In 2017, the 50 will be exactly the same year since its adoption by the US Navy of the most popular in the West anti-aircraft guided missile for the naval air defense missile systems - RIM-66A "Standard-1" (SM-1). The product, aerodynamically perfect at that time, gave rise to a whole family of standard-grade SAM systems, which over four decades of improvement managed to replenish with modifications such as the Standard-67ER RIM-1A (two-stage SAM with 65 km range and high speed parameters on the final leg of the flight) , RIM-66C "Standard SM-2МR Block I" (the first modification of "Standard-2" integrated with the "Aegis" BIOS), RIM-156A "SM-2ER Block IV" (two-stage "Standard-2" SAM with long-range flight, about 160 km), RIM-161B "SM-3 Block IA" (anti-missile range 500 km, integrated into the AEgis BMD 3.6.1 software, designed to defeat a BR in near space). According to the last modification, work is being done to further improve the sensitivity of the infrared GOS for the development of the US and allied air defense / missile defense program. On the basis of RIM-161A, a ground-based interceptor missile RIM-161C was created for the “Aegis Ashore” missile defense system, which recently took up duty on duty in Romania.
The RIM-67A "Standard-1ER" SAM at the slightly upgraded guides of the Mk 10 launcher on the stern of the US destroyer DDG-41 USS "King" (class "Farragut"). Initially, two-stage SAM systems of the RIM-10 “Terrier” family were installed on the Mk 2 PU, which had very similar mass-dimensional parameters to the “SM-1ER”. Replacing the “Standards” began in the 70-ies. Anti-aircraft guided missile RIM-67A was the first two-stage long-range missiles in the US Navy, which was able to intercept air targets at a distance of 80 km. It was this rocket that became the prototype for the development of modern long-range two-stage SAMs Standard-2ER (Block I-IV); the latest version of which (RIM-156A), equipped with a solid-fuel stage Mk 72, is capable of hitting targets at a distance of 160 km. Further, the SM-3 and SM-6 were developed using the same “templates”, which became the basis of the promising American AUG air defense and missile defense, as well as a starting point in the recently sensational resumption of the high-speed anti-ship missile program for the US Navy.
But the Standard family was not limited to versions of anti-aircraft missiles. In the 1966 year, even before the SM-1 was commissioned, General Dynamics conducted parallel work on the AGM-78 “Standard-ARM” anti-radar missile, which was adopted by the US Air Force in the 1968 year and was intended to replace less sophisticated PLLR AGM-45 "Shrike"; their shortcomings were identified during the Vietnamese company. In particular, the absence of an inertial targeting unit with a drive to save the coordinates of a disconnected radar did not allow hitting the target in the event of the latter being turned off, and the HOS programmed before the departure caused the narrow Shrike functionality only with a single operating radar. Standard-ARM was devoid of these shortcomings, and therefore belongs to the transitional generation of PRLR, being almost on the same step as the well-known AGM-88 HARM.
AGM-78 Standard-ARM anti-radar missile was unified with almost all tactical carrier-based aircraft aviation US Navy. The missile had a number of characteristic technical features that determined its superiority over the existing AGM-45 Shrike HRD, and in some respects over the existing AGM-88E AAGRM. The mass of the high-explosive fragmentation warhead AGM-78 reached 150 kg, and was the most powerful of the known PRLR (except for the Russian X-58): when it is detonated, a crater with a diameter of 5 meters is formed on the surface, and when detonated at heights of more than 10 m, it can be surely defeated fragments fall to 300-400 meters of the battlefield. Despite the fact that American experts complained about the low average flight speed, the initial speed after leaving the suspensions was 3000 km / h (820 m / s), which is 750 km / h higher than the HARM, therefore, the best flight performance manifested during high-altitude launch, where the rarefied atmosphere did not contribute to the rapid deceleration of the rocket after the main engine burns out. In the photo - an early modification of the A-6B Mod 0 anti-radar carrier-based ground attack aircraft in the parking lot of the Point Mugu Naval Aviation Base of the United States (1967). The tactics of using Standard-ARM, which was then used on the A-6B Mod.1 modification, were tested on an experimental machine. A distinctive feature of the anti-radar version of the aircraft was small passive enemy radar irradiation detectors for target designation AGM-78, which were located on the surface of the nose fairing (12 antennas) and in the tail coke for the observation of the ZPS (6 antennas) (in the bottom photo). The range of "Standard-ARM" was 60% superior to "Shrike" and reached 80 km
Despite the range unprecedented for those years for PRLRT tactical aviation (75 km) and the most up-to-date elemental base of avionics, Standard-ARM ceased to be made due to the high cost of 1976, and the Standard family retained its anti-aircraft and anti-missile assignment up to today’s the day when new realities of military technological progress lead to the return of the most unexpected, sometimes long-forgotten projects.
