuracy will not increase the likelihood of hitting
Fig.5. The graph is based on the author's calculations.
In Tab.1 we compare how the probability of hitting automatic machines with improved accuracy is changed: A-545 and AK-12.
Tab.1. Indicators A-545 are applicable to other machines that have external ballistics AK-74, but accuracy in 1,5 times better, for example, to AK-12
The main conclusions are:
1. A-545 and AK-12 with modern sights (labeled "4") will have no better combat effectiveness than AK-74.
Line A-545 "4" / AK-74 "4" Tab.1 confirms that with the aiming mark "4" the probability of hitting A-545 is better at those ranges where the STP is in the contours of the target - to 150, and also from 300m to 350-400m, but worse at distances where the STF from the contours of the target came out - from 150m to 250m. For example, at the 200 range, the probability of hitting will be 87% from the same indicator AK-74, that is, it will decrease from 0,43 (Fig.4) to 0,37 (Fig.5).
A separate calculation shows that with improved accuracy in 2, the probability of hitting with the “4” tag at the 200 range decreases even more - to 0,30. And with accuracy in 18-20, times better than AK-74 (the first two bullets of the AH-94 queue) the probability of hitting the “4” mark is indistinguishable from zero, not only at the 200 range, but almost everywhere where STF went beyond the contours targets, that is, at ranges from 150m to 300m.
Thus, for modern sights (for the “4” tag), the better the accuracy of machine gun shooting is, the lower the probability of hitting the main target at ranges from 150 to 250-300.
AK-12 and A-545 with modern sights will show combat effectiveness not better than AK-74, as on average the probability of hitting will increase insignificantly - by 9% (Tab.1, line А-545 "4" / АК-74 "4", average). The combat effectiveness promised by the manufacturers of these machines on 15-20% can only be obtained with the targeting mark “P 0,3” (Tab.1, A-545 row “P 0,3” / AK-74 “P 0,3”, average).
If you do not fix the sights, then upgrading to new machines will be meaningless, as happened with the AN-94.
2. The “P 0,3” label will significantly increase the probability of being hit on all machines.
The label “P 0,3” with improved accuracy increases the likelihood of hitting at all distances (Tab.1, line А-545 “П 0,3” / АК-74 ”П 0,3”), because the average probability of hitting the entire range of a direct shot compared to the mark “4” will increase significantly: 1,48 times on A-545 and AK-12 and 1,31 times on AK-74 (Tab.1, average).
Compared to the current state of affairs - with the label “4” on AK-74 - the label “P 0,3” on А-545 and АК-12 will increase the probability of hitting 1,56 times on average (Tab.1, average).
AH-94 with the label "P 0,3" would have a chance of hitting the first two bullets significantly better than A-545. However, on the AH-94 they installed an aperture sight on the M-16, which not only does not contribute to aiming at the lower edge of the target with a direct shot, it also does not have at least the “3” mark. Unsuccessful sights - this is the reason for the lack of demand for the AN-94.
A non-discrete passive sight is more effective than a direct shot.
The definition of accurate shooting is best formulated in the monograph of the Central Research Institute of Information "The effectiveness of automatic firing weapons":" 3.5. The degree of combining the midpoint of hits with the center of the target determines the accuracy of shooting.»[1, page 121].
With a direct shot, the STP moves along the target from the lower edge of the target (at the direct shot range) to the upper edge (approximately ½ of the direct shot range) and back to the lower edge (closer to 50м), and only in two places from the entire range of the direct shot coincides with the center of the target is approximately ¼ and ¾ of the direct shot. At a range of a direct shot and approximately ½ of that range, at least half of all bullets go below or above the target, respectively. Choosing a direct shot, we deliberately go on reducing the accuracy of shooting for the sake of simplicity and speed of aiming.
In Russia, a non-discrete passive sight has been patented, which makes it possible to aim at a target “person” as simply and as quickly as with a direct shot. At the same time, the sight at sufficiently long ranges keeps the STP close to the center of real targets in battle.
A non-discrete passive sight on the A-545 and AK-12 will increase the probability of getting 1,19 times, on average, compared to the “P 0,3” mark, and also increase the effective range of the fire by 150-200. And this sight is passive, that is, it does not radiate any electromagnetic impulse (laser, etc.), therefore it does not warn the target because it is aimed at it, and it does not unmask its arrow .
There are no objective obstacles to the introduction of the “P 0,3” tag and non-discrete passive sight.
The introduction of the “P 0,3” tag does not require changes in the shooting methods memorized by machine gunners, requires minor changes in the manuals for machine guns and in the shooting course, as well as completely minor changes in the equipment of the shooting ranges (chest targets should be cut to the height of the head targets), does not require experimental design works (OCD). Some types of sights available in the troops, for example, collimator sights will not require any modernization: they will simply have to lead to normal combat with a slightly lower STF excess at 100m’s distance than is being done now.
The introduction of a nondiscrete passive sight will require OCD, as well as some retraining of machine gunners. But for OCD, the technologies and materials available in optical instrument making are sufficient, and the price of the sight will be no higher than the price of current optical and night sights for automata. The use of a non-discrete passive sight is intuitive and its development will not be a problem for any category of military personnel, including draftees.
Now, when it is necessary to replace sights with the tag “4”, it’s time to put a non-discrete passive sight into supply, otherwise our troops will remain only with an obviously insufficiently accurate direct shot for several decades.
Conclusions and offers
A direct shot labeled “P 0,3” or a non-discrete passive sight will increase the combat effectiveness of both the assault rifles and those with improved accuracy and undergoing state tests.
Without these sights, it’s pointless to put into service automatic rifles with improved accuracy, as their combat effectiveness with old sights is no better than the automatic rifles already in service.
Implementing scopes labeled “P 0,3” and / or non-discrete passive sights is a priority and no alternative. In the case of a lack of funds at the same time for new sights and new machines it is necessary to introduce new sights, and not new machines.
 Effectiveness of firing from automatic weapons / MS Shereshevsky, AN Gontarev, Yu.V. Minayev Moscow, Central Research Institute of Information, 1979.
 The 5,45-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle (AK-74, AX74, AK-74H, AX74H) and 5,45-Kalashnikov machine gun (RPK74, РПКСXNNXX, RPK74HNHX, NXXUMNX74X, NPC74H, NXXUMNX1982X, NXXNUMXH Kalashnikov assault rifle) Uch.-ed., XNUMX.
 M5.56A16 and M1A16 rifles, FM 2-23, 9 JULY 3 Manual
 The submachine gun should and can hit the head figure / V. Svateev. Bulletin of AVN. No.2. 2013.
 Pros and cons of the sight. Small arms need an active-passive sight / Svatyev V.A. Journal of the Publishing Center of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation "Army collection". No.12 (234). 2013.