Military Review

Unfading "Topol"

Unfading "Topol"

A missile system with a unique Topol-type intercontinental ballistic missile will be a Russian missile shield up to 2021.
The delicate balance between war and peace in our time is supported by the parity of US and Russian strategic nuclear weapons. These are ammunition of various capacities that can be delivered to the target by air, sea and land carriers. The last of them are stationary (mine) and mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). In the USA, these are the only Trident-type ICBMs that have been in service with the 1970 year. The main and most popular Russian ICBM are Topol missiles.

The combat readiness of these missiles is maintained by upgrading them with subsequent test launches without combat equipment. In addition, such launches demonstrate the readiness of nuclear arsenals and the determination of their owners to apply such weapon if necessary. This was the goal pursued by the United States during two (16 and 26 February) this year test launches of the Minuteman-3 ICBM. Shortly before the last US Deputy Secretary of Defense, Robert Work said that "this is a signal that we are ready to use nuclear weapons to protect our country, if necessary."

According to the open press, the Russian arsenal of ground-based ICBMs today includes several types of missile systems with launch vehicles. These include the P-36М2 "Voevoda" (SS-18 Satan, "Satan"), UR-100N UTTH (SS-19 Stiletto, "Stiletto"), PT-2PM "Topol" (SS-25 Sickle, "Serp" ) and РТ-2ПМ2 "Topol-M" (SS-27 Sickle B), as well as the PC-24 complex "Yars" created on the basis of the latter. What is the complex "Topol-M", which at the end of the last century was the "talk of the town"?

How was created

The Topol-M mobile strategic ground-based missile system (PGRK SN) became a further development of the PGRK RT-2PM Topol, which was put into service in the 1988 year. The new complex became the most massive in serial production and provided a solution to the problem of the survivability of a group of nuclear weapons for retaliation "retaliation".

The main advantages of the complex are high mobility and a degree of camouflage, the possibility of launching rockets from pre-prepared areas on patrol routes. Combined with higher accuracy in comparison with the predecessors Temp-2С and Pioneer, Topol could be used to solve the whole range of strategic tasks.

The upgraded Topol-M missile system (RT-2PM2) was a further development of its counterpart and the first complex of domestic production only. Initially it was planned to create a stationary (mine) and mobile complexes with unified XMON 15Ж65 and 15Ж55, respectively. In the original version, these missiles were supposed to have liquid and solid propellant engines. In addition, the starting container of the MBR mine was a metal, mobile - fiberglass.

After refusing to take part in this development of the Ukrainian design bureau Yuzhnoye in 1992, the lead developer of MIT for the warheads of both missiles created a single solid-fuel propulsion system. This type of missile was the first ICBM created in Russia after the collapse of the USSR.

Complexes of the Topol type were serially produced by Votkinsk Plant OJSC and Titan Central Design Bureau in the period from 1997 to 1999.

The mobile and mine versions of the rocket were put into service in 1997 and 2000, respectively, and in 2006, the mobile version of the Topol-M complex was recommended for adoption. In 2011, the Ministry of Defense stopped the procurement of the complex in connection with the deployment of the RS-24 “Yars” ICBM with missile warheads of individual guidance (MRU). The rocket has become an improved version of the Topol-class ICBMs.

Purpose and main characteristics

The missile system with Topol-M ICBMs is designed to hit enemy strategic targets at a distance within 11000 kilometers. The first launch took place 20 December 1994. A three-stage solid-fuel MBR with 47,1 launching mass (47,2) can hit a target with a 1,2 t monoblock nuclear warhead (power 550 qt) with a circular probable deviation of no more than 200 m. accordingly, with a power reserve of up to 16 km, it can move with a maximum range of up to 16 km / h.

Training and combat launch of the Topol-M missile system from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. Photo:

The energy capabilities of the rocket can increase the drop weight, significantly reduce the height of the active part of the trajectory, increase the efficiency of overcoming promising means of missile defense. The third stage with direct-flow hypersonic atmospheric engines was tested.

A monoblock high-speed warhead can be replaced with a maneuvering or split head (FPG, unified with the Bulava ICBM) with 3-6 th personal-targeting combat units (IN) with 150 kt each. In 2005, a Topol-M missile with a maneuvering head was tested, and in 2007, a Topol-M ICBM with a multiple-engined rocket system was tested. The probability of overcoming the American missile defense system today is 60-65%, and in the future - more than 80%. The warranty period for the XBUMXЖ15 MBR mine is 65-15 years.


