Military Review

US missile defense system. 3-Part I

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Following the abandonment of Reagan's Star Wars research on promising missile defense systems in the United States did not stop. One of the most unusual and interesting projects, the implementation of which reached the stage of construction of prototypes, was a missile defense laser on aviation the platform. Work on this topic began back in the 70s and entered the stage of practical implementation almost simultaneously with the proclamation of the Strategic Defense Initiative.

The Aviation Laser Platform, known as NKC-135А, was created by re-equipping the KS-135 tanker aircraft (passenger version Boeing-707). Two cars underwent alteration, the laser was installed only on one of them. The “unarmed” aircraft NC-135W was used for testing the detection equipment and tracking the launching ICBMs.

In order to increase the internal space, the fuselage of the NKC-135А aircraft was extended by three meters, after which they installed the SO ² - 0,5 MW laser and 10 t mass, aiming, tracking and fire control systems. It was assumed that the aircraft with a combat laser on board would patrol the launch area of ​​ballistic missiles and hit them on the active leg of the flight shortly after launch. A number of test shots at target missiles in the 1982 year ended in failure, which required the development of a laser and control system.

US missile defense system. 3-Part I

NKC-135А


26 July 1983 held the first successful shooting, using a laser managed to destroy five AIM-9 «Sidewinder» missiles. Of course, these were not ICBMs, but this success demonstrated the efficiency of the system in principle. 26 September 1983 of the year with a laser from the board of the NKC-135 ALL shot down the UAV BQM-34A. The drone fell after a laser beam burned through the casing and disabled its control system. The trials lasted until November 1983. They demonstrated that in “greenhouse” conditions the laser is capable of destroying targets at a distance of about 5 km, but this option is absolutely unsuitable for dealing with ICBMs. Later, the US military has repeatedly stated that this flying platform was considered solely as a "technology demonstrator" and an experimental model.

In the 1991, during the fighting in the Middle East, the MIM-104 Patriot anti-aircraft missile system, while fighting the Iraqi OTR P-17E and Al-Hussein, was not very effective. It was here that once again they remembered the flying laser platforms, with the help of which, in conditions of air supremacy, the US Air Force could hit launching ballistic missiles. The program, which received the name of ABL (English Airborne Laser - "Aviation onboard laser"), officially started in the middle of 90-x. The goal of the program was to create an aviation laser complex capable of fighting short-range ballistic missiles in a theater of military operations. It was assumed that laser interceptors with a target range of 250 km, flying at an altitude of 12 km, would be on alert at a distance of 120-150 km from the zone of probable launches. In this case, they will be accompanied by escort aircraft, electronic warfare and tankers.


YAL-1A


Initially, the KS-135A tanker, which was well-proven, was supposed to be used as a combat laser carrier, but after that they settled on a more lifting model. The wide-body passenger Boeing 747-400F was chosen as a platform, while the aircraft underwent a serious alteration. The main and most noticeable changes occurred with the nose of the airliner, a rotating turret weighing seven tons was mounted here with the main mirror of the combat laser and numerous optical systems. The tail of the fuselage has also undergone significant changes, it installed the energy modules of the laser system. In order for the fuselage bottom skin to withstand the emissions of hot and aggressive gases after laser shots, some of it had to be replaced with titanium panels. The internal layout of the cargo compartment was completely redone. For the timely detection of launching missiles, the aircraft received six infrared sensors, and to increase the patrol time, an in-flight refueling system.


Layout YAL-1A


The aircraft, designated YAL-1A, first flew on July 18 2002. The program with an initial budget of 2,5 billion dollars was provided for the creation of two prototypes for testing and developing weapons systems, as well as five combat laser platforms based on Boeing-747. When choosing the type of main armament, the developers proceeded from the maximum energy efficiency of the laser system. Initially, it was planned to use a hydrogen fluoride laser, but this was due to a number of difficulties. In this case, on board the aircraft required to place the tank with fluorine, which is one of the most chemically active and aggressive elements. So in the atmosphere of fluorine water burns with a hot flame, with the release of free oxygen. This would make the process of refueling and preparing the laser for use an extremely dangerous procedure, requiring the use of special protective spacesuits. According to the US Department of Defense, a megawatted laser operating on liquid oxygen and finely dispersed iodine was installed on the aircraft. In addition to the main powerful combat laser, there are also a number of laser systems designed to measure distance, target designation and target tracking.

Tests of a laser missile defense system placed aboard a Boeing-747 began in March 2007 of the year, and target detection and tracking systems were initially tested. 3 February 2010, the first successful shooting at a real target took place, then the target that imitated a ballistic solid-fuel rocket was destroyed. In February, firing at solid-fuel and liquid-propellant rockets in the active part of the trajectory took place. Tests have shown that the YAL-1A aircraft with a laser gun on board can also be used to destroy enemy aircraft. However, this was possible only at high altitude, where the concentration of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere is minimal. Potentially, with the help of a flying laser platform, it was possible to destroy or blind the low-orbit satellites, but it did not come to tests.

After evaluating the results, the experts came to a disappointing conclusion that, with very substantial operating costs, the system can be effective against launching missiles at a relatively short range, while the “flying laser” itself, located close to the contact line, is quite vulnerable to anti-aircraft missiles and enemy fighters. And for his protection is required to allocate a significant outfit fighters and EW aircraft. In addition, for continuous duty in the air covering forces, additional refueling aircraft are needed, all of this increased the cost of an already very expensive project.

In 2010, more than 3 billion dollars were spent on the laser interceptor program, and the total cost of deploying the system was estimated to be 13 billion dollars. Due to excessive cost and limited efficiency, it was decided to abandon the continuation of work and continue to test one YAL-1A aircraft as a technology demonstrator.


Google Earth snapshot: YAL-1A aircraft based on storage Davis-Montand


After 5 was spending billions of dollars, the program was finally closed in 2011. 12 February 2012 was the last time the plane took off from the runway at Edwards Air Base, heading to the storage facility of the Davis-Montana aircraft in Arizona. Here engines and some equipment were dismantled from the aircraft.

Currently, research is being conducted in the United States to develop flying laser missile defense interceptors based on heavy unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the developers and the military, their operating costs should be several times less compared to heavy manned platforms based on Boeing 747. In addition, relatively inexpensive drones will be able to act closer to the front line, and their loss will not be so critical.

Even at the stage of development of the Patriot anti-aircraft missile system MIM-104, it was considered as a means of combating short-range ballistic missiles. In the 1991, the Patriot air defense system was used to repel the attacks of the Iraqi PRPs. In this case, one of the Iraqi "Scud" had to run several missiles. And even in this case, with an acceptable accuracy of targeting anti-aircraft missiles, the 100% destruction of the OTP P-17 warhead did not occur. The anti-aircraft missiles of the Patriot PAC-1 and PAC-2 complexes, designed to destroy aerodynamic targets, had insufficient damage to the fragmentation warheads when used against ballistic missiles.



As a result of combat use, along with the development of an improved version of the “Patriot” PAC-3, which was put into service in 2001, an anti-missile with a kinetic tungsten warhead ERINT (English Extended Range Interceptor) was created. She is able to fight with ballistic missiles with a range of launch to 1000 km, including equipped with chemical warheads.


ERINT towed launcher with anti missiles


The ERINT rocket, along with the inertial guidance system, uses the active millimeter-wave radar guidance head. Before turning on the GOS, the cover of the nose cowl of the rocket is reset, and the radar antenna is aimed at the center of the space occupied by the target. At the final stage of the missile’s flight, its control occurs through the inclusion of miniature impulse steering engines located in the front. Aiming anti-missiles and exact defeat of a kinetic warhead weighing 73 kg of a compartment with a warhead occurs due to the formation of a clear radar profile of the attacked ballistic missile with the determination of the aiming point.


Moment of interception of a warhead with an ERINT missile during test launches.

As conceived by the US military, ERINT anti-missiles must kill tactical and operational-tactical ballistic missiles missed by other missile defense systems. A relatively short launch range - 25 km and ceiling - 20 km are connected with this. The small dimensions of ERINT - the length of 5010 mm and diameter - 254 mm make it possible to place four anti-missiles in the dimensions of a standard transport and launch canister. The presence in the ammunition missile with a kinetic warhead can significantly improve the capabilities of the Patriot PAC-3. It is planned to combine launchers with missiles MIM-104 and ERINT, which increases the fire power of the battery by 75%. But this does not make the Patriot an effective antimissile system, but only slightly increases the possibilities for intercepting ballistic targets in the near zone.

Along with the improvement of the Patriot air defense missile system and the development of a specialized anti-missile system for it, in the USA at the beginning of 90, before the US left the ABM treaty, flight tests of new-missile anti-missile systems began at the White Sands ground in New Mexico THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense - “Land-based mobile missile complex for high-altitude over-atmospheric interception of medium-range missiles”). The developers of the complex were faced with the task of creating an interceptor missile that could effectively hit ballistic targets with a range of up to 3500 km. At the same time, the affected area of ​​THAAD was to be up to 200 km and at altitudes from 40 to 150 km.

