Military Review

The Washington Post: America’s most intriguing spacecraft has incredible Cold War roots

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In mid-January, the NASA aerospace agency decided to sign several large contracts with private companies in the space industry. Among others, the contract was awarded to Sierra Nevada Corporation, offering the project of the reusable Dream Chaser spacecraft. Soon there was information about the possible appearance of a similar agreement between Sierra Nevada Corporation and the European Space Agency. While experts are discussing promising such agreements, interesting publications have appeared in the foreign press on the subject of the Dream Chaser project.


February 16, the American edition of The Washington Post, published an article by Christian Davenport entitled “The most intriguing spacecraft of America has incredible roots from the Cold War times”. The author of this publication remembered history project Dream Chaser, as well as considered earlier events that accompanied the program of space exploration. As you can see from the title, K. Davenport came to interesting conclusions.

The author of The Washington Post begins his article with a reminder of past events. 1982 year. The Russians are obviously plotting something. The Soviet ship in the Indian Ocean is struggling to lift something from the water. What exactly the sailors get is impossible to determine. Australian reconnaissance aircraft managed to detect the strange actions of the Soviet ship, as well as take a few pictures of this operation.


The prototype of the device Dream Chaser. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


Australian intelligence officers handed the photographs to their American counterparts from the CIA. Those, in turn, attracted to the work of NASA specialists. Only the joint work of several departments allowed to establish the truth and find out exactly what the Soviet ship in the Indian Ocean was doing. As it turned out, Soviet sailors were lifting the BOR-4 apparatus out of the water. It was an unmanned aerial vehicle designed to test thermal protection systems. According to NASA, this device was created at one of the early stages of the development of the Soviet reusable spacecraft.

K. Davenport believes that 1982 photographs of the year could have been lost and forgotten by historians. However, in mid-January, the aerospace agency announced a collaboration with several private organizations in their new projects. Among others, support for NASA will receive the Dream Chaser spacecraft. Based on the characteristic appearance, the author calls this product "a snub-nosed apparatus originating from a forgotten Soviet space plane" (a snub-nosed craft derived from the lost Soviet space plane).

Getting support from NASA is a great achievement for Sierra Nevada, and also opens a new chapter in the history of a small and interesting spacecraft. The resumption of the Dream Chaser project with the support of NASA should now be the impetus for the resumption of work on reusable space technology. Several private companies will receive additional funding from the aerospace agency, which will allow them to continue working. The result of this should be the creation of a full-fledged means of delivery into orbit of cargo or astronauts. K. Davenport recalls that new ships should deliver people into orbit at the end of this decade.

Having completed the description of the current successes of the private space industry firms, the author of The Washington Post returns to history. Having studied the available images of the Soviet apparatus BOR-4, the American specialists developed their own draft design of such equipment. Analysis of this development has shown that such a device must have very high characteristics and show itself well during operation. As NASA historians later wrote, the Soviet project opened the eyes of American scientists.

For a long time, the specialists of the US Air Force worked on a project of a similar technology capable of performing multiple flights into space. Over time, NASA joined the similar work with the HL-20 project, which was based on several photographs of the Soviet apparatus. It was assumed that the main task of such a “space plane” would be the emergency evacuation of astronauts from space stations. However, the HL-20 project faced a lack of funding and other problems of a different nature, as a result of which it was closed.

Until a certain time, the HL-20 project remained forgotten, and the built model of this device remained out of work. The situation changed only in the middle of the two thousandth. At that time, Marc Sirangelo, the head of one of the private companies in the space industry, who later became part of the Sierra Nevada Corporation, worked on the concept of a promising spacecraft. Learning about the project HL-20, M. Sirangelo made it possible to see the prototype. The only built sample was idle in the corner of one of the NASA hangars under a tarpaulin and its appearance clearly said that this product had long been forgotten. The sample was suspended for about ten years: they were going to send it to a landfill, but it never came to that.


Model of the device HL-20. Photo of Wikimedia Commons


Despite the poor state of the sample, the head of the space industry company became interested in him and continued to work in this direction. A new project by Sierra Nevada was proposed to base on existing developments. The new project was named Dream Chaser and was proposed by NASA. After the completion of the Space Shuttle spacecraft operation, the development of a new project continued with a double force, including with the support of the aerospace agency. So, NASA has invested about 360 million dollars in Dream Chaser.