The missile system with Topol-M ICBM has a number of features. These are high mobility (PGRK) and security of mine options. The speed of a rocket with a mortar launch in 3-4 is more than in comparison with liquid ICBMs, and the limited maneuver provides a quick climb and exit from the dangerous interception area after launch. False targets, high flight speed and the ability to change the flight path provide a high probability of overcoming the enemy's missile defense system. This is also facilitated by an improved guidance system, a composite case made of ultrastrong polymer and the absence of lattice aerodynamic stabilizers, which significantly reduces the likelihood of detection of ICBMs by modern radars.

High-passable PU can turn on any soil due to incomplete hanging and low specific pressure on the soil, which is lower than that of a truck.

High resistance to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion provides a set of measures. This is a new protective coating for the outer surface of the rocket body, the elemental base of the control system of enhanced durability and reliability, screening and special ways of laying the onboard cable network of the rocket, special program maneuver of the rocket during the passage of a cloud of a nuclear explosion and more.

At the expense of these and other measures, the missile system with Topol-M ICBMs on combat readiness, maneuverability and effectiveness of hitting targets in the conditions of countering the enemy’s missile defense system is about 1,5 times the previous generation.


According to the latest data from open sources, as of the end of 2015, Russia had about 100 PGRK with Topol ICBMs, as well as about 50 and 20 of Topol-M ICBM of mine and mobile basing. According to the statement of the Strategic Missile Forces commander Sergey Karakaev, the Topol-M type missile system with ICBMs will be in service until the 2021 year. This possibility provides a high operational reliability of the complex, which was confirmed by repeated test launches.

For comparison, as of the 2013 year, the United States Air Force numbered around 450 ICBMs LGM-30G Minuteman-3, on which 550 nuclear warheads are installed. According to 150, such ICBMs in 2007 were on alert at Malmstrom (Montana) air bases, Francis Warren (Wyoming) and Minot (North Dakota). They are regularly upgraded by replacing warheads, guidance and control systems, power plants. It is assumed that this rocket will remain in service with the US Air Force until the 2020 year.
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 19 March 2016 06: 36
    Let's hope that these missiles will "harass" the restless mericatos for a long time.
    1. Former battalion commander
      Former battalion commander 19 March 2016 16: 49
      How? It is said that until 2021! Only 5 years left. But the "Voevoda" has been worth it for 30 years and will stand still by 2020 ... So, the laudatory odes to "Topol" somehow do not fit with the terms of "standing" in service. In general, solid-propellant missiles have a shorter service life than liquid-propellant ones.
  3. Evgesh91
    Evgesh91 19 March 2016 06: 41
    but in my opinion monoblock missiles are not buzzing. In the current conditions, it is necessary to accelerate the transition to Yars and the like.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 22 March 2016 16: 35
      Monoblocks are limited to the START-3 treaty. We can exit (from the contract) at any time. Gut, not gut - so far.
  4. Knowing
    Knowing 19 March 2016 06: 46
    Oh, it's time for Golovnyak to arrange and restore them, as in the past:
    1. Kos_kalinki9
      Kos_kalinki9 19 March 2016 08: 21
      Oh, you have to. and this is a photo of the 30th site in Kostroma. Rather, a photo of what was left of it.
      1. Andrey77
        Andrey77 22 March 2016 16: 38
        My position ... I can also throw a photo of the building on the left (pictured). Photos of "stalkers" ... kos, don't rub your wounds.
  5. Koshak
    Koshak 19 March 2016 08: 22
    "Earlier in Russia they hugged a birch tree and cried, but now they hug Poplar and smile mysteriously." laughing
  6. Vadim237
    Vadim237 19 March 2016 10: 22
    The service life of Minuteman 3 was extended to 2030, and all old ICBMs will be removed from service by 2025: Voivod Topol, Topol M, UR 100UTTKh, and possibly Sineva.
    1. Blondy
      Blondy 19 March 2016 11: 34
      Quote: Vadim237
      The service life of Minuteman 3 was extended to 2030, and all old ICBMs will be removed from service by 2025: Voivod Topol, Topol M, UR 100UTTKh, and possibly Sineva.