The anti-missile system THAAD is equipped with an uncooled IR HSS and inertial radio command control system. As for ERINT, the concept of destroying a target with a direct kinetic strike was adopted. THAAD anti-missile with a length of 6,17 m - weighs 900 kg. The single-stage engine accelerates the antimissile system up to the speed of 2,8 km / s. Start is carried out by a detachable starting accelerator.


THAAD anti-missile launch


The THAAD missile defense system should be the first frontier of the zone antimissile defense. The characteristics of the system allow for the sequential firing of one ballistic missile with two antimissiles on the principle of "start - estimate - launch". This means that in the event of a miss of the first anti-missile missile, the second will be launched. In the event of a THAAD miss, the Patriot air defense system should enter into action, on which the GBR radar will receive data on the flight trajectory and speed parameters of a burst ballistic missile. According to the calculations of American experts, the probability of hitting a ballistic missile with a two-level missile defense system consisting of THAAD and ERINT should be at least 0,96.

The THAAD battery consists of four main components: 3-4 self-propelled PU with eight antimissiles, transport-charging machines, mobile surveillance radar (AN / TPY-2) and a fire control center. With the accumulation of operating experience and the results of test and firing, the complex is subject to modifications and modernization. Thus, the currently produced SPA THAAD in appearance is seriously different from the early models that were tested in the 2000-s.


Self-propelled launcher complex THAAD


In June, the 2009 of the year, after the end of the tests at the Barking Sands Pacific missile test site, the first THAAD battery was put into test-combat operation. At the moment, it is aware of the supply of five batteries of this anti-missile system.


Google Earth Snapshot: THAAD in Fort Bliss


In addition to the US Department of Defense to acquire the complex THAAD expressed their desire to Qatar, the UAE, South Korea and Japan. The cost of one complex is $ 2,3 billion. Currently, one battery carries combat duty on the island of Guam, covering the US naval base and the airfield of strategic aviation from possible strikes of North Korean ballistic missiles. The permanent location of the remaining THAAD batteries is Fort Bliss, Texas.

The 1972 treaty of the year prohibited the deployment of anti-missile defense systems, but not their development, which the Americans actually took advantage of. The THAAD and Patriot PAC-3 complexes with ERINT anti-ballistic missiles are, in fact, the near-line anti-missile defense systems and are mainly designed to protect troops from ballistic missile strikes with a launch range of up to 1000 km. The development of a US missile defense system against intercontinental ballistic missiles began in the early 90's, these works were justified by the need to protect the rogue countries from nuclear blackmail.

The new stationary anti-missile defense system was named GBMD (English Ground-Based Midcourse Defense - "Ground Defense on the March"). This system is largely based on technical solutions that have been developed during the creation of early anti-missile systems. Unlike THAAD and “Patriot”, which have their own means of detection and target designation, the GBMD operability directly depends on SPRN stations.

Initially, the complex was called NVD (English National Missile Defense - “National Missile Defense”, it was intended to intercept ICBM warheads outside the atmosphere on the main portion of the trajectory. In 2002, after integration into the missile defense system on the basis of the shipboard IJDIS, complex named Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GBMD). The tests of the GBMD anti-missile complex began in July 1997 on Kwajalein Atoll.



Since ICBM warheads have a higher speed than OTR and MRBD, for effective protection of the covered territory, it is necessary to ensure the defeat of warheads in the middle part of the trajectory, passing in outer space. To destroy the ICBM warheads, a method of kinetic interception was chosen. Previously, all the American and Soviet missile defense systems that were being developed and adopted, which intercepted in space, used anti-missiles with nuclear warheads. This made it possible to achieve an acceptable probability of hitting the target with a significant error in hover. However, in a nuclear explosion in outer space, dead zones that are not permeable to radar radiation are formed. This circumstance does not allow the detection, tracking and firing of other targets.

When a heavy metal blanket of anti-missile missiles with an ICBM nuclear warhead collides, the latter is guaranteed to be destroyed, without the formation of unseen “dead zones”, which makes it possible to carry out the sequential interception of other combat units of ballistic missiles. But this method of dealing with ICBMs requires very accurate targeting. In this regard, the tests of the GBMD complex went with great difficulties and required significant improvements, both of the anti-missile missiles themselves and their guidance systems.


Start from the mine early sample anti-missile GBI


It is known that the first versions of the GBI anti-missile (Ground-Based Interceptor) were developed on the basis of the second and third stages of the Minuteman-2 ICBM. The prototype was a three-stage interceptor with a length of 16,8 and diameter of 1,27 and launch weight 13 T. Maximum range 5000 km.

According to data published in the American media, at the second stage of testing, work was already being done with a specially created anti-missile GBI-EKV. According to various sources, its starting weight is 12-15 tons. The GBI anti-rocket missile launches the EKV (Exoatmospheric Killer Machine) interceptor into English at an 8,3 km / sec speed. The EKV kinetic space interceptor weighs about 70 kg, it is equipped with an infrared guidance system, its own engine and is designed for a direct hit into the warhead. When an ICBM warhead and an EKV interceptor collide, their total speed is about 15 km / s. It is known about the development of an even more advanced model of the MKV space interceptor (the English Miniature Kill Vehicle - “miniature killer machine”) with a mass of just 5 kg. It is assumed that the anti-missile GBI will carry more than a dozen interceptors, which should dramatically increase the capabilities of the anti-missile system.

At the moment, the GBI anti-missile is being refined. In the past few years alone, the missile defense agency spent over $ 2 billion on troubleshooting the interceptor control system. At the end of January 2016, a successful test of a modernized antimissile took place.

The GBI anti-missile missile, launched from the Vandenberg base, successfully hit a conventional target launched from the Hawaiian Islands. The ballistic missile, which served as a conventional target, was reportedly equipped with false targets and means for creating interference, in addition to the inert warhead.

Deployment of the GBMD anti-missile system began in 2005. The first missile defenses were placed in the mines at the Fort Greely military base. According to US data for the 2014 year, 26 GBI interceptors were deployed in Alaska. However, on satellite images of Fort Greely, you can observe 40 silos.


Google Earth snapshot: silo anti-missile defense GBI in Fort Greely, Alaska


A number of GBI antimissiles deployed at Vandenberg airbase in California. In the future, to deploy the GBMD complex on the west coast of the United States, it is planned to use re-equipped mine launchers of the Minuteman-3 ICBM. In 2017, the number of antimissiles here is planned to be increased to 15 units.


Google Earth snapshot: silo fusion propulsion GBI at Vandenberg airbase


After the North Korean tests of the Eunha-3 launch vehicle, at the end of 2012, it was decided to create a third GBI anti-missile base area in the United States. It is reported that the total number of antimissiles, carrying combat duty in five positional areas, can reach hundreds. In the opinion of the American military-political leadership, this will make it possible to cover the entire territory of the country from limited missile strikes.

Simultaneously with the deployment of GBMD complexes in Alaska, it was planned to create positions in Eastern Europe. Negotiations on this were conducted with the leadership of Romania, Poland and the Czech Republic. However, later they decided to deploy a missile defense system based on Aegis Ashore.

In 90-ies, the US Navy experts to create an anti-missile system suggested using the capabilities of the Aegis shipboard multifunctional combat information and control system (BIUS). Potentially, the radar and computing system of the Aegis system could solve this problem. The name of the system "Aegis" (eng. Aegis - "Aegis") - means the mythical invulnerable shield of Zeus and Athena.

The American BIUS Aegis is an integrated network of ship-based means of lighting the air situation, means of destruction, such as the Standard missile 2 (SM-2) missiles and the more modern Standard missile 3 (SM-3). The system also includes the means of automated combat control subsystems. The Aegis BIUS is capable of receiving and processing radar information from other ships and aircraft of the compound and providing target designation for their anti-aircraft systems.

The first ship to receive the Aegis system, the USS Ticonderoga missile cruiser (CG-47), became part of the US Navy 23 in January 1983. To date, the Aegis system is equipped with more than 100 ships, in addition to the US Navy, it is used by the naval forces of Spain, Norway, the Republic of Korea, and the Japanese Self-Defense Forces.

The main element of the Aegis system is a radar with AN / SPY-1 PHAR with an average radiated power of 32 — 58 kW and a peak power of 4 — 6 MW. It is capable of automatically searching, detecting, tracking 250 — 300 targets and targeting up to 18 anti-aircraft missiles on them. Moreover, all this can occur in automatic mode. The detection range of high-altitude targets is approximately 320 km.

Initially, testing the destruction of ballistic missiles was carried out using the SM-2 SAMs. This solid-propellant rocket was developed on the basis of the ship's SAM RIM-66. The main difference was the introduction of a programmable autopilot, which controlled the flight of the rocket in the main part of the trajectory. Anti-aircraft missile needs to highlight the target with a radar beam only for accurate guidance when entering the target area. Due to this, it was possible to increase the noise immunity and rate of fire of the anti-aircraft complex.

The most adapted for the tasks of missile defense in the SM-2 family is RIM-156B. This anti-missile is equipped with a new combined radar / infrared seeker, which ensures improved selection of false targets and beyond-the-horizon shooting. The rocket with a mass of about 1500 kg and a length of 7,9 m. Has a launch range of up to 170 km and a ceiling - 24 km. The defeat of the target is provided by fragmentation warhead mass 115 kg. Rocket flight speed - 1200 m / s. The launch of missiles is carried out under deck PU vertical start.