K. Davenport recalls that state financial support has already allowed several private companies to continue developing new space technology projects and get them off the ground. For example, SpaceX and Blue Origin with state support create and build launch vehicles that can take off and land several times, thereby reducing operating costs.

A joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the United Launch Alliance (ULA), is developing a returnable launch vehicle. This means that after a stage has been reset all its units will fall down and the engines will be able to descend by parachute. At a certain height they will be caught by special helicopters with special hooks that will be able to safely return expensive and complex products to the ground.

At the end of February, Virgin Galactic plans to introduce to the public a new version of the SpaceShipTwo project. An apparatus of this type is proposed to be launched into space not from the earth, but from the air. A special carrier aircraft will lift the spacecraft with a rocket unit to a height of 50 thousand feet, where its independent flight will begin. Sit SpaceShipTwo will be able to normal runways.

The Dream Chaser project incorporates some of the core ideas used in new reusable space technology projects. A spacecraft of this type is proposed to be launched using a special booster with the corresponding mounts on the head. Returning to Earth and he will sit down like the old Shuttle. After that, the device will again be able to fly.

A few years ago, the author recalls, there were some doubts about the possibility of solving the tasks. The device Dream Chaser has a relatively small size and in size inferior decommissioned Space Shuttle. The possibility of replacing the latter with the first could be a reason for doubt. After the announcement of the requirements for the creation of a manned spacecraft for the transport of astronauts, these suspicions were confirmed. According to the results of the analysis of the projects, two projects dropped out of the competition, including Dream Chaser. The company-developer is hard on this news.

In 2014, the aerospace agency launched a new competition, the goal of which was now to create a reusable vehicle for the transport of goods. In just a few months, before January 2015, the existing project should be reworked and a new version of the spacecraft presented.


The device BOR-4. Photo Buran.ru


This time, Sierra Nevada Corporation not only coped with the task, but was able to win the NASA competition. Sierra Nevada will take part in the new program, to which SpaceX and Orbital ATK companies are also involved. In the foreseeable future, they will have to complete the creation of their space trucks, as well as demonstrate their capabilities in practice. Approximately at the end of 2019, the promising technology should deliver foodstuffs, other supplies and scientific equipment to the ISS. In the near future, the management of the company-developer of the Dream Chaser project intends not only to develop the cargo version of the vehicle, but also to offer NASA a new system for transporting people.

Referring to the Ars Technica portal, K. Davenport reports that the authors of the Dream Chaser project showed interest not only in HL-20, but also in its Soviet prototype BOR-4. Back in 2005, M. Sirangelo went to Russia and met with experts who participated in the development of this system. The American designer told Russian colleagues that their design continues to live, which greatly surprised them. The head of the new project promised that the first flight of the Dream Chaser would take on board a list of engineers who participated in its creation, as well as those who developed BOR-4 and HL-20.

M. Sirangelo in one of his interviews said that a few years ago one of the developers of the BOR-4 project passed away. His daughter wrote a letter to the American designer, which stated that for the former Soviet engineer it was very important that a list of all the project participants was on board the ship.

***

The publication of The Washington Post “The most intriguing spacecraft” is very interesting because it reveals the details of the new project, known only to specialists and historians of the space industry. Nevertheless, the facts and the complex history of the new development contained in it may be of interest to the general public. Such a twisted plot, which combines several projects from the two countries, could be the basis for a good book.

Indeed, the modern project of the reusable spacecraft Dream Chaser dates back to the earlier HL-20, which, in turn, was an American attempt to study the features of the Soviet BOR-4 system. Recall, from the end of the sixties to the mid-eighties, the Soviet industry developed and tested several BOR vehicles (“Unmanned Orbital Rocket-Plane”), which were large-scale mock-ups of the Spiral aircraft. Until a certain time, foreign intelligence services did not have detailed data on the BOR project, but the situation changed in the summer of the 1982 year.


BOR-4 after the flight. Photo Buran.ru


3 June 1982 of the year at the Kapustin Yar test site was the launch of the launch vehicle "Kosmos-3M" with a payload in the form of the apparatus "Cosmos-1374", which was a product of BOR-4. The spacecraft performed a X-NUMX suborbital flight around the earth, then splashed down in the Indian Ocean near the Cocos Islands. Soviet ships with special equipment found a splashing apparatus and lifted it out of the water. During this operation, they were noticed by the Australian anti-submarine aircraft P-1,25, which resulted in the appearance of the first photographs of the new Soviet design.

