Military Review

Antonov Bombers

52
Antonov Bombers


So there is a respected reader - you were not mistaken, in this publication we will talk about the bomber brand "An", designed under the leadership of Soviet aircraft designer Oleg Konstantinovich Antonov. The world famous O.K. Antonov became after the creation of a number of very successful transport and passenger aircraft. But now, few people remember that his firstborn - the piston biplane An-2, in addition to the transport and passenger version, was designed as a light reconnaissance spotter and night bomber.

Work on the combat version of the "maize" began in the OKB-153 in the spring of 1947 of the year. According to the project, it was supposed to be a three-seater aircraft designed for night reconnaissance, adjusting artillery fire and making night bombing attacks, with the possibility of landing on unpaved airfields with a small runway. The characteristics of the An-2, its low speed, high maneuverability, minimum mileage and run-up were fully suitable for these tasks.

The aircraft, which received the symbol "F" ("Fedya") had a lot in common with the base An-2. In order to improve the convenience of combat use, the fuselage and tail assembly have been reworked. Closer to the tail section was mounted the cockpit of the observer, which resembled a cage and was a glazed truss structure. In order to ensure ease of use of defensive weapons in the rear hemisphere, tail tails were made with spaced keels.



To repel the attacks of enemy fighters from the rear hemisphere behind the upper wing, they installed a turret with the X-NUMX-mm B-20 cannon. In the lower right-hand plane, another fixed 20-mm cannon that fired forward was mounted. Crew jobs and the engine received armor protection. When used as a night bomber, the aircraft could carry twelve 20 kg bombs in cassettes placed in the fuselage, under the lower planes there were four holders for 50 kg bombs or NAR blocks.

Tests An-2NAK (night artillery spotter) successfully completed in early 1950. But in connection with the development of reactive aviation serially the plane was not built. Further events showed the fallacy of this decision. During the fighting on the Korean Peninsula in the early 50s, night bombers Po-2 and Yak-11 were very effectively used. Due to the low speed, the accuracy of the bombing from Po-2 biplanes was very good, and the “flying shelves” themselves, due to the large difference in speed and high maneuverability, proved to be a very difficult target for American night fighters. There are several cases where night interceptors crashed while trying to shoot down Po-2s flying at night at low altitude. North Korean light bombers, usually operating over enemy trenches and in the front line, were a real nightmare for the UN forces. Po-2 took 100-150 kg of small-caliber bombs, which paralyzed automobile traffic in the immediate rear and terrorized targets on the front line of the enemy. American soldiers called them - "crazy Chinese alarms." It seems that the An-2NAK night bomber, which had speed and maneuverability similar to the Po-2, could be much more effective in Korea with a higher payload.

Successful use of converted "corncob" in a number of military conflicts prompted the designers to return to the topic of military use of An-2. At the beginning of 1964, the An-2 modified An-XNUMX with strike armaments was tested at the airfield of the Scientific Research Institute of the Air Force in Chkalovsky.



The rifle and bomb sights were installed on the plane, the weapons consisted of NAR UB-16-57 units and 100-250 caliber bombs. For suspension arms on the An-2 mounted beam holders BDZ-57KU. In the portholes and the lining of the cargo compartment were made devices for firing from Kalashnikov assault rifles. The test results of the military were not impressed and work on this topic was no longer conducted in the USSR.

Despite the fact that the “combat” version of the An-2 did not go into the series, this aircraft, which was not originally intended for war, repeatedly participated in hostilities in various parts of the world. The first reliably known case of combat use of An-2 occurred in Indochina in 1962, when North Vietnamese An-2 delivered cargo to its allies in Laos - left neutralists and Pathet Lao detachments. In the course of such flights, the “maize farmers” were often fired from the ground. To suppress anti-aircraft fire on An-2, 57-mm NAR C-5 blocks were suspended and machine guns were installed in doorways.



The next step for the air forces of the DRV was the targeted night attacks of the South Vietnamese and American warships and ground bases. It is a well-known case when the An-2 group in a night combat sortie with the help of NURS sank a guard and damaged the naval landing ship of South Vietnam. But a similar attack on destroyers of the US Navy, firing on the coast at night, failed. The Americans, who controlled the airspace of the radar, in time detected the approaching An-2 and shot down one biplane with an anti-aircraft missile.

Much more successful Vietnamese An-2 acted against armed boats and junks, which were used by American and South Vietnamese sabotage and reconnaissance teams.

The end of the Vietnam War did not put an end to the combat career of the "corncob". After entering the Vietnamese forces in 1979, Cambodia, An-2 was attacked by Khmer Rouge units. Often they were used as advanced aircraft builders. Pilots of An-2, having found the target, “processed” it with bombs and NURS. Incendiary phosphorus grenades were used to indicate the target and guidance of other more high-speed attack aircraft, while burning white phosphorus, a thick, well-marked white smoke was used, which served as a guide. Interestingly, the F-2 and American-made A-5 fighter jets were used for air strikes in Cambodia on the Khmer Rouge, along with low-speed An-37.

The next time An-2 entered the battle in Nicaragua at the start of the 80's. Several Sandinistas farm planes equipped kg bombs with 100 holders. In this form, the aircraft were involved in the bombing of the CIA-supported "contras" detachments.

A little-known page of the combat use of the An-2 is the war in Afghanistan. In addition to transporting cargo to field airfields, these vehicles were used by the Afghan Air Force as light reconnaissance and spotters. Kishlaks occupied by detachments of the armed opposition bombed them several times. Good maneuverability and low infrared signature of a piston engine helped them avoid missiles from MANPADS. In the event that An-2 anti-aircraft machine guns came under fire, they switched to a low-level flight or dived into the gorges. Repeatedly Afghan An-2 returned to the airfields with holes, but in the reports of combat losses are not.

