Military Review

Romanian frigates in the 21 century. Part one

20
This is a continuation of the article about the Romanian frigates. The first part is HERE.


Kings and queens

As you already know from the previous parts, the frigate Mereshesti (F 111) for almost 20 has been the only and largest military ship for all the beauty and pride of the entire Romanian people. history Romanian Navy.

Therefore, from 1985 to 2004, this ship was the flagship of the Romanian Navy, until it included the “royal couple”: frigates “Reggele Ferdinand” and “Regina Maria”. It was then created flotilla frigates (Flotila de fregate) and Marasesti gave way to the flagship Ferdinand.


The flagship of the Romanian Navy frigate “Regele Ferdinand” (F221).


British retirees or “The second part of Marlezonskogo ballet”

14 January 2003 Romania signed a contract with Great Britain, the subject of which was the purchase of two 22 (Type 22) type frigates for the needs of the Romanian Navy. It was about buying HMS Coventry (F98) and HMS London (F95) for “XSUM million pounds sterling. The ships were not new: they were commissioned in the 116 year and were withdrawn from the British Navy in the 1986 year.

This contract has become part of an international scandal. It all started with the fact that in the 1997 year, the United Kingdom reduced the size of the Royal Navy from 137 to 99 ships, and the ships that were withdrawn from the Navy were put up for sale. The so-called “shadow” secretary of defense and future secretary of defense, the British conservative Liam Fox, published in the prestigious daily newspaper “Daily Mail” an article in which he accused the official London that the proceeds from the sale of 38 ships amounted to 580 million pounds Sterling. Of this amount, one-fifth (116 million) was money for the sale of all 2 ships to Romania, and of the 116 million sent by Romania, only 200 thousand pounds reached the UK budget. Profitable, however, a deal!

Liam Fox blamed the well-known British campaign BAE Systems plc for fraud and damage to the state. Apparently, they threw the "fox" and did not share it, but he raised a howl in the press ...

* Fox (English) - Fox.

Patrimony

There is little written about this type of ships in Russian, so I post everything that I found, translated and systematized.

22 type frigates (Type 22 Broadsword) is a class of frigates built for the needs of the Royal Navy of Great Britain. They were built in three series, each series (subclass) differed both in displacement and technical equipment, installed power plants and weapons.

A total of 14 frigates of the type “22” were built:
1 series (Batch 1): 4 of the ship of the “Broadsword” subclass stand. a tonnage of 4,400 tons (tail number F88 - F91);
2 series (Batch 2): 6 ships of the “Boxer” subclass stand. a tonnage of 4,800 tons (tail number F92 - F98);
3 series (Batch 3): 4 ship subclass “Cornwall” stand. tonnage 5,300 tons (side numbers F99 - F87).

After reducing the number of the Royal Navy 7 ships of the first 2-series were sold and are in service with the following states:
Brazil 4 ships: “Greenhalgh” (ex-Broadsword), “Dodsworth” (ex-Brilliant), “Bosísio” (ex-Brazen) and “Rademaker” (ex-Battleaxe);
Chile: 1 ship: “Almirante Williams” (ex-Sheffield);
Romania: 2 ship: Regele Ferdinand (ex-Coventry) and Regina Maria (ex-London).

More 2 frigates were used as target ships and sunk, and the remaining 5 were scrapped.

For many years, the Turkish company LEYAL Ship Recycling Ltd. has been engaged in the disposal of scrapped ships of Her Majesty. It is one of the largest specialized companies and its capacities allow processing up to 100 thousand tons of ferrous and non-ferrous metals per year.

One of the frigates sold to Romania, namely Coventry (F98), during its service under the British flag, passed 348,372 nautical miles and spent more than 30 thousands of running hours at sea.

Another ship sold to Romania, HMS London (F95), was the flagship of the Royal Navy during the first Gulf War. The other two frigates of the first series (HMS Brilliant and HMS Broadsword) participated in the war between Great Britain and Argentina for control of the Falklands.