Unlike anti-aircraft missiles of the SM-2 family, the RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) rocket was originally designed to combat ballistic missiles. The anti-missile SM-3 is equipped with a kinetic warhead with its own engine and a matrix cooled IR GOS.



At the start of the 2000, these missiles were tested at the Ronald Reagan Missile Test Site in the Kwajalein Atoll region. During the test launches, which took place in 2001-2008, we managed to hit several IDB simulators with a direct hit with antimissiles launched from warships equipped with Aegis BIUS. The interception took place at altitudes 130-240 km. The beginning of the tests coincided with the US withdrawal from the ABM Treaty.

SM-3 anti-missiles are deployed on Ticonderoga type cruisers and Arly Burke destroyers equipped with the AEGIS system in a standard Mk-41 universal starting cell. In addition, they plan to arm Japanese destroyers of the Atago and Congo type.

The search and tracking of targets in the upper atmosphere and in outer space is performed using the upgraded shipborne radar AN / SPY-1. After the target is detected, the data is transmitted to the Aegis system, which produces a firing solution and gives the command to launch an interceptor missile. The anti-missile is launched from the cell with the help of a solid-fuel starting accelerator. After the accelerator is completed, it is reset, and a second-stage solid-fuel second-stage engine is launched, which ensures the rocket is lifted through the dense layers of the atmosphere and brought to the airless space border. Immediately after launch, the rocket establishes a two-way digital communication channel with the carrier ship, through this channel a continuous correction of the flight path takes place. Determining the current position of the launched anti-missile missiles is carried out with high accuracy using GPS. After working off and resetting the second stage, the third stage impulse engine takes over. He further accelerates the antimissile and displays it on a counter trajectory to hit the target. At the final phase of flight, the kinetic transatmospheric interceptor begins to independently search for a target using its own infrared homing head, with a matrix operating in the long-wavelength range capable of “seeing” the target at a distance of 300 km. In a collision with a target, the energy of an interceptor’s strike is more than 100 megajoules, which is roughly equivalent to the detonation of 30 kg of TNT, and is quite sufficient to destroy a ballistic missile warhead.



Not so long ago, information appeared on the most modern warhead of the kinetic action of KW (eng. Kinetic Warhead - Kinetic Warhead) weighing about 25 kg with its own solid-fuel pulse engine and thermal imaging homing head.


Evolution modifications SM-3


According to information published in open sources, the most advanced to date modification of Aegis BMD 5.0.1. with SM-3 Block IA / IB - 2016 year - has the ability to deal with missiles with a range of up to 5500 km. Opportunities to combat ICBM combat units with a greater launch range are limited.

In addition to countering ICBMs, SM-3 anti-missiles are capable of fighting low-orbit satellites, as demonstrated by February 21 of 2008. Then, an anti-missile launched from the Lake Erie cruiser, located in the waters of the Pacific Barking Sands test site, was hit by an emergency reconnaissance satellite USA-193 at an altitude of 247 kilometers, moving at 7,6 km / s.

According to American plans, the Aegis anti-missile system will be equipped with the 62 destroyer and the 22 cruiser. The number of SM-3 interceptors on US Navy warships in 2015 should have been 436 units. By 2020, their number will increase to 515 units. It is assumed that American warships with SM-3 antimissiles will primarily be in combat duty in the Pacific zone. The Western European direction should be covered thanks to the deployment of the Aegis Ashore ground system in Romania, Poland and the Czech Republic.

American representatives have repeatedly stated that the deployment of anti-missile systems near the borders of Russia does not pose a threat to the security of our country and is aimed only at repelling the hypothetical attacks of Iranian and North Korean ballistic missiles. However, it is difficult to imagine that Iranian and North Korean ballistic missiles will fly towards European capitals, when there are many American military bases next to these countries, which are much more significant and convenient targets.

At the moment, the Aegis missile defense system with existing SM-3 interceptors is really unable to prevent the massive attack of Russian ICBMs in service. However, it is known about plans to drastically improve the combat performance of the SM-3 family of antimissiles.



In fact, the SM-3 IIA anti-missile compared to previous modifications of the SM-3 IA / IB is a new product. According to information from the manufacturer, Raytheon, the body of the rocket will become significantly lighter and, despite the additional amount of fuel in the expanded sustainer stage, its starting mass will slightly decrease. It is difficult to say how much this corresponds to reality, but it is already clear that the range of the anti-missile missiles of the new modification will increase significantly, as will the possibilities for combating ICBMs. In addition, in the near future, SM-2 airborne missiles are to be replaced with new SM-6 in underdeck launchers, which will also have enhanced anti-missile capabilities.

After adopting new anti-missile systems and placing them on warships and in stationary launchers in Europe, they can already pose a real threat to our strategic nuclear forces. According to the strategic arms reduction treaties, the United States and the Russian Federation mutually reduced the number of nuclear warheads and carriers several times. Taking advantage of this, the American side tried to gain a one-sided advantage by starting the development of a global missile defense system. In these conditions, our country, in order to maintain the possibility of delivering a guaranteed strike against the aggressor, will inevitably have to modernize its ICBMs and SLBMs. The promised deployment of the Iskander complexes in the Kaliningrad region is rather a political gesture, since, due to the limited launch range, OTRK will not solve the problem of the defeat of all US anti-missile launchers in Europe.

Probably, one of the ways of counteraction can be the introduction of the “accidental yaw warhead” mode, at a height where interception is possible, which will make it harder for them to lose with a kinetic strike. It is also possible to install optical sensors on the ICBM warheads, which will be able to capture the approaching kinetic interceptors and to preemptively undermine the warheads in space in order to create "blind zones" for American radars. A new heavy Russian ICBM Sarmat (PC-28), capable of carrying up to 10 warheads and a significant number of false targets and other means of breaking through missile defense, should also play its role. According to representatives of the Russian Defense Ministry, the new ICBM will be equipped with maneuvering warheads. It is possible that we are talking about the creation of planning hypersonic warheads with a suborbital trajectory capable of carrying out a pitch and yaw maneuver. In addition, the preparation time of the Sarmat ICBM for launch should be significantly reduced.

Based on:
http://csis.org/blog/missile-defense-umbrella
http://boeing.mediaroom.com
http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/erint.htm
http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/thalad.htm
http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/bmds.htm
http://cezarium.com/pro-ssha-chto-za-divnyj-zver-aegis-chast-iii-protivorakety-i-puskovye-ustanovki/
Author:
Articles from this series:
US missile defense system. 1-Part I
US missile defense system. 2-Part I
76 comments
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets April 6 2016 08: 30
    +8
    Sergey! Hi. The article is interesting. Plus definitely.
    1. Bongo
      April 6 2016 08: 42
      +7
      Quote: Amurets
      Sergey! Hi. The article is interesting. Plus definitely.

      Hi, Nikolai! Thank! drinks
      Frankly, I did not think that when writing the 3 part such difficulties would arise. Oddly enough, the data on the characteristics of American missile defense systems in various sources are very different. This is especially true for GBI and SM-3. It seems to me that often underestimated performance characteristics are often published in order not to provoke our country in retaliation. Let us hope for the professionalism of our intelligence structures and the fact that our management, owning the information, makes really adequate decisions.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets April 6 2016 12: 07
        +3
        Yes! In official structures, they are underestimated, in brochures overstated. Most likely, one should not rely on the professionalism of intelligence officers, but on the professionalism of analysts in the design bureaus and research institutes. There are many factors to consider.
        Quote: Bongo
        Oddly enough, the data on the characteristics of American missile defense systems in various sources are very different. This is especially true for GBI and SM-3. It seems to me that often underestimated performance characteristics are often published in order not to provoke our country in retaliation. Let us hope for the professionalism of our intelligence structures and the fact that our management, owning the information, makes really adequate decisions.
  2. Operator
    Operator April 6 2016 08: 52
    -1
    The author of the article is overly optimistic about the capabilities of American anti-missile systems with transatmospheric kinetic interceptors to find and destroy space-based ICBM warheads flying to a target among dozens of false targets.

    In the domestic AMUR missile defense system, this issue is resolved with the help of an explosion in space at an altitude of 900 km of a megaton long-range anti-missile warhead, the X-ray radiation of which burns the shells of all decoys made of metallized film.
    The warheads selected in this way are intercepted by short-range anti-missiles upon entering the atmosphere at an altitude of 100 or less than km. Flying in the atmosphere allows you to select heavy false targets made of metal. Interception is carried out with the help of the detonation of the 5-kt anti-missile warhead, which hits the BB with neutron radiation.

    The use of transatmospheric kinetic interceptors in the ABM system, the number of which is orders of magnitude less than the number of false targets in the salvo launch of enemy ICBMs, is a direct cut of the budget.
    1. Bongo
      April 6 2016 09: 05
      +8
      Quote: Operator
      The author of the article is overly optimistic about the capabilities of American anti-missile systems with transatmospheric kinetic interceptors to find and destroy space-based ICBM warheads flying to a target among dozens of false targets.