An-2 also occasionally participated in various conflicts in Africa. Machine guns mounted turrets were made handicraft on airplanes, and for bombing ground targets, hand grenades and industrial explosives were used as a rule.

The scale of the military use of the An-2 in ethnic conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia turned out to be much larger. In Croatia, a bomber squadron was established in Osijek on the basis of the Agricultural Aviation Detachment, which was armed with about a dozen An-2. Since November, 1991, the Croatian "twos" were involved in night bombing of the positions of the Serbs, in total, they made more than 60 sorties. At the same time, improvised bombs were used, dropped through an open door. In view of the low infrared visibility of An-2, it turned out to be a difficult goal for Serb-owned Strela-2М. There is a case in which, in order to bring down a Croatian piston biplane at night, the Serbian military spent 16 missiles of MANPADS. Another An-2 was hit by the Kvadrat anti-aircraft missile system. In total, during the fighting near the city of Vukovar, the Croats lost at least five An-2. In addition to actions against Serbian military installations, the Croatian Ana were used several times in raids on Serb refugee convoys, which is a war crime.

In January-February, 1993, the Croatian An-2, bombed the positions of the troops and important objects of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina. During the raid on the oil field near the village of Dzheletovitsi, one An-2 was shot down. The crew managed to make a forced landing safely, but, trying to escape from pursuit, the pilots exploded in a minefield.

In 1992, the Croats used their An-2 during battles in the territory of the former Federal Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There, one aircraft burned in the air after hitting an 57-mm C-60 anti-aircraft projectile. The Bosnian Serbs got the equipment of local flying clubs, they used the An-2 as scouts and light attack aircraft. In March, 1993, when bombing Muslim positions near Srebrenica, one aircraft was shot down.

Cases of the combat use of An-2 during the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh were noted. According to media reports, one Armenian An-2 crashed after being damaged by anti-aircraft fire.

In Chechnya, General Dudayev had at his disposal several serviceable An-2. It is known that some of them were prepared for use as night bombers. But they did not have time to take part in the hostilities; all of them were destroyed in early December 1994 by Russian aircraft at home bases.

The use of “twos” in combat was usually of a forced nature. Transport and passenger, agricultural and Aeroclub aircraft made combat missions after minimal re-equipment and training.



A completely different approach was to the use of An-2 for military purposes in the DPRK. A considerable part of the Soviet and Chinese biplanes in North Korea were modernized at aircraft repair enterprises. To reduce the visibility at night, the planes were painted black, rifle turrets were mounted in the doorways and in the portholes. Under the lower planes and the fuselage mounted holders for bombs and blocks NAR. In addition to the shock functions, the “two” were assigned the task of entering reconnaissance and saboteurs on the territory of South Korea. They crossed the line of demarcation at extremely low altitudes, remaining invisible to South Korean and American radars. Currently, the North Korean An-2, captured by South Korean special services during one of these missions, is being demonstrated at the Military Museum in Seoul.

In addition to the first-born An-2, other vehicles created by the Antonov Design Bureau were often involved in bombing land targets. In 1957, the serial construction of the An-12 medium military transport aircraft began. It was the first Soviet production vehicle with four AI-20 turboprop engines. In total, more than 1957 aircraft of this type were built at three aircraft plants from 1973 to 1200. The design of the fuselage of the An-12 transport almost completely coincided with the design of the fuselage of the passenger An-10. The main difference between the An-12 was the aft, where there was a cargo hatch and a rifle installation.


An-12


An-12 significantly expanded the capabilities of the Soviet Airborne Forces. This aircraft could transfer not only 60 paratroopers, but also heavy equipment and weapons weighing up to 21 tons with a cruising speed of 570 km / h. Flight range with a normal load - 3200 km.

From the very beginning, the An-12 had provided for the suspension of bombs for various purposes. OPB-1Р and NKPB-7 and RBB-2 panoramic radar for determining the point of discharge of cargo out of sight of the ground are available to the navigator for the aiming bombing and dumping of the landed cargo.

There were several options for the placement of bomb weapons. On the right side of the fuselage there was a bomb bay with a hatch for two bombs in caliber from 50 to 100 kg or six bombs in caliber 25 kg. Also, small-caliber bombs were suspended on beams in the front parts of the chassis fairings. Thus, special-purpose bombs were usually located: approximate-signal, lighting, photographic, etc. In the rear fuselage there is a box holder for vertical suspension 6 bombs or radio probes.

In 1969, a bomber and director of sea mines AN-12BKV successfully passed tests. The discharge of the combat load from the cargo compartment was carried out using a special stationary conveyor through an open cargo hatch. In the cargo hold it was possible to place up to 70 bombs with a caliber of 100 kg, up to 32 250-kg or 22 bombs with a caliber of 500 kg. There was the possibility of loading 18 sea mines UDM-500. During the tests, it turned out that the acceptable effectiveness of bombing with An-12БКВ can be carried out only for area targets. The main reason was the large dispersion of bombs dropped by a transporter from an open cargo hatch. In addition, there were no special bomber sights on the plane, and the capabilities of the existing full-time day and night sights were not enough. However, at the aircraft factory in Tashkent, the An-12BKV aircraft were built in a small series. Later, the construction of special "bomber" modifications was abandoned. If necessary, all the combat transport modifications of the An-12 could be quickly converted into bombers after the installation of a special transporter TG-12МВ.



The standard loading scheme provided for placing in the cargo compartment up to 42 100 kg aerial bombs, up to 34 bombs of caliber 250 kg and up to 22 RBC-500 or 18 500 kg fugasok. Great difficulties arose with the loading of large-caliber bombs FAB-1500М54 and FAB-3000М54. These aircraft munitions differed solid dimensions. Heavy bombs were dragged into the cargo hold of the aircraft with the help of winches, placing wooden rollers under them. The width of the bombs in the package exceeded a meter, and the length was more than three meters, which is why An-12 could take no more than three pieces, stacked one after the other along the entire length of the cargo compartment.