      But I’m sure I’m on a rational proposal, Kuzhugetych, and what if we develop thermobaric warheads of high power (or whatever) for these missiles, well, and keep them nearby, just like a fireman, suddenly the situation will provide an opportunity for remote disposal. New ones are more expensive, but these are still disposed of.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 19 March 2016 17: 19
        It’s not too demanding - the fuel of the missiles is aging, but suddenly you shouldn’t hope, there will be new ICBMs there and the military engineers will decide what to put on them.
  7. Moore
    Moore 19 March 2016 12: 19
    The speed of a missile with a mortar launch is 3-4 times higher compared to liquid ICBMs,

    The author is aware that the "Voevoda" also has a mortar start? There it is, the pallet - flies to the right ...
    Well, and, I suppose, the very first version of the Topol, the 15p158.1 missile system, has been undeservedly missed. "Poplar with a dot".
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. Colonel
    Colonel 19 March 2016 15: 35
    About the photo above the article. It seems that not poplar TPKs stand on poplar MAZs.
    1. Firstvanguard
      Firstvanguard 19 March 2016 17: 52
      Quote: colonel
      About the photo above the article. It seems that not poplar TPKs stand on poplar MAZs.

      The photo is simply "mirrored" hi
      1. Colonel
        Colonel 19 March 2016 20: 39
        Quote: Firstvanguard
        The photo is simply "mirrored"

        Maybe the AGC is on the wrong side.
      2. Kolesnikoff.dmitr
        Kolesnikoff.dmitr 20 March 2016 17: 48
        That's for sure! But why was there a mockery, because on the starboard side the main secret blocks stand.
        1. Colonel
          Colonel 21 March 2016 20: 50
          Under the cover, one hell, nothing is visible .... wink
          1. Andrey77
            Andrey77 22 March 2016 21: 25
            Under the hood once, but the appearance will not say anything. All interesting inside. :)
  10. Poplar505
    Poplar505 19 March 2016 16: 41
    The differences between Poplar (pure) and "M" are not listed fully and not correctly. I understand that a chatterbox is a godsend for a spy, therefore I am not going to flaunt my knowledge. I am writing because I know this as an officer. He went through all the delights of setting up on the database, combat use, control, watch, removal from the database, transportation. He started with Pioneer and CapYar.
    And I am firmly convinced that these years were the brightest and happiest in my life. Probably for many people the main thing is the need for the country, the Motherland, and those around them. Sorry for the Pioneer, a smart rocket with 3 warheads, an undeveloped motor resource (they changed the starting engines on the eve of removal, delivery to the arsenal and cutting). And this speaks of pure betrayal "somewhere up there." And after all, they are not afraid, stsuki, retribution.
    It’s a shame for the Power.
    1. Former battalion commander
      Former battalion commander 19 March 2016 16: 58
      In general, the article is very weak. Hurray-patriotic orientation. Weaknesses of "Topol" are not mentioned, the merits are exaggerated ... For political information in the troops, of course, it will do, but for this resource it is outright sabotage.
      1. andr327
        andr327 April 11 2016 08: 27
        I completely agree, not an article but a complete salad: everything is mixed in a bunch. It seems that the author cannot even visually distinguish between Topol and Topol-M.
  11. podgornovea
    podgornovea 19 March 2016 20: 33
    "The speed of a rocket with a mortar launch is 3-4 times higher than that of liquid-propellant ICBMs."

    Oh, as it turns out everything is simple - made a mortar start and increased the speed of the rocket as much as 3-4 times!

    You can also compare mortar launch с liquid mbr!

    We look forward to comparing the speed of cars with intercepting parking lots with electric cars!

    Although maybe the author didn’t understand a bit what should be compared to solid-fuel and liquid mbr, and not the type of launch and type of rocket?

    Then do not write anything, in the sense of general!
    (Or compare parking lots, electric cars and fiber optics for bandwidth, but only on another site)
  12. pokermen
    pokermen 19 March 2016 21: 03
    5 years ago, he served in the part where Topol’s maintenance services are stored +. And even then the polkan said that the Americans had quite successfully learned to intercept ordinary poplars, the only thing that saves us is their doh * I))
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. podgornovea
    podgornovea 19 March 2016 21: 19
    A solid fuel engine is certainly good, BUT!