      Andrey, the author, unlike you, is not inclined to make rash and ill-considered statements and refer to dubious sources of information.
      Quote: Operator
      In the domestic AMUR missile defense system, this issue is resolved with the help of an explosion in space at an altitude of 900 km of a megaton long-range anti-missile warhead, the X-ray radiation of which burns the shells of all decoys made of metallized film.

      Do you know about the current status of 51Т6 missiles? Why write about what is not?
      Quote: Operator
      The use of transatmospheric kinetic interceptors in the ABM system, the number of which is orders of magnitude less than the number of false targets in the salvo launch of enemy ICBMs, is a direct cut of the budget.

      In this case, we need to rejoice that a national missile defense system is being created in the USA? No.
      Andrey, when in the comments people start to write about cutting the budget in the United States, assessing certain models of equipment and weapons - for me this means one of two things: either a person is not too smart and suffers from a disease called "hurray-patriotism", or he insufficiently informed and wishful thinking.

      On the other hand, you can always write your own publication and based on the facts conduct analysis of real possibilities American missile defense system.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 6 2016 10: 34
        -6
        Sorry, Sergey, but I don’t understand your obsession with technology that is inactive - kinetic interceptors against false targets. I think that every graduate of a technical university will understand this on the spot without additional argumentation.

        A person who graduates from a military educational institution will appreciate the idiocy of deploying missile defense systems (at sea and on land) directly at the borders of a potential adversary, who will put them out of action in the very first minutes of a military conflict by organizing a nuclear explosion over each missile defense radar with the formation of an ionized gas region at altitudes from 60 to 600 km (depending on the visibility of the flight paths of the BB ICBMs from the location of the missile defense radar).

        Finally, a person who simply knows how to think logically understands that the THAAD super-expensive and highly specialized missile defense system, capable of intercepting exclusively atmospheric targets, turns into useless ballast when attacking cruise and operational-tactical missiles, the entire flight path of which passes in the atmosphere.
        Those. THAAD not only has already created a gap in the US defense budget in the amount of 12,5 billion dollars, but also forms a gap in the defense circuit of any objects that this system will be called upon to protect.

        PS I am allergic to a disease called "idolatry of foreign technology."

        PPS An article dedicated to all languishing F-22s will be offered to VO readers within a few days.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 April 6 2016 13: 42
          -1
          THHAD can shoot down everything that flies, in a range of heights, from 50 meters to 150 kilometers.
          1. opus
            opus April 6 2016 17: 57
            +4
            Quote: Vadim237
            all that flies

            no
            Goal speed? Distance to the goal?

            And not every goal will be taken for accompaniment (even if it satisfies V / H parameters, due to azimuthal restrictions





          2. Skif100500
            Skif100500 April 6 2016 18: 00
            +1
            It's about kinetic missile defense, since when did three-stage rockets start shooting down targets at 50 meters?
            1. opus
              opus April 6 2016 18: 55
              +3
              Quote: Skif100500
              since when did three-stage rockets start shooting down targets at 50 meters?

              THAAD interceptor single-stage (detachable warhead)





              But the minimum target height, of course, is not 50m.
              seems to be: 0.25 mile (402.34 m)

              It is understandable


              The lower boundary is "taken over" by PAC-3
              -----------------------------------------------

              2 steps will be THAAD ER

              LOCKHEED is already working: DOD EYEING POSSIBLE EXTENDED-RANGE THAAD PROGRAM IN FY-17 - 2015





              PU is almost the same
              apparently 6 THAAD-ER's per launcher, vs 8 current THAAD missiles... Prior to this release by lockheed (August, 2015), it had been reported that they may have to reduce launcher load out to 5 interceptors per THAAD launcher.


              1. Operator
                Operator April 6 2016 19: 58
                -1
                On any THAAD version, airborne interceptors with a minimum interception height of over 100 km are and will be installed.

                The Partiot air defense system with the RAS-400 missile has a minimum height of 3 meters. This is achieved by additional placement of the second complex at the starting position.

                In the case of an attack on the starting position with the help of Raman and OTP, the first complex - THAAD precipitates.
                1. opus
                  opus April 6 2016 20: 23
                  +4
                  Quote: Operator
                  On any THAAD version, airborne interceptors with a minimum interception height of over 100 km are and will be installed.

                  fool
                  THAAD has a maximum interception height of 98 miles / 150km


                  THAAD also reduces the number of missiles that the lower-tier systems must engage and provides a shoot-look-shoot capability - the ability to engage incoming missiles more efficiently. With a range of over 200 km and a maximum altitude of 150 km, THAAD was designed to intercept ballistic missiles at long ranges above the atmosphere.

                  Speed, Mach 8.24 or 2.8 km / s


                  If needed.
                  Quote: Operator
                  We, the engineer, am not used to it.


                  for all 100+
                  1. Operator
                    Operator April 6 2016 21: 01
                    -1
                    150 km is the maximum speed, and then how much is the minimum speed (excluding the Patriot)?
                    1. opus
                      opus April 6 2016 21: 09
                      +2
                      Quote: Operator
                      150 km is the maximum speed, and then how much is the minimum speed (excluding the Patriot)?

                      repeat
                      Quote: opus
                      But the minimum target height, of course, is not 50m.
                      seems to be: 0.25 mile (402.34 m)

                      It is understandable
                      1. Operator
                        Operator April 6 2016 21: 36
                        -1
                        I mean the minimum intercept height of the THAAD missile missile (with infrared seeker), and not the PAC-3 missile (with radar seeker).
                      2. opus
                        opus April 6 2016 21: 59
                        +3
                        Quote: Operator
                        I mean minimum heights

                        and I (I mean the same THAAD ^ ma = 402 m 34 cm, if to be so corrosive)


                        at MIM104:
                        - minimum distance destruction of targets - 3 km
                        - The minimum height of the flying target is 60 meters.




                        probably
                        Quote: Vadim237
                        THHAD can shoot down everything that flies, in a range of heights, from 50 meters,

                        and beguiled
                      3. Operator
                        Operator April 6 2016 22: 55
                        -1
                        Do not give the web link to the minimum interception height of the THAAD missile?
                      4. opus
                        opus April 6 2016 23: 03
                        +4
                        Quote: Operator
                        Do not give the web link to the minimum interception height of the THAAD missile?

                        Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space ask
                        here:




                        This is PAO.
                        This data will be answered within 15 days.
                        PS: they gave only to me, without the right to transfer to 3 persons (joke: I wrote
                        Quote: opus
                        seems to be: 0.25 mile (402.34 m)
                        if memory serves, look for laziness.
                        ZY2. I was sent all as frost-bitten f-35, what I asked, then they sent
                    2. Operator
                      Operator April 7 2016 11: 49
                      -1
                      As for the minimum height of interception THAAD missile definitely beguiled:

                      "The minimum intercept altitude had been 40 kilometers"
                      Erin V. Causewell (editor). National Missile Defense: Issues and Developments. ISBN 1-59033-247-4
                      Page 61
                      https://books.google.ru/books?id=XUcRBh_benMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=THAAD+minimum+



                      intercept+altitude&source=bl&ots=xd8Izgfiu_&sig=eLz1guamC-oIO959nC2D00RdysM&hl=r



                      u&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR8c2mj_zLAhVGXCwKHZHgBZMQ6AEIPzAF#v=onepage&q=THAAD%20minimum



                      % 20intercept% 20altitude & f = false
                    3. opus
                      opus April 7 2016 12: 40
                      +2
                      Quote: Operator
                      As for the minimum THAAD intercept height, missile was definitely messed up:

                      I also wrote "like"
                      confused, probably:
                      not 0.25 mile (402.34 m)
                      А 25 mile (40,234 km)
                      / she is old, not a joy
        2. opus
          opus April 6 2016 23: 46
          +5
          Quote: Operator
          In the case of an attack on the starting position with the help of Raman and OTP, the first complex - THAAD precipitates.

          1. Where is the KR (BR 2500km) and OTR (BR 500km) and where is THAAD (US-RF: 7000 km from the nearest location of the OTK and KR) ?????????????????

          MAIN PANTS DON'T RIP!

          What "sediment" is needed:


          Expensive....

          2. "Shcha, ran away"





          THAAD MOBILE complex
          1. Operator
            Operator April 6 2016 23: 57
            -1
            March 4 2016
            Seoul and Washington officially started negotiations on the deployment of the American THAAD missile defense systems in South Korea, the dialogue is held at the level of working groups, the South Korean Ministry of National Defense said.
            The Russian Foreign Ministry said that Moscow expects that Washington and Seoul weigh all costsrelated to the planned deployment in South Korea of ​​elements of the American missile defense system.
            http://vz.ru/news/2016/3/4/797841.html

            From Vladivostok to the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula 1000 km, however.
            1. opus
              opus April 7 2016 00: 12
              +3
              Quote: Operator
              From Vladivostok to the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula 1000 km, however.

              However, THAAD intercepts not on the active site, but on the stoned, terminal ...
              therefore, he does not care much from Korea to Japan.
              only the parameters of the BR are important to him, or rather its BG (apogee, speed over the target, azimuth)
              1. Operator
                Operator April 7 2016 00: 17
                -1
                I calculated the distance for the "Caliber".