The most rational from the point of view of covering areal and extended targets was the loading of 250 kg and 500 kg of bombs and one-time bomb cassettes. The An-12 transport aircraft as a heavy bomber in terms of the mass of a bomb salvo could be compared to a squadron of Su-7B fighter bomber. An-12 also proved to be very effective in the role of director of naval mines. The relatively low speed and the possibility of stable flight at low altitude made it possible to place mines with good accuracy and with relatively little dispersion. A big plus of transport vehicles in comparison with other specialized attack aircraft was lower operating and fuel costs when performing a similar task.

Bombing with An-12 could only be carried out from horizontal flight without any maneuvering. The presence of anti-aircraft cover in the target area for a bulky and slow transport could be fatal. However, since the beginning of the 70-s, the training plans for training crews of military transport aircraft included the tasks of testing the bombing. An-12, delivering bombing strikes to the squares, could perform the task of “stripping” the landing area, thus reducing possible losses among paratroopers.

For the first time in the real combat situation of the An-12, the Indian Air Force was used as a bomber. The crews of the Indian Air Forces, whose An-12 were equipped with bomb weapons during the war with Pakistan, in 1971, attacked airfields, weapons depots and fuel storages. The mass of the combat load at the same time reached 16 tons.

After the first successful raids against stationary objects, Indian An-12 switched to night bomb strikes directly in the battle formations of the enemy troops. To improve the accuracy of the bombing was often conducted from low altitudes, which required the pilots considerable courage and professionalism. The use of powerful 250-500 kg bombs from low altitudes was a very dangerous matter, with a close break the bomber itself could hit the fragments. Therefore, in the case of low-altitude bombing, incendiary napalm tanks were used predominantly, their fire breaks had a strong demoralizing effect on Pakistani soldiers.


An-12 Indian Air Force


The effectiveness of the nightly loaded An-12 transport bombs turned out to be even higher than the specialized Canberra British-made jet bombers. In total, the An-12 Indian Air Force made several dozen night combat missions, without losing a single aircraft. Pakistanis have repeatedly raised Mirage-3 and F-104 fighters to intercept, but Indian An-12 each time managed to evade them.

The Soviet Air Forces actively used An-12 for bombing during combat operations in Afghanistan. Unlike the ground attack aircraft and fighter-bombers, which operated at the request of the ground forces, the work of the An-12 was routinely planned. Loaded with powerful “Ana” bombers, they bombed fortifications and rebel bases from a safe height, inaccessible to MANPADS and small-caliber anti-aircraft installations. Of course, the accuracy of such bombings was low, but it was compensated by the number and caliber of the bombs. Part of the bomb bombs was placed with a deceleration from several hours to several days. This should have made restoration work more difficult, and simply made it dangerous to be in the area subjected to a bomb strike. In addition to reliably known locations of the rebels, caravan routes from Pakistan and Iran were subjected to large-caliber bombs in order to create impassable debris and collapse of mountain canopies in border mountain areas.

In Afghanistan, unexpectedly, there was a job for the onboard shooters of the rear defensive firing point. After several airplanes were shot down and damaged on the takeoff and landing of MANPADS and ZSU fire, the side gunners began to comb through their firefighting 23-mm guns with suspicious places in the vicinity of airfields. It was difficult to say how effective it was, but this precaution, combined with the abundantly fired heat traps, had a beneficial effect on the mental balance of the An-12 crews. After the Soviet contingent was withdrawn from Afghanistan, the Afghan Air Force also practiced bombing military transport aircraft from aircraft. But unlike the Soviet Air Force, their bomb strikes were often unsystematic and had little effect.

In 90-2000-ies, created for transportation, An-12 became one of the most belligerent aircraft on the African continent. As of 1998, there were six An-12 in the Ethiopian Air Force. At the initial stage of the Ethiopian-Eretrias conflict, Ethiopian transport workers repeatedly bombed Eretrias armed units. However, shortly after the appearance in Eritrea of ​​the Kvadrat SAM and MiG-29 fighters received from Ukraine, the An-12's bombardment flights stopped.

Transport aircraft were used very widely for strike purposes during the civil war in Angola from 1992 to 2002. An-12, along with An-26, bombed the positions of the armed detachments of the UNITA movement. Loaded with dozens of bombs and napalm tanks from safe heights, they plowed and burned hectares of jungle. Unable to reach "Ana" on a combat course, UNITA militants began to catch transport aircraft during takeoff and landing, without making a distinction in the nationality of the aircraft. The victims of MANPADS and anti-aircraft guns in the vicinity of Angolan airfields were about 20 An-12 and An-26, including those with Russian crews.


An-12 Angola Air Force


In the middle of 90, An-12 in Zaire rained bombs on the jungle in an attempt to stop the offensive against the capital of Kinshasa, anti-government rebels. However, after the overthrow of the dictatorship of President Mobutu in 1997, peace never came to this country. Zaire, which has now become the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has been embroiled in the "Great African War." This large-scale armed conflict, which was not widely reported in the world media, was in fact provoked by transnational corporations, which started a war for the redistribution of property of the richest natural resources of central Africa. The victims of the war, the active phase of which lasted from 1998 to 2002 a year, were more than 5 million. Large-scale military operations were conducted by all available means, and the five in-flight condition available in the DRC air force were actively used as bomb carriers. However, the case was not without foreign intervention, An-12 of the Angolan Air Force took part in the bombing of the Congolese territory.



Currently, the An-12 vehicles located abroad are not much left in the flying state. Production of this aircraft ended more than 40 years ago, and, despite the repeated extension of the resource, their career is coming to an end.

In 1962, the passenger An-24 with two AI-24 turbo-prop engines went into the series. An aircraft weighing about 22000 kg could carry 50 passengers or 6500 kg of cargo for a distance of about 1500 km.