    2007 year.
    Liquid R-29RMU2 "Sineva":
    Maximum range, km - 11500
    The thrown weight, kg - 2800
    Power of warheads, kt - 2 × 475, 4 × 200, 10 × 100
    CWE, m - 250
    Starting weight, t - 40,3
    Length, m - 14,8
    Diameter, m - 2

    2012 year!
    Solid fuel R-30 "Bulava":
    Maximum range, km - 9300
    The thrown weight, kg - 1150
    Power of warheads, ct - 10x150
    CWE, m - 350
    Starting weight, t - 36,8
    Length, m - 11,5
    Diameter, m - 2

    At "Sineva"
    Range is greater by 2200km - 23,5% (offset)
    The thrown weight on 1650kg - 243% (offset)
    4,5t more weight - 12,5% (not set off)
    It is longer by 3,3m - 28,7% (not counted)

    It seems that you just want a bigger and harder throw away, take the R-29RMU2 "Sineva", if you want a smaller rocket and take the R-30 "Bulava" lighter.

    At 1 a ton of discharged weight for a liquid rocket 40,3 / 2,8 = 14,4 tons of rocket weight, for a solid fuel 36,8 / 1,15 = 32 tons. Difference 220% in favor of liquid with a difference in range 23,5% in favor of liquid
    And about the speed in 3-4 times higher for solid fuel I DO NOT BELIEVE!
    1. Talgat
      Talgat 19 March 2016 23: 18
      For solid propellants, how many other benefits have been written - storage - maintenance - readiness for launch
    2. opus
      opus 20 March 2016 14: 54
      Quote: podgornovea
      It seems that you just want a bigger and harder throw away, take the R-29RMU2 "Sineva", if you want a smaller rocket and take the R-30 "Bulava" lighter.

      Specific impulse.
      LRE: 470sec
      RTTT: 270 sec.
      There’s nothing more to talk about. Lighter / heavier pointless
      Quote: podgornovea
      And about the speed in 3-4 times higher for solid fuel I DO NOT BELIEVE!

      and correct.
      Solid propellant rocket engines have a lower rate of discharge of combustion products (the temperature is lower, the "calorific value" is the same), respectively, the "speed" of the rocket is theoretically lower.
      Here's the thing:
      For solid propellant rocket engines, the thrust is limited only by the dimensions of the turbojet engine itself (stage), let us recall the Shuttle side accelerator 13,8 MN (1400 tf).
      or first stage - SR-118
      Marching engine RDTT Thrust 2200 kN (247.3 tf)
      at the RS-18, the first stage marching remote control: three single-chamber liquid-propellant rocket engines and one closed-loop rocket engine RD-0233 RD-0234, with a thrust of 1672.5 kN (188 tf)
      Quote: Talgat
      how many other benefits have been written - storage - maintenance - ready to go

      ICBMs of rocket engines are now stored in the same quantity, and more so. no fuel charge degradation.
      Readiness for launch is almost the same (in the LRE only boost).
      But the cost is yes.
      The solid propellant rocket motor is essentially a primitive (plugged pipe with a nozzle), the most expensive solid propellant rocket motor is fuel.
      LRE-road, all its fittings, too, one TNA which is worth

      the rotor of the oxidizer booster pump unit.

      1. Andrey77
        Andrey77 22 March 2016 16: 44
        Readiness for launch is almost the same (only liquid-propellant rocket engine)
        This is not true. No, now it’s not necessary to refuel the LRE for hours, but the difference remains. Studied, served.
  15. Old26
    Old26 22 March 2016 20: 30
    Quote: Andrey77
    Monoblocks are limited to the START-3 treaty. We can exit (from the contract) at any time. Gut, not gut - so far.

    Actually, START-2

    Quote: podgornovea
    Maximum range, km - 11500; Sprayable weight, kg - 2800

    Actually, you should distinguish between these two parameters. At a distance of 11500 km, it was by no means 2800 kg thrown. As with the standard range of 8300 km, the cast was also not 2800 kg. With the maximum throw weight (in fact, the mass), the range of "Sineva" is also not 8300, but less