Military Review

Manual Nayman PMN-50 mortar

37
By the beginning of World War II, rifle grenades and systems for throwing them were in service with the Red Army, but they were limited in distribution and were not used very actively. More convenient and promising weapons were considered small-caliber mortars. Nevertheless, both versions of the weapon for throwing light ammunition had their drawbacks, because of which, over time, the idea emerged to combine the positive features of the existing systems and eliminate the existing drawbacks. This is how the “manual mortar” of the PMN-50 appeared.


For various reasons, precise and detailed information about the PMN-50 project is missing. There are some plausible assumptions about its origin, in addition, a number of samples of these weapons have been preserved. However, much of the information of interest remains unknown. However, even in the conditions of such a lack of information, this curious weapon can be considered, which is of great interest from the point of view stories and technology.

According to the available data, the PMN-50 product was developed by the special technological bureau of the Scientific Research Institute-6 of the People's Commissariat of Ammunition, and the design work was supervised by I.M. Naiman. Thus, the name of the development stands for "Nayman's hand mortar, caliber 50 mm." The reasons for the appearance of the project, in turn, are unknown. On this account, you can only speculate.


General view of PMN-50


Apparently, the appearance of the mortar PMN-50 led to an analysis of the capabilities and prospects of existing systems. The existing rifle mortars made it possible to throw light fragmentation ammunition at the enemy, but they limited the use of basic rifles and also increased their weight. More serious artillery systems, such as 50-mm company-made mortars of the 1938 and 1940 types, were notable for their heavy weight and relatively low mobility. Probably, the specialists of SRI-6 decided to combine rifles with rifle grenades and mortars, which led to the formation of the appearance of the original weapon.

As a basis for the mortar PMN-50 were taken Mosin serial rifle arr. 1891 / 30 and available 50-mm mortar 1938 / 40. The rifle was supposed to give a new weapon a part of the box, a receiver, ammunition mechanisms, a bolt and a part of the barrel. From the mortar it was proposed to take the barrel without rifling. In addition, the new weapon should have used exactly 50-mm mines.

The surviving samples of Naiman’s hand-held mortars have some technical and technological differences, but the overall architecture of these products is the same. Serial rifles with various damage to the barrels, excluding their further use, were taken as the basis for the mortar. Most of the barrel, with the exception of the chamber and a small section of the breech, was removed. In addition, the bed was trimmed, and in the remaining part of it a notch of larger diameter was made. Next to the trimmed barrel rifle attached mortar barrel. The mortar barrel and the bed are usually not fastened together.


Another museum sample


In connection with the radical alteration of the “native” rifle barrel, the sights were transferred to the mortar barrel. A standard open sight was mounted in its breech, and a fly was attached to the barrel. In order to simplify production, the PMN-50 installed sights that were removed from the base rifle. This led to a reduction in the sighting line, and also required the use of new methods of aiming.

Together with a manual mortar, fragmentation mines of caliber 50 mm, which were already used with mortars, were to be used. 1938 / 40 Products 0-822 and 0-822А had a weight of 0,86 and 0,922 kg, respectively, received a steel or cast-iron body and carried an explosive substance on 90 g. The differences between the mines consisted in the material of the hull and the design of the tail stabilizer: the 0-822 was six-pointed, the 0-822А - four-pointed. When used with a hand mortar, mines were not equipped with their own propelling charge. According to some information, similar ammunition of a different purpose could be used with a mortar, which was connected with the supply of such weapons to special units. Thanks to these products, the fighters could not only destroy the enemy's manpower, but also solve other tasks, such as setting smoke screens, etc.

In order to reduce the recoil momentum when firing, PMH-50 had to use mines without their own propelling charges. Instead, it was proposed to use idle rifle cartridges with a lower charge. Naturally, this reduced the maximum firing range, but allowed to fire without using the base plate and other "traditional" mortar units, while holding the weapon with your hands.

Manual Nayman PMN-50 mortar
Barrel borrowed from mortar


As follows from the available data, firing from a PMN-50 manual mortar was supposed to look like this. Having taken a position, the mortar gunner (or mortar gunners) had to charge the rifle with a blank cartridge and then place the 50-mm mine in the barrel. After that, it was necessary to rest the weapon with the butt into the ground and proceed to targeting. With the help of the existing sight, it was proposed to point the weapon in the right direction and hold it with the required angle of elevation. Then, using a standard firing mechanism, a shot was fired, and the powder gases of the idle cartridge pushed the mine out of the barrel.