In addition to the passenger option for cargo and use as a military transport produced An-24T. This aircraft was distinguished by the presence of large doors that facilitated loading and unloading, a cargo hatch in the rear fuselage section, an increased fuel reserve, a reinforced cargo compartment floor, a loading device on the ceiling, and folding seats along the sides. In addition to performing transport tasks, An-24T could be used as an auxiliary bomber.

In the spring of 1969, state tests of aircraft bomber weapons were held at the Crimean airfield of Kirovskoye. It included four girder holders BDZ-34, a bomb drop system and an optical sight OPB-1Р. According to the test results, the following conclusion was made: “An-24T bomber armament provides the possibility of bombing bombs in caliber not more than 500 kg, with optical visibility of the target at flight speeds of 260 - 480 km / h at altitudes from 600 to 6000 m” That is, as follows from the flight characteristics of the An-24T bomber, it approximately corresponded in terms of its shock capabilities to the long-range bombers of the Second World War. In the same year 1969, the An-24Ts set in Iraq were used to bomb Kurdish positions. Thus, these machines were the first in their family to take direct part in hostilities.

But more often An-26 was used for bombing. This aircraft was a further development of the An-24T and differed from it by the onboard equipment and the tail part of the fuselage with a large cargo hatch, which was closed by a ramp of the original design. It provides a tight closure, serves as a ladder when loading self-propelled vehicles, can move under the fuselage, allowing loading from a loading platform or car body.


An-26


A total of 1969 to 1986 year built 1398 machines of various modifications, including for export. After the start of operation of the aircraft in the USSR Air Force, the question arose of its use as an auxiliary bomber. In the first half of 1972, at An-26, the installation of bomber weapons was completed. For this purpose, the machine was equipped with a NKPB-7 sight, four beam holders BDZ-34 and equipment for dropping bombs. As a result of the work carried out on the An-26, it became possible to use a large number of suspension options, including various bombs in caliber up to 500 kg. The external bomb suspension lowered the rate of climb and maximum speed, but had practically no effect on the stability characteristics of the aircraft and controllability.

For aiming when dropping cargo and bombing, the NKPB-7 sight and a radar near-navigation system operating in the mode of viewing the earth's surface and the forward hemisphere are intended.

The twin-engine An-26 was used as a bomber even more often than the more heavy-lifting An-12. The first to "smell gunpowder" happened An-26 Air Force of Ethiopia. In July, 1977, the “twenty-sixths” participated in repelling the aggression of Somali troops. After the conquest of air supremacy by the Ethiopian fighters, in addition to supplying their units, "Ana" was attracted to bombard enemy positions. In subsequent years, the Ethiopian An-26 was often used against various rebel groups and separatists within the country.

From 1976 to 1984, the X-NUMX of the An-24 aircraft was delivered to Angola. During the ongoing civil war, "transport workers" were actively used as bombers. The bombing of the positions of the anti-government group of UNITA was mainly by Cuban crews. At particularly tense moments, Cubans had to perform 26-4 sorties daily. Several Angolan cars were lost on takeoff and landing, as well as during the shelling of airfields.

In the first half of the 80's eight, An-26 acquired Mozambique, where civil war also lasted for a long time. Here for the “twenty-sixths” who acted as bombers, there was also a lot of work.

In 1977, 16 An-26 received the Peruvian military. They were very interested in the shock capabilities of transport vehicles. In the presence of specialists from the USSR in 1979, experimental discharges of tanks filled with water were carried out. Soon in the 1981 year, the skills gained from these experiments were Peruvian An-26 crews put into practice during the armed conflict with Ecuador. Peruvians loaded 16 barrels of napalm on the transporter An-26 installed in the cargo hold and then used them very effectively to destroy enemy positions in the remote jungle. Subsequently, similarly, An-26 acted against the Sendero Luminoso ultra-leftist terrorist group.



The next Latin American buyer, An-26, was Nicaragua. From 1982 to 1985, this country received a twenty-sixth 5. They were actively used for reconnaissance and bombardment of areas where anti-government "contras" were concentrated.

The Vietnamese An-26, in addition to delivering goods to support the actions of the military contingent in Cambodia, flew out to explore and bombed the camps and the troops of the half-soldiers who were hiding in the jungle.

An-26 of various nationalities bombed during the aforementioned “Great African War”, which raged in late 90 and early 2000-x on the territory of the Democratic Republic of Congo with the participation of military contingents of Rwanda, Uganda, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Angola.



From 2011 to 2012, international observers have documented numerous instances of using the An-26 as a bomber in South Sudan. The aircraft of the Governmental Air Force of Sudan, operating at altitudes above 4000 meters, carried out several dozen combat missions. As reported, Sudanese aircraft participating in the raids, have been finalized with a view to their optimal use as a bomber. In this case, the bombs were loaded into the cargo compartment and dropped through the cargo hatch in the tail section of the aircraft. In addition to standard aviation munitions, widely used were hand-made bombs filled with ammonium nitrate and incendiary liquids.



The strikes were carried out mainly on settlements and South Sudanese troops in the area of ​​South Kordofan. International observers have repeatedly recorded cases of the bombing of refugee camps and purely civilian objects, but every time the authorities in Khartoum denied this. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir is accused of numerous war crimes. In 2008, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on charges of genocide and ethnic cleansing during hostilities in Darfur. Thus, al-Bashir became the first acting head of state, against whom the accusation was made by the body of international justice.

The raids of the Sudanese An-26 stopped after the U-s of Uganda's C-125 was deployed in South Sudan. Uganda purchased four S-125 and 300 SAM systems in Ukraine in 2008 year.