                "Moscow expects Washington and Seoul to weigh all the costs" - Russian Foreign Ministry (C) bully
              2. opus
                opus April 7 2016 00: 24
                +4
                Quote: Operator
                I calculated the distance for the "Caliber".

                ahhh, sorry, it didn’t.
                But we don't have ZM-14 on D, just a submarine, but they are not there either, yet.

                For ZM-14 in South Korea prepared surprise - SAM Cheongung M-SAM.







                +


                Caliber ..... This is still "Alpha", this is the level of the 80s.
                against the bearded, yes.
                Against Hi-Tec country ..... I doubt it

                Quote: Operator
                "Moscow expects Washington and Seoul to weigh all the costs" - Russian Foreign Ministry (C)


                Yes, Moscow is not shaky, not swath (directly).
                Pyongyang, yes, with their 5 th missiles (Clone Skad), they remember Iraq.
                THAAD a priori will sink the North Korean BRs (they themselves are not very good, worse at times the Soviet 60s)
              3. Operator
                Operator April 7 2016 01: 34
                -1
                We always care about the American missile defense system located at 1000 km from our border.

                They say that the Cheongung M-SAM air defense system is basically the S-300 with a minimum interception height of 25 meters. This means that Caliber will fly to the THAAD launch site at an altitude of 20 meters.
              4. opus
                opus April 7 2016 03: 27
                +2
                Quote: Operator
                This means that Caliber will fly to the THAAD launch site at an altitude of 20 meters.

                Is Russia going to attack the South Caucasus?
                /did not know.
                Not of course: Noktundo Island (formerly Deer) on the Tumannaya River (Primorsky Territory) .. SIGNIFICANT FOR KOREA (in 1587, Korean national hero Lee Songsin won one of his battles - local analogue of Suvorov) HOWEVER?
                However it's funny
                Quote: Operator
                They say the SAM Cheongung M-SAM

                "They say that in Moscow chickens are milked, and cows are put on eggs." (in the original: Cows have eggs)
                or

                do not believe the wonders you or someone else is telling about
              5. Operator
                Operator April 7 2016 10: 39
                -1
                In Russia, when they talk about the American presence in South Korea, they designate it as the Korean peninsula. Remind me, please, where are you now?

                On the issue of livestock - will there be a link to the minimum height of interception THAAD missile or chickens / cows / wonders?
              6. opus
                opus April 7 2016 12: 43
                +2
                Quote: Operator
                On the issue of livestock -

                I answered
                Quote: opus
                Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space ask
                here:


                Quote: Operator
                or chickens / cows / wonders?

                here you are some kind of "sticky".
                See
                Quote: Operator
                On THAAD in any version are installed and will be installed exclusively atmospheric interceptors with a minimum interception height of over 100 km.

                The Partiot air defense missile system has a minimum height of 400 meters with the rocket RAS-3. This is achieved by additional placement at the starting position of the second complex.

                Well, it’s written that frank stupidity is written (what about TNADD, what about PAK-3), and you agreed (below) that it’s stupidity. Well, no one is standing above your soul: will there be a link?
              7. Operator
                Operator April 7 2016 13: 06
                -1
                The KM-SAM is the middle-tier of South Korea's three-tier aerial and missile defense system. Though it was developed in Russia by the Almaz Design Bureau with assistance from Samsung Thales, LIG ​​Nex1, and Doosan DST, localization and industrialization were done in South Korea enough to consider it an indigenous system.

                Wikipedia however
          2. The comment was deleted.
  • Bongo
    April 6 2016 15: 01
    +5
    Quote: Operator
    Sorry, Sergey, but I don’t understand your obsession with technology that is inactive - kinetic interceptors against false targets.

    Andrey, why did you get the idea that I'm fixated on them? No. This technology is quite efficient, which has been repeatedly confirmed by real tests, and by the very deployment of anti-missile systems. They are quite capable of repelling a blow of a limited scale even now. I am sure that if these systems were ours, they would be described as "having no analogues".
    Quote: Operator
    I think that every graduate of a technical university will understand this on the spot without additional argumentation.

    And here Andrei, you took a very slippery slope negative You have been repeatedly advised to be more correct and careful in your statements. How can you know what others have finished?
    Quote: Operator
    I'm allergic to a disease called "idolatry of foreign technology."

    And not only this:
    Quote: CERHJ
    He has a childish perception of the world around him ... a child, what do you take ...
    Unfortunately you are constantly demonstrating this.
    Quote: Operator
    PPS An article dedicated to all languishing F-22s will be offered to VO readers within a few days.

    I read with pleasure, but it would not be bad if you wrote substantiated by facts a rebuttal to everything that I wrote about the American missile defense.
    1. Operator
      Operator April 6 2016 17: 25
      -1
      It is strange that you did not notice - in my commentary, only the facts presented in your article are used.
      I mean, the material on the military equipment of a potential enemy must be accompanied by at least a brief analysis of this equipment. You, as probably having a technical or military education, should understand this.
      I managed to cite a similar analysis in my comments: arithmetic (piece of false targets and kinetic interceptors), geographic (deployment of advanced US missile defense and OTRK RF) and logical (environment for using THAAD interceptors and weapons that hit them).
      As if I hadn’t seen counterarguments - well, okay, we, the engineer, shouldn’t get used to it.
      1. Bongo
        April 7 2016 05: 21
        +3
        Quote: Operator
        It is strange that you did not notice - in my commentary, only the facts presented in your article are used.

        Sorry, didn’t notice request Could you quote me?
        Quote: Operator
        I mean, the material on the military equipment of a potential enemy must be accompanied by at least a brief analysis of this equipment. You, as probably having a technical or military education, should understand this.

        Ah, here's how, when strangers tell me that I owe them something - every time it sincerely surprises me.
        Quote: Operator
        I managed to cite a similar analysis in my comments: arithmetic (piece of false targets and kinetic interceptors), geographic (deployment of advanced US missile defense and OTRK RF) and logical (environment for using THAAD interceptors and weapons that hit them).

        Andrey, do you sincerely consider this an analysis? wassat Self-doubt you certainly have enough for a few people! No.
  • zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga April 6 2016 13: 50
    +5
    Quote: Operator
    The author of the article is overly optimistic about the capabilities of American anti-missile systems with transatmospheric kinetic interceptors to find and destroy space-based ICBM warheads flying to a target among dozens of false targets.

    It seems that some write comments for the sake of comments, and look only at pictures. negative
    Quote author:
    At the moment, the Aegis missile defense system with the existing SM-3 interceptors is really not able to prevent a massive attack by Russian ICBMs in service.
    Where is "excessive optimism" here? No.
    Quote: Operator
    The use of transatmospheric kinetic interceptors in the ABM system, the number of which is orders of magnitude less than the number of false targets in the salvo launch of enemy ICBMs, is a direct cut of the budget.


    Yes, you are in your manner ... wassat Apparently the second part was not enough for you ... Although the guys began to write in plain text, that puts you too much.
    1. Operator
      Operator April 6 2016 23: 11
      -3
      The fact that single ballistic missiles are perfectly intercepted by both kinetic and thermonuclear interceptors is certainly new information for you.

      And the fact that thermonuclear interceptors can still take an excellent part in the interception of the mass launch of ICBMs I already wrote in my comments on this article.

      Draw your own conclusions: which type of interceptor - American kinetic or domestic thermonuclear - meets the objectives of the national missile defense, and not the sphero-conical idea "but right now we will intercept 1 (one) North Korean / Iranian missile using 10 launch areas and 90 destroyers and cruisers."
  • Kronos07
    Kronos07 April 6 2016 08: 53
    +2
    THAAD ......
  • engineer74
    engineer74 April 6 2016 10: 25
    +3
    Great article, thanks! good
    In my opinion, there is not enough about their scam with "X-ray lasers with nuclear pumping", but this, again, only in my opinion.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 April 6 2016 13: 43
      +3
      In the USSR, nuclear-pumped lasers were also intensively worked on.
      1. opus
        opus April 6 2016 17: 56
        +2
        Quote: Vadim237
        In the USSR, nuclear-pumped lasers were also intensively worked on.

