Not so long ago, a material appeared on the pages of the VO on the rifle of the 1891 model of the year created in Russia. It seems to be the "next" piece of information, no more and no less. All the same, only in a more concise form, we can read in the encyclopedia "Gunshot weapon»Authors Yu.V. Shokoreva, S.V. Plotnikova, and Dragunova E.M. (Avanta +, 2007 g.) On the pages of 107-108 and also many other authors. “Many other authors”, especially of the Soviet era, in this case can not be called, because their works are specially shifted accents.
For example, this is very characteristic of the work of authors such as N.I. Gnatovsky and P.A. Shorin "History development of domestic small arms "(M .: 1959 g.). And it is interesting that in it the authors, with the aim of raising the authority of their work, even refer to the materials of the Central State Military Historical Archive (TsGVIA) and cite specific documents: TsGVIA. 516 Foundation, Op.3, D. №121, 424,485 sheets, etc. Well, in the past, we had fashionable to print books in which the authors, by any means, tried to prove Russia's priorities literally in everything, just to bring the scientific basis for the installation that “the new historical community of people - the Soviet people” - seems to be the most progressive social phenomenon in the world. Well, the fact that the captain Mosin's rifle was not named after him, these authors explained by the fact that the “bad” Tsar Alexander III, as well as his War Minister Vannovsky, simply “was in awe of the West”. It seems that there are references, if not to everything, in the book, who will check them in the archive, but if they check, then ... who at that time would dare to assert that the king is right, but his critics are wrong?
The authors of the articles in the publication Avanta + did not specify either, but from the article in VO, one thing would also seem obvious: “the king was bad,” in the sense of not a patriot. And, probably, with respect to some other kings, one could probably agree with this statement, but one cannot agree with him in relation to Alexander III. Because with him everything was completely different. Under him, Russian battleships were called Russian saints, progressive “male uniforms” were adopted in the army, traditions of Russian nationality were widely promoted, in a word, in which, and in “worship of the West”, it was this king and his war minister who were accused just stupid. So, they had reason to do so. And if we turn not to the part of the documents devoted to the history of the captain Mosin's rifle in Russia, but to study their entire scope, then ... it will be easy to find out that the king had every reason to leave the rifle nameless. In addition, you should pay attention ... just the words. Since the game is in them, sometimes it is able to completely distort the meaning of what is happening or which took place once. So let's see how the story began with the “Captain Mosin rifle”?
IN THE BEGINNING WAS A COMMISSION ...
And it began with the organization of the commission, which received the following name: “Commission for testing multi-shot rifles”, and created in Russia at the GAU (Main Artillery Directorate) in 1883 year. She was engaged in the fact that, after obtaining some or other samples of rapid-fire multiply-charged rifles abroad, she tested them, deciding which ones to adopt for the Russian Imperial Army. Recall that before that time in its armament, domestic samples were not. At various times these were the systems of Karla, Krnka, Berdan, and the question of what was better was decided on a competitive basis. Here brought their development and our Russian designers. And that's just the gun of Captain S.I. Mosina, who had a shop in the butt, was noted by the commission as “deserving of full attention,” although the matter went no further. That is, he, on his own initiative, developed this rifle and thereby attracted the attention of this commission.
MONEY FOR YOURSELF AND MONEY FOR COUNTRY
In Soviet times, we liked to write that when the French firm Rikte offered him 600 thousands of francs for the right to use the shop invented by him on the French rifle of the Gra system, he refused "as a true patriot of Russia." But the Russian-French rapprochement at that time was already evident, and it must be admitted that Captain Mosin did not act too cleverly, because if he really wanted to show himself as a disintegrated patriot, he should take the money ... and pass them on to the needs of the cadets, hospitals or disabled people. That is, he did not deprive them of himself, but, in fact, robbed his country immediately on 600 of thousands of francs that would have been received for nothing, since his store was unsuccessful anyway! But he did not take them! Apparently he was afraid of temptation. Indeed, at that time, the officers received a salary such that they were allowed to marry only after receiving the captain's rank. Otherwise, they simply had nothing to support their spouse. Well, and about randomly married ensigns in the Russian army and at that time they were singing ditties, such was their hopeless life!
WITHOUT BAR NO GUN!
