Military Review

Russia's first military ship

14
Russia's first military ship


March 29, 1823 laid the first battle ship of the Russian Navy fleet "Meteor"

The first ship in Russia was built in 1815 year. Three years later, the Baltic Fleet received its first steam ship, and two years later the first steamboat appeared on the Black Sea Fleet. However, these were precisely unarmed tugboats, equipped with a steam engine and paddle wheels - they were intended for cargo transportation and towage of sailing ships of the military fleet.

And only in the spring of 1823, the first ship, armed with cannons and adapted not only for auxiliary work, but also for military operations, was laid in the shipyards of the Nikolaev Admiralty. The first military ship of Russia was intended for the Black Sea Fleet - in the Baltic after the victories over Sweden, our country did not have strong opponents at that time, but in the Black Sea region relations with the Ottoman Empire remained traditionally difficult. Therefore, the first combat ship of Russia began to build here.

The initiator of the creation of the first armed ship was the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Vice-Admiral Alexey Samuilovich Greig, an experienced sailor who repeatedly made long-distance voyages in the Pacific Ocean, who fought both in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Baltic. Admiral Greig commissioned the construction of the first military steamer to one of the best shipbuilders of Russia of that time - Colonel of the Ship Engineers Corps Ilya Stepanovich Razumov.

Ilya Razumov studied shipbuilding in the shipyards of St. Petersburg, in England and Holland. At the beginning of the 19th century, during the wars with France and Turkey, he was a senior shipmaster in the squadron of Admiral Greig, who set off from Kronstadt to fight in the Mediterranean Sea. In the nineteenth-century 20, only in Nikolaev did Colonel Razumov build the 40 ships, while he participated in the creation of over a hundred ships.

The construction of the first combat ship, named “Meteor”, was carried out for two years. In the summer of 1825, the ship was launched and after all the work and testing of the steam engine was completed, it became part of the Black Sea Fleet. The ship with a length of almost 37 meters and a width of over 6 meters was armed with 14 guns.

His two steam engines with a total power of 60 horsepower were manufactured in St. Petersburg at the plant of the Scottish engineer Charles Breda who accepted Russian citizenship. The steam engines allowed the Meteor to reach the speed of a 6,5 knot (over 12 km / h) even with complete calm with the help of two paddle wheels.

Two years after the launch, the Meteor steamship successfully took part in the hostilities. After the start of the Russian-Turkish war of 1828 – 1829, one of the main tasks of the Russian Black Sea Fleet was the capture of Turkish fortresses on the coast of the Caucasus. The outpost of the Turkish army, threatening the Crimea and Kuban, then was a strong Turkish fortress Anapa. At the end of April 1828, the main forces of our fleet approached it - seven battleships and four frigates with a considerable number of landing and auxiliary ships.

In this campaign, the squadron was accompanied by the battle ship "Meteor". 6 May 1828, the Black Sea Fleet began a landing operation to assault Anapa. The Turks counterattacked our disembarked troops, and here the Meteor manifested itself - sailing ships could not operate freely very close to the shore because of the shoals and the wind blowing from the mountains, and the ship, having a small draft and freedom of movement, easily moved from one place to another near the shore and cannon shots hit the enemy.

It was the actions of the steamboat not dependent on the winds that allowed our troops to successfully consolidate on the coast near Anapa and besiege the fortress, which fell a month later. So, thanks to “Meteor”, the Black Sea port became Russian and later turned from a Turkish fortress into a famous resort.

The successful participation of “Meteor” in that war did not end there - the following year, he participated in the storming of Turkish fortresses on the coast of Bulgaria, including the most heavily fortified Varna. In October, 1828, after the capitulation of Varna, Emperor Nicholas I returned from the Bulgarian coast to Odessa on the sailing battleship "Empress Maria". The sailing ship with the Russian emperor in case of calm and other unforeseen circumstances was accompanied by the steamer "Meteor". The ships arrived safely in Odessa, sustaining a brutal storm that lasted several days.