        Not in the USSR, but in the Russian Federation.
        on the threshold of the 2000s

        LIRA (Russia, RFNC-VNIIEF, Snezhinsk), LM-16 / IKAR-500 (Russia, RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov), OKUYAN / BARS-6 (Russia, SSC-IPPE)


        500 joule nuclear-pumped laser

        Zagidulin A.V., Bochkov A.V., Mironenko V.V., Sofienko G.S.
        Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics named after Academician E.I. Zababakhina, Snezhinsk

        A 520 J pulsed gas laser (laser module) pumped by the fission products of uranium nuclei, operating on the atomic transition of xenon 5d [3/2] 1-> 6p [3/2] 1, with a wavelength of 2.03 mum has been created. The experiments were carried out on the BARS-5 + RUN-2 complex (Fast aperiodic self-extinguishing reactor and Reactor neutron multiplier). The specific laser energy obtained in the experiments was ~ 32 J / dm3 at an efficiency of ~ 3% (the ratio of the output energy of the laser pulse to the energy transferred to the gas medium by fission fragments).
    2. opus
      opus April 6 2016 17: 52
      +3
      Quote: engineer74
      not enough about their "nuclear-pumped X-ray lasers" scam,

      I have a full kit in this thread.
      To write? wink
  • gregor6549
    gregor6549 April 6 2016 13: 50
    +2
    When discussing missile defense systems, it is useful to remember that no missile defense system can provide 100% interception of enemy missiles (ballistic, cruise, etc., even theoretically, as well as the fact that no super missile missiles can provide an 100% breakthrough of enemy missile defense systems. It is important to remember that with all the broadcast statements by the Americans, they are aware that in the event of a full-scale war with countries such as Russia and China, no missile defense systems will save them and those missiles that can overcome the spirit of the missile defense system will be more than enough to To the United States, damage is unacceptable for their continued existence at a decent human level, therefore, all their missile defense systems are primarily designed for a obviously weaker adversary like Iran, Korea, etc. Yes, and they are not eager to bother with it, realizing that these weaklings will have enough It’s quite serious to bite the United States, which is why all of these missile defense systems, along with WMD, are only suitable as a deterrent and nothing more.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 April 6 2016 14: 36
      +2
      "When discussing missile defense systems, it is useful to remember that no missile defense system can provide 100% interception of enemy missiles" - it depends on the computing power of computers, the range and accuracy of target detection, their number for tracking, missile accuracy and the number of missiles in the missile defense system, as well as the number of missiles guided per target - in principle, everything is achievable - the only question is money.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 April 6 2016 15: 55
        +1
        I do not agree. With money as with pregnant women. Even if you bring together 9 pregnant women, then none of them will succeed in giving birth to children ahead of schedule.
        So it is with money. Each stage of the development of technology has a certain threshold of efficiency, which this technique cannot overcome. So with modern missile defense systems. No matter how much money is invested in them, it will not be possible to jump above such a threshold. Moreover, no country has such a bedside table in which unlimited reserves of money would be stored
      2. opus
        opus April 6 2016 18: 09
        +4
        Quote: Vadim237
        ABM it is useful to remember that no ABM can provide 100% interception of enemy missiles "-

        The whole essence of the US strategic objective:
        1. To reduce the number of warheads and warheads in the world to an acceptable level (100 ..300), for this, START-1, START-2, START-3, and No. 4 are proven
        2. Put all nuclear weapons (and nuclear power plants) under the control of the UN, UNESCO and so on.
        3. In the long run - Generally abandon nuclear weapons (of course, they are up to China, Daesh, as before .... cancer). They care little.
        The neighbors are decent and modest; Mexicans will be put on the border.
        But then, even when doing step 1, the chances of interception are very high (2-3 missiles per target are an acceptable option)
        Now. Now it’s insurance against KimcheIra dope, or whatever it is.
        Technological groundwork for the future.

        Quote: Vadim237
        the only question is money

        Let's count.
        GBI is now worth about $ 70 million (with all the entrails, radar, KP, etc.) piece (SAM itself about 000 million d)
        UGM-133 Trident II itself is $ 37,320,070 (2014) and taking into account depreciation of nuclear submarines and l / s) under $ 180.

        For the base rate, take the launch of the "Proton-M" type LV) about 70 million US dollars

        So consider that profitable?
        what missiles can you stamp more? and which are faster?


        in 2022, 52 * Block IBs and 19 * Block IIAs will be produced; money allocated for the production of 26 + 19 = 45 Block IIAs per year. Total, taking into account the LCI (and the scrap), the ammunition should be MINIMUM to 2022 = 528 pieces.




        This is only SM-3
        1. Operator
          Operator April 6 2016 18: 57
          -1
          The cost of the Trident must be divided by the number of BB on its board.
          1. opus
            opus April 6 2016 19: 38
            +4
            Quote: Operator
            Trident cost n

            and the cost of GBI, then it should be divided by the number of "blanks" (KV) in the Multi-Object Kill Vehicle (MOKV), Block16 Level 3





            Why be shy then?

            Share, so share
            $ 17 - $ 000 = $ 000 in balance (PH)
            + $ 9 ((As part of the $ 800 contract awarded in August 000, Raytheon will define an operational MOKV concept.)
            = $ 18

            Divide by 8 -12 KV


            = cheap and cheerful
            1. Operator
              Operator April 7 2016 10: 21
              -1
              Now multiply the cost of one kinetic interceptor by the number of decoys on one Trident missile.
              1. opus
                opus April 7 2016 12: 49
                +4
                Quote: Operator
                Now multiply the cost of one kinetic interceptor by the number of decoys on one Trident missile.

                multiply.
                How many tridents do we have?
                HERE KEY.
                1.MBR (it doesn’t matter Mace, Poplar, Trident, Voivode) it is necessary to deliver a cargo (gift) weighing from 1000 kg to 10 000 kg to the target.
                And the MISSILE is only 73 kg (or if MKV, then about 600 kg)
                2. ICBM (it doesn’t matter Mace, Poplar, Trident, Voivode) it is necessary to deliver the goods (gift) at a distance of 7000 km.
                And a missile defense at only 1000km
                3. The ICBM (no matter Mace, Poplar, Trident, Voivode) must be protected from attacking factors (at least in the active sector) and warheads from temperature (almost the first space)
                A missile defense is not necessary.
                4.MBR (it doesn’t matter Bulava, Topol, Trident, Voevoda) a high-precision guidance system is being developed on the final section 7-11000 km from the launch site, after flying through airless space.
                And there is no MISSILE. She has everything side by side, below, under the boot.
                ---------------------------------------
                Well, conclude:
                cost, number of pieces, probability of fulfilling the knowledge base
                1. Operator
                  Operator April 7 2016 13: 23
                  -1
                  That you famously moved from value indicators to natural ones. Well, let's support the initiative:

                  Each ICBM / SLBM can carry an 7 BB on average (this number fits well in a circle). Each BB can have 100 light false targets. The total number of ICBMs / SLBMs will be taken as 500 (landmark of the current strategic arms limitation treaty). Total 350000 goals. At the same time, mines, nuclear submarines and, to a large extent, ICBM / SLBMs have already been built.

                  The maximum number of mini-interceptors launched by a single missile defense is 12. We divide 350000 into 12, we get about 30000 missile defense worth 70 million dollars each, together with the infrastructure that remains to be built.

                  National missile defense will cost 2 trillion. bucks laughing
                  1. opus
                    opus April 7 2016 15: 23
                    +4
                    Quote: Operator
                    That you famously moved from value indicators to natural ones. Well, let's support the initiative:

                    why me?
                    Quote: Operator
                    Now multiply the cost of one kinetic interceptor by the number of decoys on one Trident missile.


                    Quote: Operator
                    Each ICBM / SLBM can carry an average of 7 BBs (this number fits well in a circle). For each BB, 100 light false targets can be attached.

                    Quote: Operator
                    A total of 350000 goals.


                    sorry, but this is stupid.
                    She writes a person who has never seen a breeding platform (bus) and does not imagine what a false goal is, questions of its selection.
                    The body of the platform for the breeding of warheads ICBM 15Zh55M "Yars"


                    Solid-propellant engine 15D161 - breeding stages of warheads of the ICBM RS-20V "Voyevoda" - SS-18 SATAN.

                    in the foreground, apparently, the layout of the ICBM warhead (15Zh58 of the Topol complex)


                    The law of universal gravitation is not familiar to him the same, precession, aerodynamic drag, heating of BG from the sun, etc.
                    Those. The classic legend of plastic cones worn on the BG and inflatable chakrikas
                    Quote: Operator
                    we get about 30000 anti-missile

                    also stupid.
                    1. Crashes on the marching section (the entire ICBM (or part with the last stage), thick, greasy, hot, awkward and tender.
                    2. The bus (breeding platform) crashes until seeding begins (Makeevka reverse, fly aft, turn firing, turn correlation, and again, etc.)
                    3. The BG collapses, when the atmosphere, gravity, solar radiation produced a natural and free selection of the LC from the BG
                    ================
                    Output. unnecessary stop hundred interceptors mbr
                    1. Operator
                      Operator April 7 2016 15: 43
                      -1
                      "I'll kiss you later, if you want", - Rosa Dalvadores (C)

                      Check out the basics first, then talk:
                      Theodore A. Postol
                      Science, Technologies and Attack Tactics Relevant to National Missile Defense Systems
                      MIT, 2001
                      http://carnegieendowment.org/pdf/npp/CarnegieDC_BriefingSummary061801-01(2).pdf
                      1. opus
                        opus April 7 2016 17: 20
                        +4
                        Quote: Operator
                        Check out the basics first, then talk:

                        1.I am familiar, and not with Azami
                        2. There is nothing to talk about
                        Law of gravity

                        (R - distance to the center of the planet to the body)

                        The module of centrifugal inertia

                        Atmospheric braking

                        Orbit precession

                        Solar wind pressure


                        Heating, Earth's magnetic field, etc.
                        Now with your bubble (balloon) imitate 1000 kg of BG

                        Quote: Operator
                        Theodore A. Postol

                        He criticizes everything from PAS-3 to LCD ...
                        It is understandable degree Bachelor in Physics и Ph.D....
                        Philosopher, what to take from him.
                      2. Operator
                        Operator April 7 2016 18: 21
                        -1
                        Combat units and false targets after separation from the ICBM breeding stage, pressurizing cylinders of light false targets (like car airbags) and scatter to the sides fly by inertia in airless space for a maximum of 30 minutes. The shape, linear dimensions, initial heating temperature and reflectivity of BB and false targets completely coincide.