Subsequently, the study of the resulting photographic materials led to the emergence of the HL-20 project, on the basis of which, in the middle of the two thousandth, a new Dream Chaser device was developed. The Soviet project "Spiral", in turn, was not implemented in its original form, but contributed to the appearance of the spacecraft "Buran".

Such a "continuity of generations" is of particular interest, and is also a reason for criticism. In fact, the ideas that emerged as far back as the sixties of the last century in the Soviet Union can only now reach full practical application, but are being implemented by US experts. Here one could ask why Soviet developments have not been applied in their own country, but after some changes they are used by foreign companies? It is unlikely that the answer to this question will be simple and pleasant.

With all the disadvantages of this situation, it should be noted that the management of Sierra Nevada respects the creators of previous projects that have become the basis for the new Dream Chaser. Thus, in the course of the first full-fledged space flight, it is planned to take on board a list of all the people who participated in the creation of the projects underlying the Dream Chaser, including the Soviet specialists, in appreciation.


The article "The most unlikely cold war origins of America's most intriguing spacecraft":
https://washingtonpost.com/business/economy/for-maker-of-the-dream-chaser-life-changes-with-one-phone-call/2016/02/10/c17d9eec-cc4f-11e5-88ff-e2d1b4289c2f_story.html
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  1. Alex_Rarog
    Alex_Rarog 29 February 2016 07: 46 New
    +6
    Damn, I thought for a long time that someone reminds me of someone! Well, matasniki ....
    1. Grenader
      Grenader 29 February 2016 08: 10 New
      14
      Not even hunting is a comment. One upset. Again, our discoveries and technologies serve anyone about non-Russia. 100% sold the project to the adversary.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. avt
      avt 29 February 2016 10: 29 New
      +4
      Quote: Alex_Rarog
      Damn, I thought for a long time that someone reminds me of someone!

      And "Lapot" he is in America, "Lapot"
    4. Fregate
      Fregate 1 March 2016 00: 26 New
      0
      Quote: Alex_Rarog
      Damn, I thought for a long time that someone reminds me of someone!

      Exactly. "Black cloak" in the cartoon flew on this. smile
      1. alex-defensor
        alex-defensor 1 March 2016 02: 00 New
        -1
        Calm down, nobody stole anything. Parallel development.
        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-20_Dyna_Soar
    5. gergi
      gergi 3 March 2016 08: 03 New
      0
      The hunchback nits must be crucified for everything that he has done for our overseas partners, their mother. Lives still foul, an interview gives how to equip Russia. The USSR has already equipped.
  2. Engineer
    Engineer 29 February 2016 09: 05 New
    27
    The author should write that the father of this apparatus is the ingenious Soviet designer Gleb Evgenievich Lozino-Lozinsky. Just think how much his thought was ahead of time ?!
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 29 February 2016 10: 36 New
      +1
      Yes, go away in the 80s this man in the United States would have had very fruitful achievements in the space industry there.
  3. Old26
    Old26 29 February 2016 09: 05 New
    +2
    Quote: Grenader
    Not even hunting is a comment. One upset. Again, our discoveries and technologies serve anyone about non-Russia. 100% sold the project to the adversary.

    So they sold it? Or maybe everything is easier? Using photographs, have Americans changed the face of their projects? Moreover, they already had their own achievements
    1. Gray brother
      Gray brother 29 February 2016 11: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      Using photographs, have Americans changed the face of their projects?

      Most likely it is. In the USSR, they also did so and did not hesitate - you can recall the "Buran", for example.
      1. Spnsr
        Spnsr 29 February 2016 13: 09 New
        -1
        Quote: Gray Brother
        Most likely it is. In the USSR, they also did so and did not hesitate - you can recall the "Buran", for example.

        Actually, it seems to me that Buran is a continuation of this technology, and was intended for this aircraft as a kind of “aircraft carrier” ...
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother 29 February 2016 13: 31 New
          +2
          Quote: SpnSr
          , and was intended for this aircraft as a kind of "aircraft carrier" ...

          I agree with the "continuation", but not with the "aircraft carrier".