During the Falkland conflict, the HMS Broadsword (F88) was damaged, but was repaired. 11 years later, Broadsworth reappeared on the warpath, but this time in the Adriatic (Operation “Fight”, Yugoslavia, 1993). Then, 3 a year later, in 95, the frigate F88 was sold to Brazil.
They know how to trade second-hand ...

The last 22 frigate was withdrawn from the British Navy 30 June 2011. It was the lead ship of the 3-series HMS Cornwall (F99). The frigate failed to sell, so it was scrapped.

The 22 type frigates were the largest and most well-equipped ships ever to serve Her Majesty, as their direct successors, the 23 type frigates (Type 23), were smaller for economic reasons and more modestly equipped.

The 22-type frigates are multipurpose ships, but they were designed with regard to the technological achievements of the USSR at the end of the Cold War, primarily to fight Soviet submarines.

At that time, the common defense doctrine defined the following goal for them: being attached to the American strike formations, to shield them from Soviet nuclear submarines.

The 22 type frigates were developed as a replacement for their predecessors, a whole family of 12 type frigates: Whitby (Type 12), Rothes (Type 12M) and Linder (Type 12I). In the post-war period, it is the most numerous type of British large warships and at the same time (according to the British themselves) one of the most successful types of British frigates.

Due to the decline of the ship artillery epoch and the development of ship radio electronic equipment and guided missile weapons (URO) - British destroyers were divided into narrow-purpose subclasses.

To provide anti-submarine escorts, a new independent class was allocated: the frigate, and to provide air defense (air defense defense) - the destroyer of air defense.

Thus, first 22 type frigates were created as ASW vessels, but over time the concept of multi-purpose frigates (general-purpose frigates) was developed and 22 type ships were re-armed and reclassified into general-purpose frigates, and the differences between the subclasses blurred.

The role of 22 frigates in the structure of the Navy of those years can be judged from the list of requirements of the General Staff of Her Majesty, compiled in the 1967 year.

After the closure of the project CVA-01 *, the Royal Navy conducted a complete reassessment of the requirements for the future surface fleet, and concluded that the fleet needed the following five new types of ships:

1). Helicopter cruisers (anti-submarine cruisers) with a large air group consisting of PLO helicopters. As a result, this requirement led to the creation of Invincible light aircraft carriers.
2). Air defense destroyers: smaller in size and cheaper than the destroyers of the type "County" - led to the creation of destroyers such as 42.
3). Frigates URO: multi-purpose ships with a displacement of 3000 ÷ 6000 t, with rocket armament as a possible successor to frigates of the class “Leander” (Type 12) - led to the creation of frigates of the type 22.
4). Patrol frigates: cheaper than Leander-class frigates - led to the creation of Amazon-type frigates (project 21).
5). Minesweepers: as a possible successor to Ton-class ships (Ton-class minesweeper) - led to the creation of minesweepers looking for hunt-type mines.

* Project CVA-01 - Construction of heavy attack aircraft carriers such as “Queen Elizabeth”. Launched in the middle of 1960-ies, discontinued (before the construction of the lead ship) in February 1966.

To repel attacks from the air and defeat various air targets, the armaments of promising aircraft carriers (the future Invincible type) were envisaged before the 2-x PU for the Sea Dart air defense missile system with ammunition up to 36 SAM. And among other types of ships - an increased ammunition load of missiles for the C-Dart system (20-22 missiles) should have been equipped, naturally, with anti-aircraft destroyers. After all, their main task is to provide air defense of the naval groups, so each British aircraft carrier had to go into combat service in remote areas of the oceans, accompanied by a destroyer of air defense.

Although the 12 type frigates are significantly inferior to their successors, the 22 type frigates by tonnage, but in the underwater contours of the frigate hulls of these types there is a known similarity.

Since in 1960, the design department of the Admiralty was loaded, and the design of the URO frigates (type 22) were delayed, it was necessary to compensate for the lack of ships of this type. Therefore, as a temporary measure, project documentation for the construction of a different type of ships was purchased from a private shipbuilding company. Later, they became known as frigates of the class “Amazon” or “Type 21”.