The exact characteristics of PMN-50 are unknown, but some assumptions can be made. So, with the raised frame of the standard sight, there was a possibility of firing with angles of elevation no more than 12-15 °. Given the relatively small propellant charge, the range of the mines could hardly exceed 150-200 m. The maximum range at the optimum angle, in turn, could not exceed 300-400 m.

The existing RMN-50 specimens show attachments for bipods that were not removed from the mortar barrel during assembly. Thus, in theory, a manual mortar could retain the ability to use bipods and shooting from the stop. It is not known whether this method of using weapons was used, but this possibility cannot be ruled out.


Under the barrel are visible bipod mounts, "inherited" from the base mortar


As already mentioned, Nayman’s hand-held mortars were made from Mosin’s serial rifles of various modifications with various barrel damage. The continued use of this weapon for its intended purpose was not possible, which is why it was converted into mortars by removing damaged parts. The origin of the mortar trunks is unclear, but, apparently, new aggregates of relatively simple design were used.

In the available sources it is mentioned that the RMN-50 systems were in service with special groups of the NKVD, which performed various tasks in the rear of the enemy. This fact is also related to the use of not only fragmentation, but also other mines with special equipment. For obvious reasons, the details of the use of such weapons remain unknown.

Manual mortars based on existing weapons were produced in series and delivered to the customer in the person of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. In addition, deliveries to the Red Army units are not excluded. It is known that several RMN-50 samples, which are now museum pieces, have survived to this day. It is noteworthy that, despite the presence of several surviving mortars, information about this development is extremely scarce.

The manual mortar of Nayman RMN-50 is one of the most interesting models of Russian weapons of the Great Patriotic War. However, the story has not retained most of the information about this development, or they have not yet been discovered. And yet, despite the small fame, these weapons in one way or another approximated the victory over the enemy, and therefore worthy of mention.


On the materials of the sites:
http://tv.sb.by/
http://forum.guns.ru/
http://strangernn.livejournal.com/
Author:
Photos used:
Tv.sb.by, Strangernn.livejournal.com
37 comments
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  1. Massik
    Massik 21 January 2016 06: 11
    +4
    Shoot hands with a shell in kilograms even with a small charge, but there were people in your time.
    1. AK64
      AK64 21 January 2016 07: 38
      +4
      not with hands
      As follows from the available data, firing from a hand-held mortar RMN-50 should have looked like this. Having taken a position, the mortar shooter (or mortar) had to charge the rifle with a blank cartridge in a regular manner and then place a 50 mm mine in the barrel. After that it was necessary push the weapon into the ground with a butt and start hovering. With the help of the available sight, it was proposed to aim the weapon in the right direction and hold it with the required elevation angle. Then, with the help of a standard trigger mechanism, a shot was fired, and powder gases of a blank cartridge pushed a mine out of the barrel.
    2. guzik007
      guzik007 21 January 2016 11: 37
      -2
      Shoot hands with a shell in kilograms even with a small charge, but there were people in your time.
      ----------------------------------
      I ran my eyes through the article and go ahead, be the first to be. It is clearly written, for firing the butt BASED ON THE EARTH.
      1. gross kaput
        gross kaput 21 January 2016 16: 23
        +5
        Quote: guzik007
        It is clearly written, for firing the butt BASED ON THE EARTH.

        what is written is the author's assumption and nothing more, but unfortunately you are not attentive like the author - we look carefully at the photo - we see "for some reason" rifle sights installed on the mortar barrel, which are absolutely useless for shooting with an emphasis on the ground, for such shooting is used by squares, by the way sawing a 50mm company mortar we still get an unnecessary square sight, which could be adjusted, but for some reason the designers put rifle sightings for direct fire
    3. Civil
      Civil 21 January 2016 20: 20
      +1
      To know the results of a combat application ... to the author respect and +
      1. Massik
        Massik 22 January 2016 06: 30
        +2
        Quote: AK64
        not with hands

        Quote: guzik007
        I ran my eyes through the article and go ahead, be the first to be. It is clearly written, for firing the butt BASED ON THE EARTH.