                        The tracking time of the infrared seeker target of the atmospheric interceptor after reaching the target target capture point (by radio commands from the ground) is generally seconds. Up to this point, the GOS sees only empty space at the calculated point. The GOS and the interceptor propulsion system are designed to accurately turn on the target when approaching it at 1 km or less, and not for a multi-kilometer rally in space. And this is all the more true than the miniature interceptor (of which they seek to place up to 12 pieces on one missile defense).

                        What the fuck (sorry for my French, I didn’t pick another word), the effects of the difference in mass, centrifugal force, sunlight pressure (sic!) And magnetic field (sic!) Can manifest themselves in 30 minutes of flight in airless space, except as in a positive sense - additionally scattering false targets along the surface of a virtual pipe with a diameter of the order of km, oriented axially along the BB flight path (which is also located on this surface).

                        And even more so, the interceptor’s GOS after reaching the capture line, seeing one single object in front of which it was centralized, will not be able to recognize a false or non-false target in the object in a few seconds based on the difference in the effect of gravitational, magnetic, light, etc. .P. forces.

                        Natural selection of false targets occurs only in the atmosphere, but the transatmospheric interceptor is absolutely out of the question here.

                        Continuing the theme:
                        O. Prilutsky, S. Rodionov
                        Range of destruction in a nuclear explosion in space
                        wrk.ru ›forums / attachment.php? item = 78127
                      3. opus
                        opus April 7 2016 19: 57
                        +3
                        Quote: Operator
                        and scatter to the sides fly by inertia in an airless space for a maximum of 30 minutes.

                        Flight time ICBM (from start to fall) from 25 to 40 minutes ..
                        So, let the LCs fly and 30 minutes or more in
                        Quote: Operator
                        airless space
                        . Selection took place on them, no one will pay attention
                        Quote: Operator
                        false goals completely match.

                        take a soccer ball and a cannonball of the same diameter, and in the gravitational field (and partially the remnants of the atmosphere) try to make them identical
                        Quote: Operator
                        The target tracking time of the infrared seeker of the atmospheric interceptor after reaching the target target capture point (by radio commands from the ground) is generally seconds

                        1. ground radar from SPRN to the Russian Orthodox Church
                        2. IR starts working from 40 km, discharge of HE. from 40 to 300 km, 260 km, at a speed of 2,5 km / s to 5 m / s at the meeting point ... this is by no means a "second."
                        Dozens yes. And?
                        Same thing (even less with the Needle)

                        Quote: Operator
                        What the fuck (and

                        You argue with Nton, and Kepler at the same time.
                        Quote: Operator
                        Continuing the theme:

                        Not. All . I'm over it
                      4. Operator
                        Operator April 7 2016 20: 08
                        -1
                        In conclusion, a funny picture dedicated to Isaac Newton, a soccer ball and a cannonball in a gravitational field and airless space
  • opus
    opus April 6 2016 17: 14
    +2
    Quote: Author
    Start from the mine early sample anti-missile GBI

    Sergei, do not use this "old thing", it is no longer there, even in static tests
    At first there was Boeing, in the photo it was an attempt by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to use the Taurus 1110 from the Orbital Sciences Taurus PH.
    1st stage: Alliant Tech Orion 50SXLG solid-fueled rocket; 441 kN (99000 lb)
    2nd stage: Alliant Tech Orion 50XL solid-fueled rocket; 153 kN (34500 lb)
    3rd stage: Alliant Tech Orion 38 solid-fueled rocket; 32 kN (7200 lb)

    Now Boeing here and another KMC



    And in general NOW everything is different:


    Quote: Author
    were fought with the specially created GBI-EKV missile defense.

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company built BV-Plus
    Different things EKV is Raytheon.

    Rockets Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company and Boeing and Orbital Sciences Corporation, and solid propellant rocket engines are (for example): 1st stage: Aerojet General SR19-AJ-1 solid-fuel rocket; 268 kN (60300 lb)
    Stage 2: Hercules M57A1 solid-fuel rocket; 156 kN (35000 lb)
    And not the fact that the EKV will be from Raytheon, and not the fact that there will be an EKV, not a Redesigned Kill Vehicle (RKV), it’s permissible
    Multi-Object Kill Vehicle (MOKV)
    MKV-R uses a group of interceptors with identical hardware and software configurations. One of the interceptors takes on the planning task, distributing the individual interception tasks among the remaining interceptors.
    MKV-L uses a single carrier for all interceptors, equipped with a guidance system (for example, a telescope) and communications. The carrier launches and manages individual interceptors, aiming at the target, not participating directly in the kinetic interception.

    or maybe not Raytheon, but Lockheed
    ERIS (Exoatmospheric Reentry Interceptor Subsystem)
    HEDI (High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor).
    Lockheed wants a modified HOE to push through

    and Pratt & Whitney (UTC) Orbus-1A is also here.
    1. opus
      opus April 6 2016 17: 27
      +3
      Quote: Author
      In 2002, after integration into the missile defense system program on the basis of the Aegis shipboard CMS, the complex received the name Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GBMD).

      1. Boeing Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI), formerly BMDO. Boeing-Lead Systems Integrator
      2. NO AEGIS BIOUS .AN / SPY-1 Aegis is used as a component in tests, like XBR (X-Band Radar)

      "BIUS" -Battle management command, control and communications (BMC3) by Northrop Grumman

      Terrestrial Radars (GBR) by Raytheon
      - Upgraded Early Warning Radars (UEWR) (or PAVE PAWS) from Raytheon
      -SPRN is X band radars (FBXB) such as the sea-based X-band platform and the AN / TPY-2 - Raytheon
      U.S. Satellite
      C2BMC .... No jobs found for DirectHire SCA Computer Systems Analyst jobs for C2BMC IT Support Engineer Software 2 (15-126) in 80902

      Aegis brain is just NOT PULL
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Bongo
      April 7 2016 05: 30
      +1
      Quote: opus
      Sergei, don't use this "old thing"

      I agree, but nevertheless this junk is mentioned in the publication, and therefore there is a picture. In addition, this same picture is here: Another successful GBI advanced anti-missile test
      1. opus
        opus April 7 2016 12: 53
        0
        Quote: Bongo
        . In addition, this same picture is here: Another successful test of the advanced GBI missile defense

        Well, in that article, the author, let's say, "doesn't really cut it" wink
        And there he (the author) wanted to show exactly the dynamics of the development of GBI (another successful one).
        You write about the state now.
        PS

        I would open this case with pleasure and dig deeper

        Can I slip my crane for loading the interceptor?
        1. Bongo
          April 7 2016 13: 19
          +2
          Quote: opus
          And there he (the author) wanted to show exactly the dynamics of the development of GBI (another successful one).
          You write about the state now.

          Anton, not really like that No. Read carefully.

          Start from the mine early sample anti-missile GBI

          It is known that the first versions of GBI anti-ballistic missiles (Eng. Ground-Based Interceptor) - were developed on the basis of the second and third stages, taken out of service with ICBM Minitman-2.
  • Skif100500
    Skif100500 April 6 2016 18: 10
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    This technology is fully operational, which is repeatedly confirmed by real tests.
    Oh, the concept of "real tests" should be clarified fellow They are like that to Merikane, then they will stick a beacon, then knock down a decommissioned satellite, all the parameters of which are known ... In fact, their missile defense system has a lot of bottlenecks, starting with GPS, that it can really work only in very "greenhouse" conditions. One vigorous explosion in the ionosphere is enough for something to stop working ... hi
    1. opus
      opus April 6 2016 18: 20
      +3
      Quote: Skif100500
      They are memericha, they’ll either stick a beacon, or they’ll knock down a decommissioned satellite, all of whose parameters are known ...

      we have the same thing in shooting.
      Quote: Skif100500
      In fact, their missile defense system has a lot of bottlenecks, starting with GPS, that it can actually work only in very "greenhouse" conditions.

      GPS is not needed for GBI. GRUND does not move, and GPS does not help the interceptor
      For SM-3 you need (carrier ship), but not critical, if only the backlight was

      And if the
      Quote: Skif100500
      One nuclear explosion in the ionosphere is enough for something to stop working.
      and everything will stop working for us, under ZERO, SPRN the same. Bullet the Minimeni, the KRBD, the Tridents, I don’t want to.
      or rather, this is the first: CBBD cleans air defense and administrative centers, then a relaxing strike by ICBMs
      1. Operator
        Operator April 6 2016 19: 37
        -1
        The undermining of nuclear charges in the ionosphere does not affect the operation of the Missile Attack Warning System for a simple reason - it only warns of launching, and not of flight, and certainly not of the fall of ICBM, SLBM and RSD warheads. SPRN is a one-time thing like product type No. 2.

        At the same time, the SPRN includes not only optical reconnaissance satellites, but also ground-based over-horizon and over-horizon radars.

        The failure of the SPRN (and, at the same time, all short-, medium- and long-wave radio communications, as well as radar at the launch sites of missile defense) with the help of nuclear explosions in the ionosphere means only one thing - an informal declaration of World War III. No one will wait for confirmation from their blocked satellites / radar and press the big red button.