It was not clear who designed the 22 type, but it is known that documentation specialists from Yarrow from Glasgow were responsible for the documentation refinement, and one of the departments of the Admiralty Department (Ship Department) controlled and was in charge of the project. The design of URO frigates (type 22) was demanding the construction of patrol frigates (type 21) and the destroyers of air defense that were needed “yesterday” (type 42).

Shipbuilders

The construction of most of the 22 frigates (10 of 14) was carried out by a solid company founded in 1865: Yarrow Shipyard from Glasgow in Scotland (Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited). During its long history, Yarrow Shipyard changed several names: at first it was called “Upper Clyde Shipbuilders”, then “British Shipbuilders”, then “GEC Marconi Marine” and, finally, in 1999 it was called “BAE Systems”.

Another 3 frigate, Sheffield (F96); Coventry (F98) and Chatham (F87) were built by one of the most famous shipbuilding companies in the world, the British firm Swan Hunter, founded in 1880 year. In the XXI century, Swan Hunter closed its shipbuilding industry and focused only on design.

And an even older and no less respected company (founded in 1828), Cammell Laird, had already received a modest order for the construction of the penultimate frigate of the third series Campbeltown (F86). It was privatized in 1986 and taken over by Vickers Shipbuilding & Engineering Ltd (VSEL). 1987 to 1993 3 Upholder submarines left Cammell Laird's stocks, and then VSEL closed its Cammel Laird shipyard.



What's in a name?

It was originally planned to give the names of new types of frigates in alphabetical order. Thus, the names of all the new patrol frigates (type 21) began with the letter “A”: Amazon (F169), Antelope (F170), Ambuscade (F172) and so on. In total, the 8 patrol frigate was built and the names of all eight began with the letter “A”. Therefore, the names of all new frigates of URO (type 22) were to begin with the letter “B”.

At first it was, and the ships of the 1 series received the following names with the letter “B”: Broadsword (F88), Battleaxe (F89), Brilliant (F90) and Brazen (F91). The first 3 ships of the 2 series also got their names starting with the letter “B”: Boxer (F92), Beaver (F93), Brave (F94), but the war intervened: Great Britain fought with Argentina for control of the Falkland Islands. Among the losses of the British crown were 2 of the new 42-type HMS Sheffield (D80) and HMS Coventry (D118) air defense destroyers. Therefore, it was decided to rename the 2 frigate under construction in honor of sunken destroyers. As a result, the frigate with the tail number F96, which was first named Bruiser, was renamed Sheffield, and Bowdicka (F98) - in Coventry. The Bloodhound ordered a little earlier (F98), which had not yet been started, was also renamed and given the name London.

Since their future successors, “23 type” frigates, it was decided to abandon the names in alphabetical order, and decided to name all the 16 ships in honor of the British dukes, the 23 type is also known as “Duke” frigates: (English Duke - Duke). Therefore, the Duc class ship (F230) was called the Norfolk - in honor of the Duke of Norfolk; F233 - Marlborough, in honor of the Duke of Marlborough, F231 - Argyll, in honor of the Duke of Argyll, and so on.

Well, the alphabetic progression in the names was continued by the frigates of the 3 series (subclass “Cornwall”), but the names of all the ships of this series began with the letter “С”: Cornwall (F99), Cumberland (F85), Campbeltown (F86) and finally closing, chatham (fxnumx). The first 87 ships were named after heavy cruisers like the "County" of the First World War.

Interesting Facts

The official sponsor (literal translation from English), but, most likely, the official face of the lead ship of the 3 series (Cornwall, F99) was Her Highness Princess Diana of Wales. After Lady Dina married Prince Charles, she received all the titles of her husband, including the title of Duchess of Cornish. In the ceremonial launching ceremony of the frigate F99, Princess Diana played a major role.

The remaining 2 ships were named after the British cities of Campbeltown and Chatham. The name Campbeltown has worn another ship: the destroyer. It was built in the USA, in 1919, and, while serving Uncle Sam, was known as USS Buchanan (DD-131). Then, after the Dunkirk defeat, in September 1940, it was transferred to the British Navy and it was renamed HMS Campbeltown (I42).