Recently, in connection with the aggravated international situation and the general increase in the level of combat training, the shock use of the An-26 of the Russian Aerospace Forces has been conducted. The transformation of a military transport aircraft into a bomber does not take much time: for this purpose, special pylons are attached, thanks to which the aircraft can take four bombs weighing from 50 to 500 kilograms.

Testing the use of bombing weapons on the An-26 in our Air Force was introduced more than 40 years ago. But with the beginning of the process of “reforming” the armed forces for more than 20 years, such training was stopped, and now they have been decided to resume. The use of the An-26 military transport aircraft as a night bomber is one of the most difficult combat training tasks for a crew combat training course. In the course of combat training, it is planned to work out the bombing of land and sea targets.



Bombing with the An-26 is carried out in the altitude range of 1200-3000 meters, at a speed of 350 kilometers per hour. To get an excellent mark, the bomb must fall into a circle with a diameter of 63 meters. Another exercise involves training bombing from heights of 500-900 meters on a group of targets that mimic tank enemy column. In both cases, NKPB-7 sights are used. Defeat targets using this fairly old sight does not require the use of radar and allows you to perform a combat mission at night as stealthily as possible.

Such training has recently been held in a number of aviation units operating the An-26. In August 2015, training pilots for combat use were carried out by Baltic transport aviation pilots fleet. They practiced bombing at the command post of a conditional enemy. In October 2015, the An-26 military transport aircraft, during training near St. Petersburg, successfully hit targets that mimic enemy tanks.

In Soviet times, the An aircraft were the hallmark of the Soviet aircraft industry and were operated in dozens of countries, demonstrating high efficiency and reliability. Construction of the An-12 in the first half of the 70-x was discontinued due to the advent of the IL-76, which later became the main aircraft for the Airborne Forces. In connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ambitions of the Ukrainian authorities, the project of promising turboprop An-70 was buried. Also, there is still no adequate replacement for the passenger An-24 and the military transport An-26. In connection with the aging of the aircraft fleet and the sad events in Ukraine through the coming 10 years, the An-brand aircraft will most likely become a rarity in our sky.

Based on:
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/craft/an26.html
http://www.redov.ru/transport_i_aviacija/aviacija_i_vremja_1995_02/p2.php
http://maxpark.com/community/14/content/1720795
http://www.rovingbandit.com/2012/04/how-sudanese-bombers-work.html
https://soldadosyuniformes.wordpress.com/2012/09/
http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/row/an-12.htm
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52 comments
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  1. Good cat
    Good cat 15 March 2016 06: 44
    +16
    And the "maize" turns out to be a fighting guy! Good material!
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 06: 53
      +20
      Quote: Good cat
      And the "maize" turns out to be a fighting guy! Good material!

      In our military transport aviation, all the "guys" are fighting! Not so long ago, a bombing exercise was carried out on the Il-76 (pictured)

      The border guards have several An-72 patrolmen armed with the 23-mm gun GS-23-2 and NAR units (in the picture).


      It has not yet come to loading An-124 bombs. But who knows what will happen tomorrow ... for "anti-terrorist operations" - it would be perhaps the perfect bomb carrier. wassat
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 15 March 2016 09: 35
        +6
        laughing It's okay, they are transport workers. When I was in school, in the early 80s, the "knowledgeable people" told horror stories about the Chinese Tu-134-154. They bought them from us and converted some of them into bombers. Personally, in the fifth grade, such a prospect should have scared me to the shit: they got to Krasnoyarsk, where I lived then. Although, I remember I scared my neighbor on the desk with these fears, but I was not afraid myself - my aunt's husband, Uncle Vova served as a missile officer in the air defense.
        The article is interesting, it showed where the legs grew from "Chinese bombers".
        1. Bongo
          15 March 2016 09: 46
          +9
          Quote: samoletil18
          It's okay, they are transport workers. When I was in school, in the early 80s, the "knowledgeable people" told horror stories about the Chinese Tu-134-154. They bought them from us and converted some of them into bombers.

          The Chinese really bought passenger Tu-154 from the USSR, but at the end of the 80's and the beginning of the 90's. And of course they were not remade into bombers. But to the scouts - yes (in the picture) In China, a Tu-154 installed a side-view radar and equipment that fixes the radiation parameters of the detection and guidance stations of Russian air defense systems.

          These reconnaissance vehicles belonging to our peaceful eastern neighbor regularly fly along Russian Far Eastern borders.

          Quote: samoletil18
          The article is interesting, showed where the legs grew from the Chinese bombers.



          "Legs" of Chinese bombers grow from the Soviet Il-28 and Tu-16, which were supplied to China in the 50-60s
          1. samoletil18
            samoletil18 15 March 2016 10: 07
            0
            In the fifth grade, about the Tu-16, most likely, was not in the know.
        2. Falcon
          Falcon 15 March 2016 10: 30
          +8
          Quote: samoletil18
          "knowledgeable people" told horror stories about the Chinese Tu-134-154. They bought them from us and converted some of them into bombers.


          Not if thrown into the engine from the back will suck, if the wing will be cut in front.

          By the way, on "Aviakor" when the testers flew on the Tu-154. They were always given parachutes with them. But nobody really knew why laughing Like to jump from it all early will not work if something happens. True, this is no longer funny. crying
        3. 9lvariag
          9lvariag 25 February 2017 13: 24
          0
          So this is not Chinese, this is a Soviet modification of UBL. I myself saw holes for beam holders in the T-134 planes
    2. stariy
      stariy 15 March 2016 19: 34
      +5
      Quote: Good cat
      And the "maize" turns out to be a fighting guy!