And in 1889, the commission decided not to subtilize, but to take a sample of the French Lebel rifle, but not its store, but first of all its barrel, and, reducing its caliber to 7.62-mm (i.e., to 3's), instead of 8 mm. The commission also changed its name and became known as the “Commission for the development of a sample of a small-caliber rifle”. So the first step to the "three-line" was made without the direct participation of Captain Mosin. Well, hardly anyone will argue that the barrel is not the basis of any firearm! And in this case, both he and, accordingly, his ballistics were taken from a Lebel rifle. About how important this is the name of the other rifles - Lee-Metford and Lee-Enfield: shop and shutter of the Lee system, and cutting the barrel of Metford and Enfield!
PRICE OF NEW WEAPONS
Well, and then it was like that, and all the documents confirm that the first sample of his rifle, Leon Nagan, delivered 11 of October 1889 to Russia. After that, in December of the same year, now Captain Mosin GOT from the Committee a task that was formulated as follows: “Guided by the gun of Nagant, to design the gun of the pack system (i.e., powered by cartridges from a pack - clips — author's note) on the 5 ammo, but apply the shutter of your system in this gun. ” That is, everything is simple and clear - the commission liked the shutter, is not it? And then during the spring and summer of 1890, both Nagan and Mosin worked on their rifles: Mosin - at the Tula Arms Plant, and Nagan at their factory in Liege. Then it was time to order rifles for testing, and it turned out that both the rifles and the Nagan design holders are more expensive than the Mosinsky ones, although not very much. But since the army of the Russian Empire was well, just very large, and it needed a lot of rifles, even a penny difference eventually turned into millions of rubles. Moreover, the amount needed for rearmament was calculated in 1889 year, they reported it to the king, and he was horrified by it. But it was necessary not only to produce all these new rifles and cartridges for them, it was necessary to organize their production, to equip factories, to purchase materials. Therefore, any savings here king only welcomed! It should be noted that literally every detail matters in weapons. For example, the mass of the Austrian pack for cartridges was 17,5 grams, but the plate holder for a three-line rifle was just 6,5 grams. This means that for every hundred rounds of ammunition with burst loading, there is an excess mass in 220 grams. In a thousand - this is more than two kilograms of metal, which must be smelted, processed and diluted by position! And each such pack or clip costs money!
CONTRACT IS CONTRACT
The most interesting thing is that a special contract was signed with Nagan, which stipulated that even if the rifle he made was not accepted for service, even in this case he would still be paid 200000 rubles. For what? Again, the king bow to the West? But no, only the observance of all the norms of international copyright, because the Mosin was given a gun to do, LEADING THE GUN OF NAGAN, i.e., in fact, it’s very simple and without a hint, and even more so - officially encroached on his author's rights! Nagan understood all this very well, so a week after the contract was signed, he sent a letter to the GAU in which he complained about non-observance of his copyright on eight points at once. “I have reason to believe that a gun similar to mine was not in Russia either in March of this year, or when I presented it last year,” he wrote.
And the Commission immediately raised all the minutes of its meetings and considered that Nagant had the rights of the inventor on almost all of the details listed. True, with regard to Mosin, he did not agree with these conclusions, but the Commission insisted on its own. And, of course, everyone understood that it was a matter of multi-million dollar orders for the army, and then who had it, what ... "borrowed" and how is this tenth thing. The main requirement was to equip the army with a product of the best quality and at the same time at the lowest price, so that the end justified any means, including “borrowing”.
WHAT ARE WRITTEN, AND HOW IT WAS IN THE WORK ...
Finding out who is better and who is worse was possible only through comparative tests. They passed in March 1891 of the year and showed that ... Naganovsky rifles were made more carefully, and therefore gave less misfires. But in conclusion of the Armament Department of the State Agrarian University, it was noted that "they ... are a more complex mechanism for dressing." It was by this conclusion of 9 on April 1891 that the fate of the Mosinskaya rifle was decided, because the main criterion for the quality of Russian mass infantry weapons, for all other data, was always the simplicity and cheapness of its manufacture. But the Commission then still called the new rifle the “Mosin system with the Nagant clip”, which emphasized that it had not one author, but two.
WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE TALKING?