It was this outdated destroyer 28 of March 1942 of the year that took part in the operation “The Chariot”, during which the English destroyer from the American lineage managed to ram the docks of Saint-Nazaire. Then he detonated the explosive charge hidden on its board. Thanks to the death of the destroyer Campbeltown (I42) and the sacrifice of the paratroopers aboard it, the only dry dock on the Atlantic coast, which was able to receive the battleship Tirpitz, the most powerful ship Kriegsmarine left after the Bismarck sinking, was put out of action until the end of the war. .

Well, the last ship of the 22 type (F87) was named after the oldest shipyard in the UK: it was located in the city of Chatham (Kent). The shipyard in Chatham was founded in 1570 and liquidated in 1984: literally 1 a year before placing an order for the construction of F87. That and commemorated the shipbuilders Chatham ...

The Chatham frigate (F87) is sponsored (official) by Lady Roni Oswald, the spouse of the Supreme Commander and First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Julian Oswald.

By the way, they returned to the alphabet system in the 21 century.
All 45-type destroyers (Type 45 destroyer), also known as Daring destroyers, were given the names of the 30-50 English destroyers of the last century, which began with the letter “D”: HMS Daring (D32), HMS Downless (D33), HMS Diamond (D34), HMS Dragon (D35), HMS Defender (D36) and HMS Duncan (D37).

Start of construction

The order for the construction of the first frigate of the 22 type was given to the Yarrow shipyard in 1972. All the 4 ships of the first series and the next 4 from the second series were built on it. Since the Royal Navy Devonport naval base was chosen as the permanent base for ships of the 22 type, the length of the ships was dictated by the dimensions of the covered docks (Devonport Frigate Refit Complex).

Romanian frigates in the 21 century. Part one

Light cruiser HMS Cleopatra in one of the covered docks of the naval base Devonport. 1977 year Photo: Michael Walters



3 Covered Dry Dock Navy BVD Devonport


In order to minimize the length of the shafts, the engine rooms were located in compartments located as close as possible to the stern. The ships were to be equipped with two five-bladed screws with adjustable pitch. And at the stern, behind the flight deck, it was decided to allocate space for a helicopter hangar for almost the entire width of the ship to accommodate two deck helicopters.

On ships of the first series, the CAAIS from Ferranti Combat Information and Control System (BIUS) was installed, and as an energy installation - 2X turbos Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A (37,540 shp / 28 MW) and 2X Rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C (9,700X) turbines MW).

Work on the implementation of the order for the construction of ships of the first series was jerky, with frequent stops and approvals due to their relatively high cost. The fact is that their predecessors, the Linder type frigates (Type 12), cost the British crown 10 million pounds, the new Amazon type frigates (21 project) cost 20 million pounds each, and when placing an order on the first frigate of the 22 type, the unit cost was agreed upon in the amount of 30 million pounds. But the real cost of the first frigate of the 22 type HMS Broadsword after its commissioning in the 1979 year amounted to taking into account inflation as much as 68 million pounds.

For example, the destroyer HMS Glasgow (type 42), which was commissioned in the same 1979 year, cost the treasury 40 million pounds. Destroyers are a good thing, but frigates are also needed by a naval superpower. Therefore, for the construction of the first frigate type 22 still constantly pay extra. We can only guess what scenes accompanied the knockout of the next tranche.


22 “HMS Broadsword” 1 Series Frigate Scheme


After building 4-x 22 type frigates (1-series, subclass “Broadsword”), the covered naval dock of Devenport for frigates (Devonport Frigate Refit Complex) decided to increase in length (and, most likely, in depth too).

Therefore, after the lengthening of the docks, it became possible to build and maintain ships of greater displacement in them. And if the total length of 1-series frigates (“Broadsword” subclass) was 131 meters with a standard displacement of 4,400 tons, then the length of 2-series frigates (Boxer subclass) was 146,5 meters with 4,800 displacements tons.

Differences between subclasses

On ships of the 2 series (subclass “Boxer”) the stem was extended (sharpened).
The sharp stem was supposed to provide the ships with good seaworthiness. But along with the length of the ship and its displacement increased and its draft: if the frigates of the 1-series was 6,1 meters, then the 2-th (and subsequent 3-series) - already 6,4 meters.