          And so, in general, a full-size model under the fairing of the "Union" was placed.
          1. Spnsr
            Spnsr 29 February 2016 19: 47 New
            +2
            Quote: Gray Brother
            I agree with the "continuation"

            to your words
            1. Spnsr
              Spnsr 29 February 2016 20: 20 New
              0
              and there is such an interpretation
            2. Red_Hamer
              Red_Hamer 1 March 2016 04: 38 New
              +1
              For all "non-believers" in OUR primary source, popular enough! Stolen, brazenly stolen, our developments! And it's not just the form, but in general, the whole concept! If ours do not revive the project, it will be a mega-betrayal! (And now, you can spoil the air about the fact that “Russia is the homeland of elephants.” Do not forget, at the same time, in Russia they find the remains of not only mammoths, but also other elephants.)
        2. vladimir_krm
          vladimir_krm 29 February 2016 20: 45 New
          0
          And I read somewhere that Lozino-Lozinsky was instructed by the Central Committee to make a copy of the Shuttle: "Shob bulo like theirs." His protests that it was economically unprofitable and unnecessary were not listened to. And he made Buran, and at the same time he secretly continued his developments.
  4. NordUral
    NordUral 29 February 2016 09: 09 New
    +7
    And there is nothing to comment on. In the language of only obscene words addressed to the incompetent political leadership of the USSR. It is a pity that so many developments have gone into the oblivion and chatter of the liberals.
  5. killganoff
    killganoff 29 February 2016 09: 23 New
    +9
    And after all, the ALL available groundwork in the "Spiral", "Energy" and "Buran" programs has been wasted and sold out.
    For whom did our fathers and grandfathers work ?!
    Three flying copies of "Buran" and eight more full-scale models for various tests could not be saved, the descendants were left with only pitiful crumbs.
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. Blackmokona
    Blackmokona 29 February 2016 09: 43 New
    +3
    Russia is a great country, with great successes and a great history, well, why is RodinoSlonism! sad
    The spiral was a response to the American X-20 Dyna Soar program, and Bohr was created as a prototype of the spiral.
    Let’s not become like any protoucra, and other similar guys, we are a great nation.
    1. owl
      owl 29 February 2016 14: 16 New
      0
      Quote: BlackMokona
      The spiral was a response to the American X-20 Dyna Soar program, and Bohr was created as a prototype of the spiral.

      I wanted to "urKapatreotam" "from the top to the bald head" but you beat me smile
  8. Belousov
    Belousov 29 February 2016 09: 56 New
    +4
    They were decades ahead of their time. Like ekranoplans. But the list of people who squandered and sold their homeland should be posted in every school. Not only Gorbachev and Yeltsin, but also other characters, for example Bakatin, who passed the unique wiretapping system at the American embassy and many other traitors.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 29 February 2016 10: 40 New
      0
      It turns out that you need to post the entire list of scientists who left for the 90s to work abroad, taking all their developments from the USSR shelf.
    2. edge
      edge 1 March 2016 07: 51 New
      0
      Quote: Belousov
      a list of people squandering and selling their homeland must be posted in each school.

      WHAT FOR.? in order to instill the idea from childhood, that the most profitable business is the sale of the MOTHERLAND. traitors should be punished, and not create advertising for them .... you never know how they were raised on our land
  9. surrozh
    surrozh 29 February 2016 11: 43 New
    0
    "Let Washington call us bastard Russia!
    Today we have launched over 5 tons of bast shoes! "- a ditty from the 60s.
  10. Red_Hamer
    Red_Hamer 29 February 2016 11: 56 New
    +4
    Space interceptor fighter system "Spiral". The project was closed in the 80s. A lot of what we had, what was pumped.
    1. edge
      edge 1 March 2016 07: 53 New
      0
      Quote: Red_Hamer
      an osmic fighter-interceptor of the Spiral system. The project was closed in the 80s. We had a lot of things that we pumped.

      it's not evening yet and the colors of the day haven’t gone out .....
  11. Red_Hamer
    Red_Hamer 29 February 2016 12: 18 New
    0
    Although it is possible that they are reanimating, the media recently flashed information, they are doing something similar with modern filling.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 29 February 2016 13: 07 New
      0
      We Roskosmos in this direction for the next 15 years will definitely not do anything - almost all projects are closed.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  12. Gorodovik
    Gorodovik 29 February 2016 13: 06 New
    -1
    And that you all started shouting that this is our development7 The only thing you can grab onto is the fact that similar aerodynamics. But this is not because we are so brilliant. And because the laws of aerodynamics are lonely that we have that overseas. Yes, perhaps the appearance was created under the influence of BOR. But this ship was not made according to his drawings. Not with his equipment.
    Why exactly such a form? 7 And because such a form creates the greatest aerodynamic quality than a shuttle if it were of similar size. On this device, it is created in the same way due to the housing.
    With your words, you can cite the fact that Buran is a ship created due to American developments. Although there is some truth in this.
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 29 February 2016 13: 22 New
      0
      Quote: Cityman
      With your words, you can cite the fact that Buran is a ship created due to American developments. Although there is some truth in this.

