History This one began in 1990, when the first domestic wide-body passenger IL-86 aircraft to 350 seats for medium-haul airlines entered the airways of the Soviet Union. Later, taking into account the fact that the territory of the Soviet Union occupied the 1 / 6 part of the land, it was decided to create a wide-body long-haul IL-96 aircraft of the same passenger capacity.
For him, an engine with a thrust of 18 tons was required. This was not the case in the USSR; it was yet to be created. And since at the same time as the IL-96 was planned narrow-body Tu-204 for medium-length routes, the Ministry aviation USSR industry, it was decided to make a single engine for both aircraft. Looking ahead, we note that, like many other erroneous decisions, the main motivation here was to save money. This led to the need to reduce the number of passengers of this modification from 350 to 300. So the IL-96-300 project was born, the economy of which was lower than that of the original IL-96.
“At a price significantly lower than that of foreign aircraft, the new IL-96-300 and Tu-204 did not have the slightest chance to find at least the minimum demand in the domestic market”
But the idea to return to the Il-96 aircraft the technical and economic parameters originally incorporated in it did not leave the General Designer of the OKB im. Ilyushin Genrikh Novozhilov. And overseas, the political enemy of the Soviet Union, the United States, at Pratt & Whitney was looking for a new brainchild - the PW2337 engine. The joint interest of the two firms in promoting their developments to world markets and the warming of Soviet-American relations made it possible on December 7, 1990 to sign a protocol for the preparation of a feasibility study for the Il-96M aircraft with PW2337 engines, which provided for the construction of an experimental prototype for the 1993 international air show in Paris. Taking into account the outlined cooperation and at the request of Pratt & Whitney's parent company, United Technologies Corporation (UTC), on January 20, 1991, official representatives of the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) arrived in Moscow to negotiate the certification of our aircraft in America. The Soviet side was informed that this is possible only after the permission of the US State Department and the signing of an intergovernmental agreement on flight safety.
In the same 1991, the Soviet Union was gone, and further work on the Il-96M was carried out in Russia. The collapse of the USSR sharply complicated the implementation of the agreements reached by the Ilyushin people. The project lost financial support from the state. Moreover, one of the first actions of the Yeltsin-Gaidar government was the practical confiscation of all working capital of industrial enterprises of the defense complex, which immediately put them on the brink of survival. Of course, the attitude to their industry in the United States was far from being the case, which allowed Pratt & Whitney to fulfill all obligations to our design bureau on time to create the Il-96M. Moreover, the pressure exerted by UTC on the Russian leadership led to, if not material, then at least moral support for the project. As a result, President Yeltsin paid a visit to the OKB im. Ilyushin for acquaintance with the development of the Il-96M with American engines. This, of course, contributed to a more favorable attitude towards the Il-96M project of various government agencies. The progress of work on the Il-96M project was covered in detail at the Mosaeroshow-92 in Zhukovsky near Moscow.
All Soviet scrapping, collect scrap metal
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, serious changes took place in the state regulatory bodies of civil aviation. At the site of the USSR Gosavianadzor, which, contrary to the requirements of the 13 annex to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation, simultaneously investigated flight incidents and was engaged in certification of aircraft type, the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC) ). He continued to investigate the incident and certify in violation of the 13 application. In addition, the latter, having diplomatic immunity on the territory of Russia, was engaged on a commercial basis, which contradicts all the norms of international law. And with an enthusiasm worthy of better use, he stamped type certificates for foreign-made aircraft, especially the Boeing company.
MAK history deserves a separate investigation. For us in this case, it is important that due to the uncontrolled certification of foreign aircraft to the Russian market, a flood of foreign junk rushed, often at a price slightly higher than for scrap metal. The customs duties on the import of foreign aircraft, introduced at the request of the State Committee on Defense Industry, did not play any role, since the price for scrap still remained the same. And this is with a huge amount of Soviet-made equipment that was given to airlines free of charge. If you add to them the re-export stream of cheap domestic aircraft from the CIS and Eastern Europe and the collapse in demand for air transport due to the catastrophic decline in the living standards of the population, it becomes clear that with Il-96-300 and Tu-204, it is very difficult to get certified in 1992 and 1994, at a price significantly lower than that of new foreign aircraft, there was not the slightest chance of finding at least the minimum demand in the domestic market.