In the 1982 year (the year the order was placed on HMS “London”) the cost of one 22 type frigate almost doubled and reached £ 127 million pounds sterling. But this was not the limit: the total cost of the Boxer frigate (F92) after its commissioning in the 1983 year amounted to £ 147 mln taking into account inflation.

The 3 ship Brave (F94) cost the most of all: it cost £ 166 million pounds. Perhaps due to the fact that the Rolls-Royce Spey SM1C turbines were installed on it.

* It is quite possible that, starting from the 2 series, the shipbuilders reduced the height of the helicopter hangars and the higher Westland Sea King, but only Westland Lynx, could no longer fit into them. At least I found this information in the descriptions of HMS Boxer (F92) and HMS Beaver (F93).


Scheme frigate type 22 HMS “London” 2-series


And since I’ve talked about the differences between subclasses, allow a few words to highlight the main differences of the 3 series. This subclass is the most well-armed of all three series built. They were due to the conclusions reached after the end of the conflict in the Falklands.

After that war, it became obvious that, in addition to missile weapons on British ships, cannon (universal) artillery and more effective short-range air defense weapons were needed. Multipurpose artillery would be useful for firing at coastal targets, while reinforced anti-aircraft artillery would be useful primarily for the missile defense of ships, as well as for hitting other enemy targets and light surface forces of the enemy.

Therefore, the armament of the 3-series frigates (subclass “Cornwall”) was different from the ships of the first two series. On the nose instead of the PU for the ASM Exocet, an 114-mm 114 mm / 55 Mark 8 shipboard universal installation was installed. In addition, the ships equipped 30-mm ZAK with a rotating block of Goalkeeper trunks, aka Sea Vulcan 30.

* 30-mm 7-barrel anti-aircraft gun “Goalkeeper” is a modification aviation guns GAU-8 Avenger, which is installed on the American attack aircraft A-10 Thunderbolt.


30-mm 7-barrel anti-aircraft gun “Goalkeeper”


The main armament of the 3-series frigates consisted of:
2x PU for RGM-84 Harpoon PCR;
2x PU ZRK short-range GWS-25 Sea Wolf;
2x three-tube 324-mm torpedo tubes Plessey STWS Mk 2;

Also on the ships were installed:
2x 8-barrel 130-mm PU infrared interference BAE Systems Corvus;
2x 6-barrel 130-mm PU for shooting BAE Systems Mark 36 SRBOC dipole reflectors.

The length of the 3-series ships (a subclass of “Cornwall”) increased by 2 meters and amounted to 148,1 meters with a displacement of 5,300 tons and a draft of 6,4 meters.
And the stem in the underwater part ended with a boule (drop-shaped thickening), the shape of which is optimal from the point of view of hydrodynamic resistance. In the bule could easily place the sonar. On the 3-series ships, the 2 turbines Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A and 2 marching rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C are installed.


22 HMS “Cornwall” 3 Series Frigate Scheme


The author thanks Bongo for the advice.


To be continued ...

Sources:
World Naval Weapons Systems, 1997-1998
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fregata_M%C4%83r%C4%83%C8%99e%C8%99ti
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAR_330
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  1. Bongo
    Bongo 1 March 2016 06: 47
    11
    Well, we waited for the continuation of the current state of the Romanian fleet. fellow We can say with confidence that many authors writing in VO should be equal to this deeply developed publication. good The list of sources used by the author is amazing! belay
    1. Mister X
      1 March 2016 11: 13
      +4
      hi
      Thank you, Sergey!
      You're making me blush...
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 1 March 2016 13: 04
        +4
        Quote: Mister X
        Thank you, Sergey!
        You're making me blush...

        C'mon, don't be shy. The article is really done very high quality. good What surprises me more is how did you end up on the site during business hours? I began to take an example? lol
        1. Mister X
          1 March 2016 13: 16
          +4
          Vorovito looking around, I go to IN through the anonymizer and follow the reaction of my readers.
          After all, I have been working on this article for half a year and I cannot wait to see the result.
    2. Litsvin
      Litsvin 1 March 2016 20: 49
      +2
      Hmmm, "ROMANIAN (!!!!!!!) frigates in the 21st century" is a serious challenge in the Black Sea.
      It reminds me "the famous Romanian tanks near Sevastopol in 1941"... Have the "gypsies" really learned to build in the 21st century the same "magnificent" frigates, what "magnificent" tanks they built in the 20th century !!!
      The Russian Black Sea Fleet must urgently hide in the Sevastopol bays - "Gypsy frigates in 2016" enta you "do not drive" Gebena "from" Breslau "across the sea with an entire armored squadron in 1916."