7 April 1973, in the US Navy, successfully tested the first prototype of the supersonic anti-ship missile RGM-66F, which by tactical and technical parameters (except for the range in 550 km) was absolutely not inferior to our BNT 4K80 "Bazalt". The anti-ship RGM-1F developed on the basis of the SM-66MR missile defense system had a small radar signature (around 0,1 м2). This greatly complicated the detection and “capture” of the then-existing shipborne radar of the M-1 Volna, M-11 Storm and Osa-M radar. Experienced RGM-66F was not yet equipped with a first stage accelerator, and therefore even the ballistic flight path, with access to the lower stratosphere (up to 18 km), did not allow the rocket to hit surface targets at a distance of more than 50 km with a satisfying 2-speed on the final speed stage of the flight path. As with most anti-ship missiles, the RGM-66F provided for the installation of an active radar homing head, thanks to which the product was also known as “Standard Active”. And the unification with the standard-1 family of SAMs allowed it to be used not from the specialized inclined TPK (PU) Mk 141, as was done in the “Harpoons”, but from standard cellars with revolving storages and the feeder to the inclined PU Мk 13 and Mk 26 that did not limit the anti-ship arsenal of American warships.
Despite the 43-year-old suspension of the RGM-66F supersonic CK development program, another related project to extend the functionality of Standards was a success. It's about the RGM-66D (pictured). Many eminent editions mistakenly attribute this rocket to the anti-ship class. But its characteristics and capabilities make it refer to the ship-based multi-purpose anti-radar missiles (the maritime version of the Standard-ARM). RGM-66D SSM-ARM adopted the Navy in 1970 year. The capabilities of the product included the defeat of the broadest list of radio-emitting targets using passive radar homing systems (from shipborne radars of sight and guidance to ground-based air defense radar and PTV radar); at the same time, the surface combat ship with the turned off radar means RGM-66D was not surprised, and therefore it cannot be classified as anti-ship. Structurally, the rocket completely repeated the same RIM-66B: Aerojet Mk56 solid engine mod 1 runs in 0,5 marching mode with 1,6 tons of tons of minutes, maintaining a high supersonic flight speed, and the starting charge in the combustion chamber accelerates RGM-66D up to a speed of ZNMXNNXXNNXXNNXXNNXXGNUMX in 2500 seconds. The missile can hit the radar on a ballistic trajectory at a distance of 4 km. Was developed and a specialized version of the ship PRLR - RGM-60E. The rocket was unified with the ASROC RUR-66 anti-submarine launchers (bottom photo), which kept the enemy's anti-aircraft defense even if the vulnerable installations Mk 5 / 10 / 13 failed
Regardless of the promising two-stage RIM-67A SAM (radius of action up to 80 km), the US Navy preferred the development of McDonnell Douglas - RGM-84A “Harpoon”, which has much lower-altitude flight profile, which at that time was an advantage in the breakthrough of ship-based air defense, which was not yet endowed with the ability to effectively intercept low-altitude targets, including against the background of the water surface. But "Harpoons", like other subsonic anti-ship missiles, cannot remain on top of technology forever: the noise immunity and resolution of modern radar machines are increasing every day, and even such goals as the low-profile anti-ship missiles "LRASM" will be confidently detected and intercepted by modern Russian and Chinese shipboard SAMs and, therefore, the whole concept of improving air attack weapons cannot do without expanding their speed capabilities. After all, it is not for nothing that the Yakhonts and BrahMosa are being developed for the Russian and Indian fleets. Understood in the American Navy.
Last week, US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter announced work to create a promising supersonic anti-ship missile based on the Raytheon SM-174 ERAM long-range RIM-6 anti-aircraft missile system. In fact, the advanced project gets forgotten 44 a year ago, but instead of the RIM-66A / RIM-67A, a more advanced and long-range anti-aircraft missile is taken as the basis, which helped the imperfect 4-channel “Idzhis” to maintain stability in the conditions of modern threats. RIM-174 ERAM (Extended Range Active Missile) received a highly efficient ARGSN from the AIM-120C air-to-air missile, but its antenna array area was increased 3,75 times, which increased the target capture range during off-horizon shooting. ARGSN "SM-6" also unloads "Aegis" when repelling the enemy's massive WTO strike, since it does not need to be illuminated with SPG-62 radars.