But they could not go to foreign countries, since they were not certified anywhere else, except for the poor republics of the CIS, who did not know how to get rid of the unnecessary free-of-charge Soviet aircraft.
Under such conditions, I made my first departure of 6 on April 1993 of the Central Aerodrome on the Khodynka Field on a prototype long-haul passenger IL-96MO, permission for which I signed, being the head of the R & D Department and promising scientific developments of the State Committee for Defense Industry, together with representatives of the military (the aerodrome owners) and Moscow City Hall. I remember well a sigh of relief when it was reported that everything went well. After all, the length of the strip was only 1800 meters, and the flight path passed over the city objects. It is now all there built up the stadium and residential buildings, and recently opened a shopping and entertainment complex with the nostalgic name of Aviapark. They say they called it that because the owners, when they received permission to build, promised to create here an analogue of the National Aviation and Cosmonautics Museum of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. But something, as always, did not grow together, and the aviation exhibits assembled at Khodynka were sent for scrap. What we have - do not store, lost - we cry. Tradition.
At the same time, the flight of the Il-96MO from the Central Aerodrome was saved by the Aviation Complex named after him. SV Ilyushin time and a lot of money when transporting the aircraft from the pilot plant to the VCU in Zhukovsky. This allowed 1993 in June, as promised to the Americans Novozhilov, to take part in the 40 International Air Show in Paris. And on the next, 41, between JSC Aeroflot - Russian Airlines and AK them. Ilyushin signed a General Agreement on the supply of ten IL-96M and so many IL-96Ts with PW-2337 engines and Rockwell Collins avionics.
Simultaneously AK them. Ilyushin and the Voronezh Aviation Aircraft Building Society conducted with the FAA and the MAC a successful work on the certification of IL-96М / Т aircraft in the USA and the CIS.
Chernomyrdin supported, Kasyanov buried
The active lobbying of the IL-96M / T project by Ilyushins, and most importantly by the corporations United Technologies Corporation and Rockwell Collins in the governmental circles of Russia and the United States bore fruit: the review of all issues on the program was entrusted to the intergovernmental commission Chernomyrdin-Gore. In 1997, at the suggestion of the Ministry of Defense Industry of the Russian Federation, the government adopted Resolution No. 125 “On measures of state support for the production of IL-96М / Т aircraft.” In development, already on the initiative of the Ministry of Economics of the Russian Federation 7 July 1998, a decree appeared, according to which customs privileges for imported foreign aircraft could be granted only if they did not produce their direct certified analogues in the Russian Federation. At the same time, the air carrier had to invest three rubles in the domestic aircraft industry for every ruble exempt from customs payments and guarantee the conclusion of specific contracts with manufacturers. On this basis, in July between the Ministry of Economy of the Russian Federation and the companies Aeroflot-Russian Airlines and Transaero, investment agreements were signed in July of 1998, which obliged to purchase new domestic IL-96-300, IL-96М / Т and TU-204. In particular, Aeroflot signed up to purchase X-NUMX Il-2005M / T aircraft for the total amount of about 20 billion dollars before 96. July 1,5 The new leadership of the airline, in the presence of Prime Minister Sergey Kiriyenko, was signed by 28 with AK. Ilyushin protocol of additions to the General Agreement 1998 of the year on the purchase of passenger Il-1995М and three cargo Il-17Т from VASO 96. The main condition for the financing of US participants in the project for the production of IL-96М / T from the US Eximbank in the amount of 96 billion dollars was the acquisition by Aeroflot of 1,075 Boeing airplanes. It was compensation for the appearance of a competitor in the market. The guarantors of the whole transaction were the government of the Russian Federation and Vnesheconombank. However, after the August 10 crisis, Eximbank refused to finance the American participants in the project and participate in the transaction. Vice President Gore had no influence on this decision, although the bank’s operations are fully controlled by the US Department of State.