So, both the Commission and Minister of War Vannovsky knew and understood that Mosin was not the only creator of the rifle. That is why in the rescript to the Highest Name, he wrote about it as follows: “In ... a new model there are parts proposed by Colonel Rogovtsev, Commission of Lieutenant-General Chagin, Captain Mosin and gunsmith Nagan, so it is advisable to give the developed model the name“ Russian 3-linear 1891 g. rifle. ”But then how was it with the barrel taken from a Lebel rifle? After all, sooner or later, but they would still know about it, so that only the word “Russian” attracted to its name also the words “French” and “Belgian”, which would lead to a complete absurdity! So it was absolutely impossible to write to Gnatovsky and Shorin that “Vannovsky took all measures to make the Mosin rifle impersonal.” On the contrary, he took all measures to eliminate any judicial and legal incidents related to its name and which could prevent the early rearmament of the army!
But was it really impossible in international practice to find precedents with the name of a weapon when several authors were its creators at once? Yes, they were, but only in our case it was impossible to apply them. The rifle would then have too many creators! You could give her the name "commission gun," but then what about Nagan? Indeed, ONLY captain Mosin and his ilk worked directly for the Commission, and Nagan was just a "free shooter." You could try giving her the name "Mosin-Nagan rifle", but for Alexander III, an ardent Russophile who called the Russian warships fleet by the names of Orthodox saints, this was completely unacceptable, since it directly indicated that ... we cannot without the West! Of course, if such a thing had happened in the USSR, the rifle would have been given the name of Mosin alone, and it’s the end, as, for example, this was done in the story of the Tu-4 bomber. But in the then tsarist Russia, the concept of officer honor was simply not allowed.
AWARDS AND MONEY
Well, and then began the distribution of money and awards. Naganu, as agreed with him, gave 200000 premium rubles. But ... they were given not for "beautiful eyes", but for transferring to the Russian side in full ownership not only all the patents on his rifle he had at that time, but also those (well, just a real Asian trick, isn't it ?!) that he could get five years ahead, which in itself is the best recognition of the significance of his contribution to its development. In addition, he handed over to Russia all (!) Of his technological drawings, as well as patterns and tooling, information on tolerances, grades and cost of the steels required for its production, the technology of hardening shafts, i.e. to fully provide the entire technological basis for the development of a new weapon, and also to give a guarantee that it will arrive if there is a need for that in Russia together with its master to establish its fabrication! And all this for 200000? Yes, we did this Nagan himself simply ... stripped off like a sticky one, because otherwise, ALL THE ABOVE CALLED HAS COME TO DO HERE! And it is unlikely that Captain Mosin would help here at least in something ...
Well, Mosinu was given a very solid 30000 premium in rubles at the time, but he was not given more money, because the Commission considered that he was working on building his own gun at state-owned factories and at public expense, and being completely released from service at the same time, the salary that for those years was by no means a characteristic affair. Then he was honored with the Great Mikhailovsky Prize, which was awarded once every five years, from the captains he was sent directly to the colonels, and then also awarded the Order of St. Anna, and appointed head of the Sestroretsky Arms Factory. As a result, he became a major general - that is, in just ten years, he made his way from captain to general, and in the eyes of the people of that era his career could only be envied.
But despite this, the rest of his life, Mosin grumbled that ... "Nagan was given 200 thousand rubles ..., and I only had 30 thousand for the project and the construction of the whole gun, which was not even given the name of its inventor ... and that Nagan was rewarded more than me. " He wrote letters to the Minister of War, humiliated himself before the powers that be. That is, for some reason he forgot that he worked on the official task on other people's samples, having an order to improve them. And yes, indeed, he coped with the assignment very well, created perhaps not the best in the world, but a very reliable weapon, as well as the Lebel rifle more convenient for bayonet attacks than for shooting. But again, this was the requirement of the military doctrine of the Russian imperial army. It’s just that where various social doctrines interfere in the matter and the struggle for their triumph is being waged, the truth of history always fades into the background!
P.S. And now as a postscript, the personal experience of the author. The fact is that a very honored person, a doctor of science, a professor, the author of many inventions works at my university. It just so happened that when he was young, he went to a factory where Kalashnikovs were made and found out that a very high reject rate gives a press-fit to the barrel with just one piece, and the defect can be fixed only by shooting. That is, the marriage was not the part itself, but the finished machine! And he came up with a device that solved this problem. His work was appreciated, given ... an award, and not very large, and ... EVERYTHING! He started talking about getting to it all the time, at least a little bit, but he was immediately told that in this case you won’t get anything at all and “go, Moor, you did your job!” Now he thought ( a fair assessment of his contribution) should have belonged to our entire university and a couple more factories to the bargain, but what’s not, that’s not. In comparison with this, the scientist “offended by tsarism”, Major General Mosin, can only be envied!