      In 1988, on the border between Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, I saw with my own eyes a collective farm maize pollinating fields with nurses on planes ... an amazing sight ... no kidding!
    3. tso1973
      tso1973 18 March 2016 10: 53
      +6
      In 92, such an AN-2 was brought to our unit, there are many differences from the civilian one. It is completely perforated on the wings and completely duralumin, armor on the belly and pilot seats are armored from the bottom and from the back, instead of the portholes of the device like in an infantry fighting vehicle, under mounting wings under nurses, the engine is completely different. This miracle was surpassed either from Armenia or from Ayberbaizhan. After removing the armor and other excess iron, he was used for educational landing in 106 of the Tula VDD. Athletes were thrown from him, he gained height much faster than his cousins.
  2. D-Master
    D-Master 15 March 2016 06: 51
    +7
    Many thanks to the author for the article. It was a discovery for me to use the AN transporters in the form of bombers, and it was very successful and even routine. Anes have always been considered workaholic of heaven - the most reliable and unpretentious. Alas, their story comes to an end for reasons beyond their control. It’s a pity, of course, but I hope their place will be replaced by Ilya - the planes are no less reliable and deserved.
  3. ICT
    ICT 15 March 2016 06: 52
    +4
    forgot about cheburashka
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 06: 57
      +8
      Quote: TIT
      forgot about cheburashka

      No, we have not forgotten, in terms of the composition of weapons, the An-72P is more of an "attack aircraft" than a bomber. And in real combat conditions, it was not used as a strike vehicle. A few fired fishing schooners don't count. request
      1. WUA 518
        WUA 518 15 March 2016 07: 37
        +11
        Quote: Bongo
        Several shelled fishing schooners do not count

        Greetings to Seryozha. Previously, L-410 flew to Yelizovo to patrol the sea zone, but now it is a "parrot", I think there is more sense from it than from a civilian buzzer laughing
        1. Bongo
          15 March 2016 08: 07
          +6
          Quote: WUA 518
          Seryozha welcome.

          Hi!
          Quote: WUA 518
          Previously, L-410 flew to Yelizovo to patrol the sea zone, but now it is a "parrot", I think there is more sense from it than from a civilian buzzer



          Yes, after such demonstrations, the poachers of the border An-72P respected. lol
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 15 March 2016 10: 46
          +5
          Quote: WUA 518

          Is this, for an hour, not the Albatross-101, which sank on February 22, 2001 after several An-72P missile and cannon strikes?

          But in general, the photo is as if from WWII.
      2. ICT
        ICT 15 March 2016 20: 26
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        An-72P is more of a "attack aircraft" than a bomber.



        in fact, yes, but it also has functionality,

        In the cargo compartment in the rear under the ceiling, up to 4 bombs of 100 kg caliber can be suspended (dumped when the load rail ramps are rolled back)


        Quote: Bongo
        And in real combat conditions, he was not used as a strike machine.

        below answered
  4. Combitor
    Combitor 15 March 2016 07: 05
    +6
    Great article. Thanks to the author. 500+
  5. Amurets
    Amurets 15 March 2016 08: 22
    +8
    Sergei! Hi! I didn’t expect it, honestly. I read about the An-2NAK, but I saw the photo for the first time. That the An-14 "Bee was being developed in the reconnaissance version also came across somewhere. But An-12 with a conveyor bomber, yes.
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 08: 29
      +4
      Quote: Amurets
      Sergei! Hi! I didn’t expect it, honestly. I read about the An-2NAK, but I saw the photo for the first time. That the An-14 "Bee was being developed in the reconnaissance version also came across somewhere. But An-12 with a conveyor bomber, yes.

      Hi, Nikolai! About An-14 in the version of a scout I did not meet, apparently, the matter did not advance further than the project. Although the plane was not bad, but such a distribution as the An-2 did not receive.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 15 March 2016 09: 00
        +3
        Quote: Bongo

        Hi, Nikolai! About An-14 in the version of a scout I did not meet, apparently, the matter did not advance further than the project. Although the plane was not bad, but such a distribution as the An-2 did not receive.

        Sergey, there was development, but the car crashed during testing and the saga ended. That was not written there.
      2. Falcon
        Falcon 15 March 2016 11: 13
        +7
        Quote: Bongo
        Although the plane was not bad, but such a distribution as the An-2 did not receive.


        Yeah, sneaky. Two engines on aviation gasoline (which is a little expensive) and a GP are smaller than the An-2, the fuselage is modest.

        All hope was on An-3, well, or now on An-2 with honeywell
        1. Serg koma
          Serg koma 22 March 2016 11: 31
          0
          In May 2009, a decision was made to terminate mass production.
          At the beginning of 2012, it was announced the start of production of a lightweight modification of the An-3-100 at the Kiev aircraft factory.

          off site PO "Flight" Omsk (manufacturer)
          MAIN DIFFERENCES OF AN-3T AND AN-2 AIRCRAFT
          http://www.polyot.su/main.php?id=104
          It is a pity that there is no such machine in mass production. Military affairs (combat) is one thing, but the fact that to raise the country's economy an unpretentious, capable of delivering / transporting 1.5 tons of cargo, a low-budget "air cab" is necessary - probably everyone (except for the oligarchy) is clear.
  6. Falcon
    Falcon 15 March 2016 10: 25
    +2
    Hi, hello!

    Excellent informative article! Special "respect" for the photo of the An-2 "Fedya" and the bombs inside the An-12. I knew about such cars, but I never came across in the photo! good

    Anything better than the Tu-22m3 in its current state laughing Remembering our old argument

    Quote: Bongo
    In connection with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the ambitions of the Ukrainian authorities, the project of the promising An-70 turboprop was buried.


    Yes "dog" with him! "G" machine. I never understood its expediency. We always needed an Il-106, not an An-70
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 10: 35
      +5
      Quote: Falcon
      Hi, hello!

      Hi, Kirill!
      Quote: Falcon
      Great informative article! Special "respect" for the photo of the An-2 "Fedya" and the bombs inside the An-12. I knew about such cars, but I never came across in the photo!