Thus, the laid-out 29 of March (17 of old fashioned march) 1823 of the year “Meteor” successfully opened the era of the military steam fleet in Russia.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/pervyiy-voennyiy-parohod-rossii-22630.html
14 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik April 3 2016 07: 28
    +2
    The steamer "Meteor" was dismantled in 1839 ...
  2. grigoriy
    grigoriy April 3 2016 08: 38
    +4
    not enough .. I would like details especially technical.
    pc thanks for the article.
    1. Duke
      Duke April 3 2016 17: 43
      +4
      "Meteor" - wheeled steamer of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia
      Main characteristics
      Displacement 261 t
      Length between perpendiculars 36,6 m
      Midship width 6,1 m
      Draft 2,21 m
      Engines two steam engines of the Byrd plant with a total capacity of 60 rated l. with.
      Propulsion 2 onboard paddle wheels, sails
      6,5 nodes travel speed
      weaponry
      Total number of 14 guns
      Machine and boiler compartment of the steamer Meteor, longitudinal section.
      Machine and boiler compartment of the steamer Meteor, longitudinal section.



      He took part in the Russian-Turkish war. 6 May 1828 year in the squadron under the command of Vice Admiral A.S. Greig landed troops near Anapa.
      On July 24 of 1828, together with the Mercury brig, he accompanied the frigate Flora from Varna to Odessa with Emperor Nicholas I on board.
  3. tchoni
    tchoni April 3 2016 08: 47
    +3
    Thanks to the author! He knew almost nothing about the first military parachute. Now I know :-)
  4. kvs207
    kvs207 April 3 2016 08: 48
    +1
    Yes, not enough.)))
    Did the Scotsman accidentally bear the last name on Bird?
    By the way, there is an interesting book “Odessa” goes to sea. ”In it, just about the formation of the steam fleet on the Black Sea.
  5. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 09: 34
    -1
    But in time it was one of the first ships in the world.
    And the railway was also one of the first in the world.
    And we are all about backward Nikolaev Russia.
    1. Alex
      Alex April 3 2016 13: 40
      +2
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      But in time it was one of the first ships in the world. And the railway was also one of the first in the world. And we are all talking about backward Nikolaev Russia.

      The problem was not that something was being created at that time or not. Science in Russia at that time was one of the most advanced. The problem was the possibility of mass introduction of these very scientific results. If in Russia at that time only one railroad was built, in England their length was measured in thousands of kilometers (and this with incomparably smaller territories and distances). The backwardness of Russia was not in the discoveries and possibilities of unit production, but in the re-equipment of the whole society. The Crimean War showed this quite clearly. The second time on the same rake came already during the second Nicholas during the Russo-Japanese War.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 15: 51
        -1
        The problem of implementation and production has always been with us)))
    2. moskowit
      moskowit April 3 2016 18: 22
      0
      I completely agree with you. The stereotypes in the description of history are very persistent. Assessment of the reign of Nicholas I, given by one of the first admirers of Western "democratic values" A. Herzen, is very stable ...

      Nicholas, the third son of Paul the First, was not considered as an heir and a contender for the Russian Throne, and as a result received a more practical technical education (the Tsarevichs usually had large humanities). For those who want to get acquainted with this part of the Emperor’s life, I present an extract from Wikipedia ...

      "... Having received a good engineering education in his youth, Nicholas I showed considerable knowledge in the field of construction technology. So, he made successful proposals for the dome of the Trinity Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Later, already occupying the highest position in the state, he closely followed the order in urban planning and not a single significant project was approved without his signature [57].

      He issued a decree regulating the height of private buildings in the capital [58]. The decree limited the height of any private building to the width of the street on which this building is being built. At the same time, the height of the residential private building could not exceed 11 fathoms (23,47 m, which corresponds to the height of the eaves of the Winter Palace) [59]. Thus, the well-known, and until recently, Petersburg city panorama was created.

      Knowing the requirements for choosing a suitable place for the construction of a new astronomical observatory, Nikolai personally indicated a place for it on the top of Pulkovo Mountain [60].