      To be honest, as a former military officer, the phrase "Romanian frigate" for some reason is consonant with the phrase "Mongolian submarine" laughing laughing laughing

      The article is good, the topic is covered quite professionally, the author has a bold "+", unfortunately you can only put one "+".
      1. UNFAMILIAR
        UNFAMILIAR 1 March 2016 22: 32
        +1
        Quote: Litsvin
        Have the "gypsies" really learned to build in the 21st century the same "magnificent" frigates, what "magnificent" tanks they built in the 20th century !!!

        For some reason, the Norwegians ordered the new "Maryata" in Romania, but the "Gypsies" (Romanians and Moldovans are Caucasians, others, but Caucasians, you Belarusians, if you look closely, are also slightly different, probably the influence of the Baltic component) coped
        1. Mister X
          1 March 2016 23: 45
          +2
          Quote: UNKNOWN
          For some reason, the Norwegians ordered a new "Maryata" in Romania

          Norwegians did it for a reason.
          Marjata was built at the shipyard in the Romanian city of Tulcea (Şantierul Naval Tulcea).
          From 2000, 69,99% of the shares of this company belonged to the Norwegian company Aker Brattvaag AS.
          True, in 2007 Norwegians sold 39,2% of their shares to South Korean STX Shipbuilding
          and Aker Yards now owns 30.79% of the shares, and the rest is to the Romanian state.
      2. Mister X
        1 March 2016 23: 29
        0
        Quote: Litsvin
        The article is good, the topic is disclosed quite professionally

        hi Thank you!
        Quote: Litsvin
        the author is a bold "+", unfortunately you can only put one "+".

        You have the opportunity to add other parts of the article (there are 4 in total). repeat
        1. Litsvin
          Litsvin 2 March 2016 08: 03
          0
          Which I will do ... hi
  2. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 1 March 2016 08: 57
    +3
    M-yeah. The great navigators are Romanians. And I have always thought and still believe that these are "Italians - such sea Romanians."
    The descendants of the proud Dacians changed one old (of their own construction) for another (already imported - British-built). The Socialist Romanian Navy or SRP consisted of 4 frigates of the "Admiral Petre Barbuneanu" type (aka Project 1048, aka Tetal-I in the NATO classification) and 2 (out of 4 originally ordered) of the "Contre-admiral Eustatiu Sebastian" type (aka project 1048M, aka Tetal-II in the NATO classification). The development and construction of these ships was a consequence of the demonstratively independent policy of the Romanian leadership within the framework of the Warsaw Pact. Instead of an economically more profitable and expedient purchase of Soviet ships of Project 1069, the Romanians decided to independently develop and build frigate ships at their own shipyards. The Romanians developed new frigates (albeit with the help of Soviet specialists) on the basis of Soviet ships - SKR project 1069 and IPC project 1124.
    These Romanian frigates entered service from 1984 to 1987 - ships of the "Admiral Petre Barbuneanu" class, and from 1989 to 1997 - ships of the "Contre-admiral Eustatiu Sebastian" class. Of course, these frigates were two times inferior in displacement to the British "Broadswards" and did not have the same high seaworthiness (which, in my opinion, is not critical for a closed naval theater of operations like the Black Sea), and were not armed with SCRC and air defense missile systems, and also did not have BIUS (and this is already a drawback, although, in principle, it can be eliminated in the process of modernization (especially with the use of modern technologies). already cut them on needles to replace them with the same ancient (but already British) ships.
    On the photo is a frigate of the "Admiral Petre Barbuneanu" class:
    1. Mister X
      1 March 2016 11: 51
      +3
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      4 frigates of the "Admiral Petre Barbuneanu" class (aka Project 1048, aka Tetal-I in NATO classification)

      hi
      I mentioned the Tetal-I and Tetal-II class corvettes in the final, 4 part.
  3. Belimbai
    Belimbai 1 March 2016 09: 23
    +2
    And how well it all started: "Romanian frigates in the 21st century ....".)))))
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 1 March 2016 09: 46
      +8
      Quote: Belimbai
      And how well it all started: "Romanian frigates in the 21st century ....".)))))