      Anything better than the Tu-22m3 in its current state Remembering our old dispute

      Thank you for your kind words, but with Tu-22М3 it is not correct to compare An-12. lol
      Quote: Falcon
      Yes "dog" with him! "G" machine. I never understood its expediency. We always needed an Il-106, not an An-70

      But this is debatable, we need exactly a turboprop with higher take-off and landing characteristics and high fuel efficiency. I strongly doubt that in the near future turbojet engines will surpass turboprops in specific fuel consumption. The damned bourgeoisie didn’t just do the A400M.
      1. Falcon
        Falcon 15 March 2016 10: 49
        +5
        Quote: Bongo
        But this is debatable, we need exactly a turboprop with higher take-off and landing characteristics and high fuel efficiency. I strongly doubt that in the near future turbojet engines will surpass turboprops in specific fuel consumption.


        All is correct. Only the turboprop is not with the mythical D-27 (inflated) But Used D-136. And the problems with An-70 would be many times less. Well, or An-140T would do. For the rest, I no longer like GP An-70. None to and fro. And range. MBT does not pull.

        By the way, the gap is profitability, but not so unattainable. It is also necessary to consider the speed, directly these engines are difficult to compare.

        By the way, Nk-93, contrary to popular myths, from my amateurish-subjective point of view, in essence, is a theater of war. Just tricked out.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 15 March 2016 11: 09
          +3
          Quote: Falcon
          By the way, Nk-93, contrary to popular myths, from my amateurish-subjective point of view, in fact, is

          Turbofan, from any point of view. And here is the D-27-fan

          Quote: Falcon
          By the way, the gap is profitability, but not so unattainable. It is also necessary to consider the speed, directly these engines are difficult to compare.

          Et yes, it is impossible to calculate the economy using exclusively specific fuel consumption.
          A transport aircraft is not a "strategist"; it is not faced with the task of hanging on alert for days.
          To transport cargo from point A to point B. And with our distances, the time factor can largely neutralize the factor of engine efficiency. An airplane that flies a route in 2 hours, and at the same time spends a ton of fuel per hour, is not at all more economical than an airplane that flies the same amount in one hour "at the cost" of 2 tons of fuel.
          1. Falcon
            Falcon 15 March 2016 11: 22
            +4
            Quote: Spade
            Turbofan, from any point of view. And here is the D-27-fan


            No, not with anyone.
            My strong belief is that it’s a cartoon (there are many of them in the public domain)
            There is no fan. There is a screwed screw. The fan closes the stator and not the hood.

            D-27 was called that because of the "fashionable" screws. In fact, this is the same D-36 with French charm. The pressure is not particularly created there before the compressor enters, which the fan should do.
          2. Bongo
            15 March 2016 11: 47
            +5
            Quote: Spade
            Et yes, it is impossible to calculate the economy using exclusively specific fuel consumption.
            A transport aircraft is not a "strategist"; it is not faced with the task of hanging on alert for days.

            Strategists no longer hang on duty. request
            Quote: Spade
            To transport cargo from point A to point B. And with our distances, the time factor can largely neutralize the factor of engine efficiency. An airplane that flies a route in 2 hours, and at the same time spends a ton of fuel per hour, is not at all more economical than an airplane that flies the same amount in one hour "at the cost" of 2 tons of fuel.

            It depends on what task. If you drop the landing, then I agree with you. And if you lead potatoes to a remote garrison, then An-12 still has no equal.
            1. Falcon
              Falcon 15 March 2016 11: 57
              +4
              Quote: Bongo
              And if you lead potatoes to a remote garrison, then An-12 still has no equal.


              By the way, in the UAE, before the ban, many An-12 flew constantly with the landing gear! Like there was no hope for hydraulics that they would be released upon landing.
              The crew took our Russian Federation, Ukraine. It was possible for 250t. wooden per month to earn.

              I mean, it’s time to retire, of course, An-12, but there is no replacement ...
              1. Bongo
                15 March 2016 12: 00
                +5
                Quote: Falcon
                I mean, it’s time to retire, of course, An-12, but there is no replacement ...

                Unfortunately this is so ... crying
            2. Lopatov
              Lopatov 15 March 2016 14: 26
              0
              Quote: Bongo
              Strategists no longer hang on duty.

              Well, we're kind of not on the brink of a nuclear war, why spend a resource.


              Quote: Bongo
              It depends on what task. If you drop the landing, then I agree with you. And if you lead potatoes to a remote garrison, then An-12 still has no equal.

              There is ground transportation for potatoes.
              1. Bongo
                15 March 2016 14: 32
                +2
                Quote: Spade
                Well, we're kind of not on the brink of a nuclear war, why spend a resource.

                With all due respect, maybe you are of course "not in the know," but long-range aviation in the USSR did not practice this type of combat duty even during the Cold War. No.
                Quote: Spade
                There is ground transportation for potatoes.

                Seriously? How do you feel about catching large predatory fish? Come visit us in the Far East, I am sure at 100% that your opinion about potatoes and roads will change dramatically.
      2. Falcon
        Falcon 15 March 2016 10: 50
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        Tu-22М3 to compare An-12 is somehow not correct.


        No, well, we take bombing qualities laughing
        1. Bongo
          15 March 2016 10: 56
          +5
          Quote: Falcon
          No, well, we take bombing qualities

          Of course not, yes But in my opinion it is too early to write off the Tu-22М3. I have a suggestion for you, write a publication about the Tu-22M and state all your thoughts there. You can consult with Sergei Ivanovich (SSI), I am sure that he will not refuse this.
          1. Falcon
            Falcon 15 March 2016 11: 01
            +3
            Quote: Bongo
            No, of course, But in my opinion it’s too early to write off the Tu-22М3. I have a suggestion for you, write a publication about the Tu-22M and state all your thoughts there. You can consult with Sergei Ivanovich (SSI), I am sure that he will not refuse this.