In contrast to the RGM-66F, the new supersonic SM-6-based anti-ship missile can receive the first solid-propellant accelerating stage with the Mk.72 TRD (from the exoatmospheric interceptor RIM-161), and therefore its range may be more than 370 km. A huge range with this accelerator will be achieved only thanks to the high-altitude ballistic flight profile. Other equipment is also possible with the use of the Teledyne CAE J402-CA-100 compact turbojet engine with the 0,294 ton ton as the first stage of the compact turbojet engine. In this case, a low-altitude flight profile with a final acceleration to 3-3,5М over the crest of a wave is possible, a similar profile is implemented in the Russian RCC 3М54Е Caliber-NKE. The possibilities of such a CRP will correspond to the indicators of "Caliber".
But we will focus on the version with solid propellant stage Mk.72. The anti-ship version of the RIM-174 ERAM will be able to rise to a height of up to 35-40 km, after starting up to 4000 km / h. Then, according to the inertial guidance system and external target designation, the cruise stage will enter into a dive with the accelerator already separated, and after detecting and “capturing” the missile’s GOS surface target, the cruise engine will be activated to maintain high supersonic speed in tropospheric flight.
Also, the supersonic anti-ship missile system based on the Standard-6 boasts high maneuverability capabilities derived from the anti-aircraft version, thanks to which the rocket can reach the limiting (close to 90 degrees) elevation directions relative to the surface target in the stratosphere, and then using aerodynamic control surfaces or gas-dynamic DPU, sharply turn around and vertically "fall" on the target at speeds up to 3,5M. Even today, many multifunctional and survey radars have difficulties with work on air targets with extreme elevation coordinates, which the British-American contingent of specialists from Matra BAe Dynamics and Texas Instruments used to create one of the most advanced in the world. stories PRLR - ALARM.
Without a doubt, the most tactically "sophisticated" anti-radar missile can be considered the British-American ALARM. Not being a speed record holder for this type of missile, the 2,3 fly-flying missile ALARM relies on a specialized flight path and target guidance mode, as well as a small EPR provided by a small body diameter (230 mm) and extensive use of composite materials. Having a good range of application (93 km), flying up to the target. ALARM makes a “slide” maneuver, and at the top of the trajectory (just above the target), at a height of about 12-13 km, the parachute opens from a special container, and the rocket slowly decreases during 120 seconds, scanning the surface for the likely radiation of the enemy’s radar, if a source is detected, the parachute is quickly reset and the rocket engine is activated, ALARM attacks the target from the vertical direction (almost from “blind corners”), where many SAMs (especially with semi-rad olokatsionnym guidance and poor elevation survey parameters) are helpless. Many SAMs can destroy ALARM even before entering blind corners, but for this the rocket has another “trump card in the sleeve” - the small mass and dimensions allow only the “Tornado GR.4” to place the ALARM 7 missiles, the same the link can carry 28 missiles
The command of the US Navy does not hide the fact that new high-speed anti-ship missiles are being developed as an asymmetric response to the modernization of the naval personnel of the Russian Navy (“Admiral Nakhimov”, later “Varyag”) and to update it with promising frigates of the 22350 Ave. Polyment Redut. The new missiles are fully unified with the MUP 41, and therefore their number on one side will be limited only by the number of TPCs. Anti-ship Standards will present a huge danger in a massive use in conjunction with the LRASM anti-ship missiles: dozens of the latter will appear sharply due to the radio horizon, fully loading the EIA of the enemy ships (add false targets and EW airplanes), while the latter with a slight delay will attack 3 flywheel speed, i.e. the two types of impact will occur at one point in time, overloading the capacity of the shipborne air defense missile systems. These missiles will become a real formidable force against our and Chinese CMTs.
The danger lies in the fact that the speed of 3-3,5M exceeds the speed limit for intercepting KZRAK “Kortik”, SAM “Dagger” and “Osa-MA”, and only S-300F / FM, “Shtil-1”, “Redut” "And" Shell-M "can fight against similar goals, but single ships are now equipped with these complexes fleet, which indicates the need for an early update of all types of air defense systems. In the future, “Harpoons” will be gradually decommissioned, and, by about 2025, they will be completely replaced by “LRASM” and the new “Standards-PKR”. The striking capabilities of the US Navy will increase several times: these types of missiles will also be armed with missile modifications of the landing dock-ship "San Antonio" and the EM class "Zumwalt". The adequate response of our fleet is almost ready: at the final stage of development there is an anti-ship complex with hypersonic anti-ship missiles 3K-22 Zircon. Its 4,5-missile missiles with a mixed flight profile will be able to break through even an anti-ballistic "umbrella" based on the latest vaunted multifunctional radar AMDR.