      no one knows, except for those who dealt with this issue at one time, sometimes only one slips, Buran was a continuation of this project, and was intended for delivery into orbit, if I remember the memory of 2 or three aircraft from the spiral project!
      But why was this project closed? maybe due to the fact that, along with unmanned technologies, developments were going on in parallel to combat unmanned aerial vehicles, an example of which was Avtobaza.
      We can say that the development of unmanned technologies in the United States begins after the collapse of the USSR, before that they lost their lives, and the main thing for us is to keep the main secrets ...
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 29 February 2016 16: 01 New
        -1
        "we can say that the development of unmanned technologies in the United States,
        begins after the collapse of the USSR, "////

        The development of unmanned technology in the world begins with the development of computers.
        The rapid development of computers / chips / software / microboards / computer science / (90s) coincided with the collapse of the USSR.
        1. Spnsr
          Spnsr 29 February 2016 19: 11 New
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          The development of unmanned technology in the world begins with the development of computers.
          The rapid development of computers / chips / software / microboards / computer science / (90s) coincided with the collapse of the USSR.

          only Buran was unmanned, and this was before the collapse of the USSR ....
          and this can still say that it was the secrets of the USSR, after its collapse that became available to the rest! wink it's just logic regarding
          coincided in time with the collapse of the USSR.
          nothing confuses?

          I do not exaggerate the achievements, I emphasize that it is not worth underestimating ...
          1. Blackmokona
            Blackmokona 29 February 2016 20: 02 New
            0
            Quote: SpnSr
            only Buran was unmanned, and this was before the collapse of the USSR ....

            Historically, the first development in the field of aircraft control automation was an autopilot, developed by the American company Sperry Corporation in 1912; it provided automatic retention of the flight course and stabilization of the roll. The elevators and rudders were connected hydraulically to a unit receiving signals from the gyrocompass and altimeter.

            In the 1930's, autopilots were already installed on some aircraft - primarily passenger liners.

            During the Second World War, the increased requirements for aircraft (primarily for bombers making many hours of long-distance flights) led to the development of more advanced autopilots.

            In 1947, the US Air Force C-54 aircraft made a transatlantic flight completely under the control of an autopilot (including takeoff and landing). [1]
            1. Spnsr
              Spnsr 29 February 2016 20: 11 New
              0
              Quote: BlackMokona
              In 1947, the US Air Force C-54 aircraft made a transatlantic flight completely under the control of an autopilot (including takeoff and landing). [1]

              thanks enlightened!
              "convinced", the USA is ahead of the rest!
              But why did they destroy their astronauts if they possessed these technologies in 47?
              And the first UAVs in the United States began to fly only in the 21st century, at a time when the USSR had been using these technologies for a very long time!
              1. Blackmokona
                Blackmokona 1 March 2016 10: 27 New
                0
                The shuttles did not explode due to lack of autopilot, but because of wear problems.
                The autopilot on the Chatelet was also welcome, but like ours we didn’t trust the autopilot (remember that during the tests when they were going to blow it up because it made a strange maneuver according to people on earth?) So did the Americans, their astronauts refused to land completely autopilot, our astronauts said in an interview that they would also be landing on manual mode. Cosmonauts in general are superstitious and loving guys, so that all processes go under their strict control, and do not surrender to the will of different pieces of iron.
      2. Gorodovik
        Gorodovik 29 February 2016 23: 32 New
        -1
        Memoirs of Lozino-Lozinsky
        General Designer Glushko felt that by that time there were few materials that would confirm and guarantee success, while the Shuttle flights proved that such a Shuttle configuration worked successfully, and there is less risk when choosing a configuration. Therefore, despite the greater useful volume of the Spiral configuration, it was decided to perform the Buran in a configuration similar to the Shuttle configuration.