            No, I do not like him (in the sense of Tu-22 and not SSI smile ) I don’t even know what to write about.
            Better to entrust the "sharks of the pen" you are his lawyer
            1. Bongo
              15 March 2016 11: 11
              +5
              Quote: Falcon
              No, I do not like him (in the sense of Tu-22 and not SSI) I don’t even know what to write about.
              Better to entrust the "sharks of the pen" you are his lawyer

              It almost sounds like "devil's advocate" laughing
              I have no aviation education. I came out of those who themselves do not fly and do not give others. In general, we can say that the signalman.
              Just state your thoughts about the merits and features. I remember you argued quite reasonably.
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 15 March 2016 12: 36
                0
                Quote: Bongo
                I came out of those who themselves do not fly and do not give others. In general, we can say that the signalman.

                Sergei! And without communication, we are nowhere. Neither ASURK nor the warning network and long-range target designation. So in vain, without communication in any way.
  7. PKK
    PKK 15 March 2016 11: 35
    +3
    Apparently, the author is not indifferent to the Antonov family aircraft
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 11: 44
      +6
      Quote: PKK
      Apparently, the author is not indifferent to the Antonov family aircraft

      The author is generally not indifferent to airplanes, and even more to air defense systems. hi
      1. Falcon
        Falcon 15 March 2016 11: 50
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        and even more to the air defense system.


        Is symbolic

        Quote: Bongo
        who does not fly and does not give others

        laughing
  8. Vladimir
    Vladimir 15 March 2016 12: 03
    +4
    To the author plus, the article is interesting and informative. Nevertheless, before the era of the collapse, aircraft construction was at its best, sometimes it’s nice to be aware of it.
  9. metallic
    metallic 15 March 2016 12: 37
    +2
    Thanks to the author, very interesting!
  10. Pavel Tsybai
    Pavel Tsybai 15 March 2016 13: 31
    +5
    Somehow I rented An2 with a crutch for 131 ZIL from Vanino to Khabarovsk, though without wings, it took almost 11 km for 600 days. Very comfortable fuselage, and cook food and sleep wherever there is, right on the go. An2 is not a plane but respect.
    1. Bongo
      15 March 2016 14: 35
      +6
      Quote: Pavel Tsybay
      Somehow I’ve rented An2 hitched with a crutch for the 131 ZIL from Vanino to Khabarovsk

      Given the fact that the road to Lidoga has not yet been completely brought to mind - apparently this was still an adventure.
  11. bober1982
    bober1982 15 March 2016 18: 06
    +1
    Tupolev also had good bombers (Antonov class), a classic of the genre
  12. bober1982
    bober1982 15 March 2016 18: 08
    +2
    and more ... handsome
  13. bober1982
    bober1982 15 March 2016 18: 10
    0
    Well, the old honored old man ..., I can’t attach, I got excited (Tu-124sh)
  14. bober1982
    bober1982 15 March 2016 18: 15
    0
    quite an old bomber, it turned out to attach, Tu-124ш, as in the barn, as you recall, everything rattled
  15. rubin6286
    rubin6286 15 March 2016 23: 44
    +2
    Interesting article. Turning a passenger plane into a bomber is not so difficult, but such a machine can never be compared in capabilities and combat effectiveness with a specialized machine. In Soviet times, the An-26 and Tu-134 were used to teach the basics of bombing at the Chelyabinsk Navigation School, during the last war, the Li-47NB was created on the basis of the licensed C-2 and used in long-range bomber aviation. Yakovlev Design Bureau, on the contrary, in the post-war period. For the training of pilots, jet bombers created piston machines Yak-200 and Yak-210, which were similar in many respects to the equipment of the pilot's cockpit.
    Antonov Design Bureau appeared in the USSR and, in my opinion, it needs to be revived in Russia. The main thing is to find money for this in the state, as well as young, intelligent and competent people.
  16. Anton Cardboard
    Anton Cardboard 16 March 2016 07: 18
    +3
    Quote: WUA 518
    Quote: Bongo
    Several shelled fishing schooners do not count

    Greetings to Seryozha. Previously, L-410 flew to Yelizovo to patrol the sea zone, but now it is a "parrot", I think there is more sense from it than from a civilian buzzer laughing

    This buzzer flew to Paramushir in the late 80s and early 90s. More precisely, on Shumsha, where the concrete from the Japanese has still remained. Used as a human carrier. Now only Mi-8s are flying. Incidentally, we called L-410 Cheburashka. Someone once threw in and the term lives on to this day.
  17. Lucy
    Lucy 20 March 2016 17: 05
    +3
    Quote: Falcon
    Quote: samoletil18
    "knowledgeable people" told horror stories about the Chinese Tu-134-154. They bought them from us and converted some of them into bombers.


    Not if thrown into the engine from the back will suck, if the wing will be cut in front.

    By the way, on "Aviakor" when the testers flew on the Tu-154. They were always given parachutes with them. But nobody really knew why laughing Like to jump from it all early will not work if something happens. True, this is no longer funny. crying


    For training BM cadets used Tu-134sh.
    Tu-134Sh-1 with "Rubin" radar - for training navigators of long-range and naval aviation operating Tu-22M and Tu-134Sh-2 aircraft with "Initiative-2" radar - for training navigators of front-line aviation.
    Tu-134Sh can carry 12 OFAB-100-120 bombs or 8 OFAB-250-270 bombs.
  18. Sergey Cojocari
    Sergey Cojocari 22 January 2018 18: 41
    0
    The crew of the An-26 transport aircraft fulfills interesting tasks, “bombardment of a marching column of armored vehicles from a height of 500-900 meters,” they are informed interestingly that during the performance of this task they will be located in the zone of defeat from the fire of anti-aircraft machine guns of armored vehicles and portable anti-aircraft systems . That is, the fate of the crew command is uninteresting, "women give birth" ...