      The first railways of the all-Russian scale appeared in Russia, including the Nikolaev railway. It is likely that Nicholas I first got acquainted with the technologies of steam locomotive building and construction of railways at the age of 19 during a trip to England in 1816, where the future emperor visited the railway engineer Stephenson [61] ... "

      Those who wish to become more fully acquainted with the biography and deeds of the Great Emperor Nicholas I, I recommend the work of Schilder and Poluektov ..
  6. Corvetkapitan
    Corvetkapitan April 3 2016 09: 52
    +2
    In 1850, the steam frigate Vladimir entered the Black Sea Fleet of the Republic of Ingushetia, which, under the command of Lieutenant Captain G.I.Butakov, on November 5, 1853, attacked and seized the Turkish military steamer Pervaz-Bahri, which later became part of the Black Sea Fleet RI under the name `` Kornilov '', and G.I.Butakov, who distinguished himself by his masterful control of the ship in battle, received the title of captain of the second rank and was awarded the Order of St. George, 4th degree. Unfortunately, the appearance of the steam frigate `` Vladimir '' in the Russian fleet darkens the personal stupidity of the tsar, who at that time ruled Russia. Well, Nicholas I was not Peter the Great. In 1845, the commander of the Black Sea Fleet of the Republic of Ingushetia, Admiral M.P. Lazarev, turned to St. Petersburg with a request to order an iron screw steamer frigate in England. The answer from St. Petersburg said that a steam frigate should not be screw, but wheeled. So the steam-frigate Vladimir was built. Two years after the arrival of Vladimir from England to the Black Sea, Nikolai the First examined it and made the transition from Nikolaev to O During the transition, it became clear who was the author of the `` modernization '' of the ship, and indeed the main culprit of the lag of the Russian fleet in the construction of screw steamers. Thoughtfully looking at the rotating wheels of Vladimir, the emperor said to the commander of the steam frigate, Lieutenant Captain N. Arkasu: -This, I understand, colossus ... You know, I'm against propellers. Some small, nimble, secretive, you can't see how they work. Whatever they say, I don't believe in them ... These are the stupid tsars who brought Russia to 1917, hindering the development of the state with their incredible stupidity.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan April 3 2016 16: 04
      0
      Quote: Corvetkapitan
      ..That are such stupid kings and brought Russia to 1917, hindering the development of the state with its incredible stupidity.

      Under the "dumb" kings, Russia was one of the five developed powers.
      It was under Nicholas that the first railways began to be built. But not only. Electric minefields appeared, for example.
      The tactics of the trench warfare near Sevastopol, which was very successful, by the way, were first used in the world under Nicholas.
      Sinop. The last battle of the sailing fleet, the Turks were completely destroyed, the English adviser fled on a steam frigate. Also under Nicholas.
      The brilliant training of the Nikolaev army and navy contributed to the localization of hostilities in almost one small theater - in the Crimea.
      The allies, exhausted by the two-year defense of Sevastopol, did not dare to go inland.
  7. kvs207
    kvs207 April 3 2016 20: 41
    +3
    Quote: Cap.Morgan
    The brilliant training of the Nikolaev army and navy contributed to the localization of hostilities in almost one small theater - in the Crimea.

    Have you heard anything about Alma and the battle on the Black River? About Inkerman and Balaclava?
    The mediocre Menshikov made it possible to land an assault on the Anglo-French, from which he then successfully ran. If not for the fleet, then he would have surrendered Sevastopol.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx April 4 2016 10: 51
      0
      Quote: kvs207
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      The brilliant training of the Nikolaev army and navy contributed to the localization of hostilities in almost one small theater - in the Crimea.

      Have you heard anything about Alma and the battle on the Black River? About Inkerman and Balaclava?
      The mediocre Menshikov made it possible to land an assault on the Anglo-French, from which he then successfully ran. If not for the fleet, then he would have surrendered Sevastopol.

      There has always been a lot of mediocrity, with the tsar, with the USSR, with Russia, or with any other country in the world.
      It's just that in my opinion we really love to stick out our failures and shout loudly about them. I don’t remember that somewhere in Western Europe or America they talked about their defeats with such voluptuousness, and if they do, it’s only in the spirit of "but what heroes they were."
      1. Andrey77
        Andrey77 April 4 2016 15: 19
        0
        The people do not, but in specialized forums (such as ours) for a long time. The Ardennes are gnawed to the bones, but what do we know about the Ardenes?