      We must pay tribute to Michael, there are no other materials in runet on this topic. Though the author writes with a fair amount of sarcasm, but without fainting, which unfortunately happens in other publications about the armed forces of the NATO countries that were once part of the Eastern Bloc.
      1. Mister X
        1 March 2016 11: 19
        +3
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        There are no other materials in runet on this topic.

        Olga, I always try to cover little-studied topics.

        Quote: zyablik.olga
        Although the author writes with a fair amount of sarcasm, but without declining

        As for sarcasm, it's personal.
        The fact is that from Moldova and we have 25 for years trying to impose fraternity with the Romanians.
        Sarcasm is my response.
        Kiss pens!
        love
        1. Bongo
          Bongo 1 March 2016 13: 06
          +3
          Quote: Mister X
          Kiss pens!

          Do not bother my girlfriend! angry laughing
          1. Mister X
            1 March 2016 13: 18
            +2
            Quote: Bongo
            Do not bother my girlfriend!

            Here it is, Mikhalych!
            Pardon moa ...
            1. Bongo
              Bongo 1 March 2016 13: 21
              +2
              Quote: Mister X
              Here it is, Mikhalych!
              Pardon moa ...

              And you did not know?
              1. Mister X
                1 March 2016 13: 41
                +1
                Quote: Bongo
                And you did not know?

                The site also has a couple of girls who comment and even publish articles.
                I did not immediately guess.
  4. Mera joota
    Mera joota 1 March 2016 10: 13
    +6
    Michael forgot to say that Broadswords were actually disarmed during the sale to the Romanians. They only artillery, torpedoes and helicopters remained. Maybe the Romanians have their own plans for re-equipping them, but so far they go empty.

    1. Mister X
      1 March 2016 11: 22
      +5
      Quote: Mera Joota
      Michael forgot to say that the Broadsworth were actually disarmed when selling to the Romanians.

      hi
      I did not forget, just did not fit in the first part.
      Read about this and much more in the following sections.
  5. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 1 March 2016 12: 52
    +2
    To sell something unnecessary, you must first buy something unnecessary. And we have no money. (words of the chief economist of the village of Prostokvashino, cat Matroskin)- Come on, Ball, we will sell you.
    So it is with British goods sold to newly acquired "allies" - without their disposal, the royal shipyards would not have seen new orders in this way. And so - and the Romanians have something to brag about, and the British have made room for something more modern.
    PS Could sell to gypsies too. And what - there are people, but there is no fleet (like everything else). It was recalled by virtue of their certain commonality, which nevertheless exists.
    1. Mister X
      1 March 2016 13: 08
      +2
      Quote: Sergey-8848
      without recycling in the same way

      hi
      When the British Parliament was discussing the defense budget deficit, the conversation also touched on the maintenance of Type 22 ships.
      During the presentation, the term "optimal utilization" was used.
      Read about it in the following sections ...
  6. Litsvin
    Litsvin 2 March 2016 07: 59
    0
    Quote: UNKNOWN
    Quote: Litsvin
    Have the "gypsies" really learned to build in the 21st century the same "magnificent" frigates, what "magnificent" tanks they built in the 20th century !!!