        The command to launch ground and air-based missiles (to airfields) will go by wire, sea-based — by the Earth’s body and sea water at a frequency of 84 Hz (Russian version) and 76 Hz (American version).
        1. opus
          opus April 6 2016 21: 24
          +3
          Quote: Operator
          for a simple reason - she warns just about launch,

          Yes?
          but how is it deciphered SPRN?
          system warnings about a missile attack.
          / I certainly understand that you are an "engineer" and not an "Engineer" .... but you can't just babble that /
          Gives the very fact of the pH, azimuth (who pulnul).
          FOR THIS TIME: it is reported to the head, gyroscopes are untwisted (now no longer necessary), the BIP, a button on the finger are initiated, we are waiting for an answer to the request for combat use.

          1) Active site - during it rocket engines work. It ends with the separation of the block with warheads from the third stage. This process takes about 3 minutes for modern solid fuel ICBMs (Topol-m, Minuteman-III). In this case, the rocket flies somewhere 200 km.
          2) Passive section - flight of the combat unit by inertia. It takes most of the time - about 30 minutes.
          3) The final (atmospheric section of the trajectory) - the entry of warheads into the atmosphere and their flight to the target. Takes no more than 100 sec.




          Quote: Operator
          and not about flight, much less about the fall of ICBM, SLBM and RSD warheads. SPRN is a one-time thing like product No. 2.

          The task of early detection of launches faced the USSR and the United States already in the early 1960s, when the first ICBMs appeared. At first, the stake was placed on radars (radars), which gradually developed, and have now reached their maximum parameters in terms of detection range - up to 6000 km, both for the Russian Daryals and Voronezh, and for the American radars of the BEMEWS system (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System). But there is one hitch - given the height of the apogee of the ballistic trajectory of modern ICBMs equal to about 1000 km, they can be detected only at a distance of about 3700 km... The maximum range is provided only at very high altitudes (the same Voronezh operates up to an altitude of 8000 km).

          -for this, EKS (satellites "Tundra") and launch (Oko-1 could only report about the fact of launch)

          -in a nuclear conflict, all one-time.
          Quote: Operator
          The command to launch ground and air-based missiles (to airfields) will go by wire, sea-based - by the body of the Earth and sea water at a frequency 84 Hz (Russian version) and 76 Hz (American version).

          what nonsense

          infra low frequencies (LF, ILF 300-3000 Hz)

          very low frequencies (VLF, VLF 3-30 kHz)

          ELF, ELF, 3-30 Hz, wavelength 100-000 km

          ELF, SLF, 30-300 Hz, wavelength 10 000-1000 km


          The Soviet system "ZEVS" operates at a frequency 82 Hz (wavelength 3656 km), the American "Seafarer" () - yes 76 Hz (wavelength 3944,64 km).

          BUT!!! but!!
          There, the speed and density of data transmission is such that the cipher will be transferred to the start-up for hours (and a signal of 3 letters cannot be transmitted, otherwise it will come up with and transmit what kind of thread is tricked out). And the submarine will pop up to confirm receipt (or buoy)
          1. opus
            opus April 6 2016 21: 24
            +3
            ------------------

            Lockheed Martin Corporation has completed a peer review of the project of a system that allows submarines (SS) of the US Navy real-time two-way communication without surfacing to periscope depth.





            The new CSD (Communications at Speed ​​and Depth) system will allow communication with all types of submarines when they are at considerable depth and moving at different speeds.
          2. Operator
            Operator April 6 2016 22: 16
            -1
            Yes, someone would argue: all the components of the early warning missile systems not only shout on the air like "they fired", but transmit "where, where and what they fired from" - that is, ICBMs from a known launch position, SLBMs with a known OUT altitude, RSD with a known apogee or KR with a known flight speed.

            According to Wikipedia, the domestic Zeus radio transmitter has now been tuned to a frequency of 84 Hz. This is the only channel for transmitting a command to a nuclear submarine with an SLBM on board in the event of a thermonuclear charge detonating in the ionosphere in order to disrupt over-the-horizon radio communications.

            The available time for the transmission of the Zeus command is equal to the flight time of American ballistic missiles from the destroyer to the location of the Zeus transmitter in the village of Severomorsk-3 east of Murmansk in the region with coordinates 69 ° N. and 33 ° East The available time can be estimated at one minute. During this period, you can transfer about a hundred dots and dashes (not letters).
            And what encryption key will be used in this case, we, the engineer, are not aware am
            1. opus
              opus April 6 2016 22: 22
              +4
              Quote: Operator
              During this period, you can transfer the order of hundreds of dots and dashes (not letters).

              Bit is a fundamental unit of information. It can take the values ​​0 or 1. For the past forty years, computers have been working with binary data, that is, with sets of bits (and not with numbers from 0 to 9, as is common in humans; we can say that computers have only two fingers) . Bits allow you to encode integers, characters, etc. .. All information passing through a computer turns into bits.

              8 bits form a byte; this gives 256 combinations and allows you to encode numbers from 0 to 255 or characters (including the difference between uppercase and lowercase letters, characters with superscript characters and others).

              MINIMUM 128 bit encryption of the start key
              Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a symmetric block encryption algorithm (block size 128 bits, key 128/192/256 bits), adopted as the encryption standard by the US government according to the results of the AES contest.

              Transmit by ELF, SLF, 30-300 Hz, wavelength 10 000-1000 km

              ,by
  • Operator
    Operator April 6 2016 22: 46
    -1
    In the pre-computer era, the binary code was called the Morse code - zero is a point, and one is a dash laughing

    The command to launch the SLBM in case of blocking the air radio communication will be transmitted on the Zeus frequency explicitly using a different encryption algorithm than AES.
    1. opus
      opus April 6 2016 22: 50
      +2
      Quote: Operator
      In the pre-computer era, the binary code was called the Morse code - zero is a point, and one is a dash

      one misfortune .... your untruth.


      It was an analog signal (long terminal voltage, short).





      compare






      DC is a way of representing data in the form of a code, in which each bit takes one of two possible values, usually denoted by the numbers 0 ("no voltage") and 1 ("is") / Ternary code is more compact (recording density), and the rest too

      but....


      Z. The Incas also had their own counting system bale, which physically was a rope plexus and nodules (dk to morse)
      1. Operator
        Operator April 6 2016 23: 31
        -1
        When giving the telegraphic coding of letters and numbers, you forgot to mention the code of the separation character between letters during transmission - a pause.

        I admit that the telegraph code is ternary and as more compact it can be used in the transmission of "Zeus"
        1. opus
          opus April 7 2016 00: 17
          +3
          Quote: Operator
          - a pause.

          pause, this is the absence of current in the circuit, there is no EMP (a certain time, of course)
          Why mention it then?
          2 weeks ago I personally semaphore at the Leonardo da Vinci Museum in Verona.
          And the children are the same, the wife is the same. There was no dog, but I think she could

          Quote: Operator
          I admit that the telegraph code is ternary

          5-bit! "pseudo ternary"


          + "space".

          And here is the typical Trinity?
          consisting of five keys pressing or not pressing a key corresponded to transmitting or not transmitting one bit in a five-bit code.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Operator
            Operator April 7 2016 01: 41
            -1
            Separation of the code of one letter from the code of another when using binary code is carried out by observing a single number of characters in the code.

            The same separation during Morse code transmission is carried out using pauses between letter codes consisting of a different number of characters in the code.

            The radio operator’s key is not the telegraph’s keyboard (there are mechanical keyboards with the full alphabet and a set of decimal digits).
            1. Bongo
              April 7 2016 05: 42
              +5
              Lord, you are talking about Thomas, and you are about Yeryoma ... wassat
              Quote: Operator
              The radio operator’s key is not the telegraph’s keyboard (there are mechanical keyboards with the full alphabet and a set of decimal digits).

              The five-element start-stop combination was only used there.

              It seems that you either do not understand what you are writing about, or incorrectly state your thoughts. However, you are an engineer, not to get used to it.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 7 2016 08: 39
    0
    ICBM will bury the withdrawal of weapons into near space and the stratosphere.
    What is now prohibited by the contract.
    Striking a vulnerable first stage in the first few seconds after
    launch reliably destroys the BR. And such a blow can be planted
    afterburner dive from the stratosphere of the apparatus with a combat laser.
    1. opus
      opus April 7 2016 12: 58
      +3
      Quote: voyaka uh
      afterburner dive from the stratosphere of the apparatus with a combat laser.

      Will he be able to "get out" later?
      Or straight to the bottom (to Earth)?
  • Ice
    Ice 20 October 2016 02: 50
    +1
    Respect to the author :)

    I am glad that not everyone on this site is suffering from cheers-patriotism. And then horror is terrible ...
    And there are still interesting articles that allow you to really look at things.
    To understand, evaluate.

    I came across an article about the air defense of the former CIS - it was interesting, now I decided to read all the articles of the author)
  • Ice
    Ice 20 October 2016 02: 54
    0
    But there is a question, your opinion,
    Why are they staged in eastern Europe - Aegis Ashore?

    The radar is 320 km, and the radius of SM3 is up to 200 km, not very impressive ...