Nevertheless, during the state visit of President Clinton to Russia 2 September 1998, an intergovernmental agreement on improving flight safety was concluded between the Russian Federation and the USA - BASA, which opened the way for the issuance of the FAA AK to them. S.V. Ilyushin type certificate for IL-96T. And September 12 of the IAC, the FAS of the Russian Federation and the FAA of the USA signed the “Implementation procedures for the approval of the design, activities related to production, export approval of airworthiness, works after the approval of the design and technical mutual assistance between aviation authorities”. This document is interesting for the complete inequality of approaches to the certification of aircraft developed in Russia and the United States. In particular, the 2 section states that the Russian Federation accepts FAA export certificates for both new and used aircraft developed in the United States. But we remember that by this time the IAC, without any intergovernmental agreement, had certified all American junk at a reasonable price, and it had to be somehow covered up. But the United States accepts export certificates of airworthiness of aircraft of the transport category of only fully cargo configuration, with engines approved by the FAA, propellers, avionics, and only for the instrumental approach in categories I and II. Agree that equality does not smell here.
Only after all the concessions from the Russian side, FAA USA 2 June 1999, issued AK them. Ilyushin type certificate for IL-96T aircraft. But it certainly was a tremendous success of the domestic civil aviation industry, which proved to the Americans that our planes are in no way inferior from the point of view of flight safety.
Completion of the project now required all parties to meet their commitments. And with this there were problems. Although Aeroflot leased 10 Boeing aircraft duty-free, Eximbank initially refused to finance the supply of engines and equipment to Ilyushin residents. It was only under pressure from American co-executors of the project that he decided to provide guarantees against loans to pay for supplies. True, now he allocated only $ 96 million for the construction of three Il-130Ts for the purchase of 12 Pratt & Whitney PW2037 engines and Collins avionics, thus financing 85 percent of the project cost, another 15 percent were commodity loans from American suppliers.
It would seem that the ice has broken. And here the people of Ilyushin received a stab in the back, but not from someone, but from their own government. In agreement with the leadership of Rosaviakosmos, Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov signed Decree No. 26 on December 2001, 906, which invalidated the decision of the Chernomyrdin Cabinet on measures of state support for the production of the Il-96M / T. This immediately deprived the Ilyushin people of the opportunity to finance the project. It is said that this development was greeted by Boeing and Airbus corporations with a sense of deep satisfaction. And Pratt & Whitney and Rockwell Collins wrote off the losses of $ 200 million spent on the certification of the Il-96M / T, and took back their engines and avionics, admitting that the project had failed.
The story, however, did not end there. 10 August 2009, the head of the Ministry of Industry and Trade Viktor Khristenko announced: “Production of the IL-96-300 aircraft is unpromising and will be discontinued. Therefore, it was decided to import free of foreign passenger aircraft with more than 300 passengers into Russia and much work is being done on cooperation with the United States in the production of their long-haul and wide-body passenger version of Boeing. In particular, the Russian side supplies a significant amount of titanium structures for this airliner. ”
Heinrich Novozhilov assessed the decision of the minister as follows: “As the verdict to the Russian aviation industry, a statement was made that we didn’t need wide-body aircraft. I can not understand the principle of selection of people in the government of the country. The leaders of our industry are not experts in the field that they oversee. ”
30 July 2015, the IAC, of course, again for a fee, certified aircraft A-340 company "Airbus Industry", which is a direct analogue of the IL-96M. So, now in the CIS there is a demand for aircraft of this type, but we ourselves have given this niche to foreign firms. Sad story.