        ... Copying, as indicated in the previous answer, was, of course, completely conscious and justified in the process of those design developments that were carried out, and during which many changes were made, as was mentioned above, both to the configuration and to the design. The main political requirement was to ensure that the dimensions of the payload compartment were the same as the Shuttle payload compartment.

        ... the lack of marching engines on the Buran noticeably changed the centering, the position of the wings, the influx configuration, well, and a number of other differences.


        It was closed because the money then went far not to science, but to someone’s pocket.

        About the development of drones. You are mistaken. The United States has been doing this for a very long time, and I have more than sure of their own technology. Read at least the Interstate TDR-1. Other that we could not develop our own.
        Look soberly at the goal and not through the prism of patriotism cheers. We have achieved a lot. But Pulling someone else's success is low.
        1. Spnsr
          Spnsr 1 March 2016 07: 56 New
          0
          Quote: Cityman
          About the development of drones. You are mistaken. The United States has been doing this for a very long time, and I have more than sure of their own technology. Read at least the Interstate TDR-1. Other that we could not develop our own.
          Look soberly at the goal and not through the prism of patriotism cheers. We have achieved a lot. But Pulling someone else's success is low.

          usa good PR specialists, and hence statements like
          Quote: Cityman
          Read at least the Interstate TDR-1.

          and the like, can lead to reading PR brochures!
          1. Gorodovik
            Gorodovik 1 March 2016 13: 31 New
            0
            Sta7 yes Americans are able to PR. But they have achievements. And your attitude like this is all advertising and lies lead to underestimation. And what could be worse than an underestimated adversary7
  13. Irbenwolf
    Irbenwolf 29 February 2016 15: 57 New
    +1
    It was worth heading the article in the style: "How to continue promising developments in 2 minutes ..."
  14. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 29 February 2016 17: 43 New
    0
    Who can, find an article about a spiral, there is a lot written about how to make "bast shoes". From what I remember: 1. The landing was practiced in the south. The sadittsa had to ski, in order to reduce friction, the strip was covered with broken watermelons. Lapot was picked up on the plane and thrown off. He planned and sat down normally. After an orbital flight in the Indian Ocean, a group of warships was waiting for him, in order to remove the curious, exercises with combat rocket fire were carried out. Another moment when it was raised was shrouded in clouds of yellow vapor, I think the remaining fuel is probably heptyl. This article will be read with pleasure.
  15. fzr1000
    fzr1000 29 February 2016 18: 40 New
    +1
    Very likely. Industrial espionage is eternal.
  16. neo1200
    neo1200 1 March 2016 12: 20 New
    0
    Ha, ha, and NASA has a crisis, as evidenced by the circumstances that NASA does not have a single concept of a manned spacecraft. They gave the "old ideas" to "private companies" so that in case of failure they blame all the sins on these companies, for NASA's reputation must remain impeccable.
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 1 March 2016 12: 24 New
      0
      They have Orion for research and a pack for commercial interests and the ISS.
  17. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 1 March 2016 19: 16 New
    0
    Hmm, did everyone forget about Dyna Soar?
    http://buran.ru/htm/dynasoar.htm
    Or about the X-24?

    Here, it seems to me, the best selection to date on reusable systems of the USSR / Russia, USA and others:
    http://buran.ru/htm/family.htm

    This is called "convergence": the laws of aerodynamics are the same, however. The Shuttle and Buran were also similar
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 1 March 2016 20: 46 New
      0
      which of these is used?
  18. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 6 March 2016 15: 02 New
    0
    No matter how amer-ary puffed up, Dream Chayser can not be compared with the Spiral. There was a spinning wing on the Spiral. At the same time, the device, naturally, during landing passed in a cloud of 3000-degree plasma. Lozino-Lozinsky managed to choose the geometry of the apparatus in such a way that the wing rotation unit was in the aerodynamic shadow. Nevertheless, he warmed himself, and yet he worked. The spiral is purely technological - it is all made of metal; no tiles.

    These are two completely different levels of technology. There is still no metal lander - everywhere insulation, ceramics, carbon fiber, coating. All the same, as if the Amers had now begun to show off the Stefanson steam train. Everyone would laugh only.
    Soviet technology was great!
  19. chatlanin60
    chatlanin60 April 5 2016 23: 31 New
    0
    Today the country does not have money to create similar and other developments for outer space, now the main task is to rearm the RF Armed Forces, train military specialists when the enemy categorically does not want to start military operations against Russia, then you can create such things taking into account existing experience. Ours will always be able to surprise the world!