    For some reason, the Norwegians ordered the new "Maryata" in Romania, but the "Gypsies" (Romanians and Moldovans are Caucasians, others, but Caucasians, you Belarusians, if you look closely, are also slightly different, probably the influence of the Baltic component) coped

    Like you, "Russians", if you look closely, are also slightly different - mostly Finno-Ugrians. The Slavs who came to "master" Russia were in the overwhelming minority in number. The same is with us, the Lithuanians-Belarusians - our ethnos is mostly based on the genes of the largest tribal union of the Balts - the Yatvyag tribes, who at one time inhabited the territory from the Baltic to Smolensk. The Polabian and Pomor Slavs, driven out of Western Europe by the Germans, founded our ancient principalities not in the desert, but on the territory already inhabited by the Balts. At the same time, the peaceful assimilation of the two ethnic groups took place to a greater extent. By the way, the Belarusian language is a symbiosis of two ancient languages ​​of the Slavs and Yatvingians, the peculiarities of the pronunciation of many words, as well as the presence of such double sounds as "j" and dz ", are from the Balts. Most hydronyms and toponyms on the territory of modern Belarus are Baltic names are mostly Yatvyazh, less often Prussian, by the way, the Slavs and Balts are ethnogenetically closest relatives.

    As for "gypsies" - this is a joke, that's how the Romanians were jokingly called during the war.
    In Romania, there is now an "initiative group of comrades" who want to rename their state, renouncing the "root" - "Rome" and "Romaly" (gypsies), and return this territory to its historically correct name - Dacia. So they were called even during the Roman occupation. When Romania becomes Dacia, then they will no longer be "gypsies". laughing

    As for the Romanian fleet - well, funny, just funny. As funny as their shipbuilding industry. Why did the Norwegians order a ship in Romania - yes, because its cost will be much less than building in any Western European country.
    1. andj61
      andj61 2 March 2016 08: 35
      +2
      Quote: Litsvin
      Like you, "Russians", if you look closely, are also slightly different - mostly Finno-Ugrians. The Slavs who came to "master" Russia were in the overwhelming minority in number. The same is with us, the Lithuanians-Belarusians - our ethnos is mostly based on the genes of the largest tribal union of the Balts - the Yatvyag tribes, who at one time inhabited the territory from the Baltic to Smolensk.

      Where did you get this information on history? If the Slavs were in the minority, they would inevitably dissolve into the sea of ​​the Finno-Ugric! And this did not happen - it means that there were more Slavs. Where there were many, that is, the predominant number of Finno-Ugric - Mordovia, Mari, Udmurtia - there they remained. Likewise about the Yatvingians. If the Finno-Ugric peoples lived in large numbers on the Russian Plain, then there were no Yatvingians here - with the exception of a small number in Porussia - the lower reaches of the Neman and Zap Dvina. Other Lithuanian tribes also lived there - the Samogites-Zhmudins, Aukshaits, and Dzuki. Some scholars consider these dzukas to be aukšaites, while others - purely Slavs-Litvinians, and not Lithuanians - precisely for the “dzukanye”, which is now found only among Belarusians. I would like to note that the dzukovs are considered aukshites, not Yatvingians. At the same time, the Lithuanian tribes did not differ much from the Latvian ones, entering the same language group with them. And about 1500 years ago, all of them, together with the Slavs, were a single people.
      It is also interesting how the Germanic tribes drove out the Slavic from Labia and Pomerania. Not crowded out, but destroyed or assimilated. And the purely German baronial surnames von Bullov, von Belkov, as well as Virkhov, Dmitrov, Grabov, Gamow, etc. very eloquently talked about it. Surname of the last prime minister of the GDR Modrov. And pick up historical data on the wars of the 16-18 centuries in Northern Europe. There is a lot of data about the actual destruction of the local Slavic population of Pomerania in numerous Swedish-Danish-Polish-German wars.
      And about the fact that Belarus is a symbiosis of Slavic and Yatvyaz ... If you had visited different villages in the Bryansk, Smolensk, Gomel, Mogilev, Sumy, Chernihiv regions in the 60s, you would have understood that there is no separate Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. In each village, they spoke their own way until the end of the 70s, and very much these languages ​​differed from each other even at a distance of a dozen kilometers. There is a lot in common, but this is one language that varies depending on the territory.
      As my great-grandfather, who was born in the 70th century, told me in the early 19s, we are all Orthodox Russians, and the Communists invented Ukrainians and Belarusians. And each district has its own language.
      Then, as a child, I argued with him, and now I understand that he is right.
      And more or less uniformly in the villages they began to talk only by the beginning of the 80s, when television came to every house.