        Kh-km .... Why then make a butt and generally bother with a rifle? We take the barrel from this unit, we attach the needle to it and the lightweight base plate (the charge is tiny) we shoot as much as we like with an emphasis on the ground. It will turn out much easier and more convenient than from this hybrid when shooting "from the ground".
  2. La-5
    La-5 21 January 2016 06: 26
    +3
    Soviet M-79. It is a pity that the topic of automatic grenade launchers was destroyed in the Union, and since infantry would have received an effective anti-personnel weapon before the war, then grenade launchers would have appeared.
    1. AK64
      AK64 21 January 2016 07: 39
      +3
      Without mechanization or infantry motorization, no automatic grenade launchers were possible
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Per se.
      Per se. 21 January 2016 07: 47
      +5
      Quote: La-5
      Soviet M-79.
      Well, probably not really. In general, it is strange that it was necessary to fence vegetable gardens with these rifle mortars or "hand mortars" when the idea lay on the surface and was relatively easy to solve. In principle, the M-79 appeared too late, its time would have been for World War II, if not earlier.
      1. La-5
        La-5 21 January 2016 08: 14
        +4
        Quote: Per se.
        Quote: La-5
        Soviet M-79.
        Well, probably not really. In general, it is strange that it was necessary to fence vegetable gardens with these rifle mortars or "hand mortars" when the idea lay on the surface and was relatively easy to solve. In principle, the M-79 appeared too late, its time would have been for World War II, if not earlier.

        I think that the "Gardens were fencing" because of the fact that it was necessary to start from something, it was possible to make a start from automatic grenade launchers, but the topic was ruined not without the participation of the same mortars who pushed their company mortars. As a result, company mortars were quickly recognized as ineffective, there were also rifle grenades, which also suffered from a lot of shortcomings and did not differ in effectiveness. Although it was the hand-held anti-personnel grenade launcher that the troops needed and everyone understood this, the same Germans used a modified signal pistol (rocket launcher) - Kampfpistole - as a similar grenade launcher. Now, of course, it is easy to say that the idea lay on the surface, but then for such bold ideas it was possible to get shot, as it was with Taubin.
        1. Stas57
          Stas57 21 January 2016 09: 20
          +1
          Quote: La-5
          I think that the "Gardens were fencing" because of the fact that it was necessary to start from something, it was possible to start from automatic grenade launchers, but the topic was ruined not without the participation of the same mortars who shoved their company mortars.

          you are talking nonsense-
          to replace the inoperative "taubin automatic grenade launcher" where they used the MG Dyakonov system created on the basis of a standard rifle grenade, where each grenade had to be set manually !!! worth a lot of money, high-tech, the army received real weapons.
          As a result, company mortars were quickly recognized as ineffective,

          ololo
          5cm leichter Granatenwerfer 36 Germans used before 44! and they didn’t ache, but their industry would be able to.
          1. La-5
            La-5 21 January 2016 10: 10
            +2
            Quote: Stas57
            Quote: La-5
            I think that the "Gardens were fencing" because of the fact that it was necessary to start from something, it was possible to start from automatic grenade launchers, but the topic was ruined not without the participation of the same mortars who shoved their company mortars.

            you are talking nonsense-
            to replace the inoperative "taubin automatic grenade launcher" where they used the MG Dyakonov system created on the basis of a standard rifle grenade, where each grenade had to be set manually !!! worth a lot of money, high-tech, the army received real weapons.
            As a result, company mortars were quickly recognized as ineffective,

            ololo
            5cm leichter Granatenwerfer 36 Germans used before 44! and they didn’t ache, but their industry would be able to.

            Not working can be made working if you do not stick sticks in the wheels. The USSR also used company mortars until the end of the war, then what? Using and not whining, as you put it, does not negate the shortcomings of company mortars. Today, neither the army of the FRG nor Russia is armed with company-owned mortars, but there are automatic and under-barrel grenade launchers.
            1. Stas57
              Stas57 21 January 2016 10: 35
              +2
              Quote: La-5
              Not working can be made working if you do not stick sticks in the wheels. The USSR also used company mortars until the end of the war, then what? Using and not whining, as you put it, does not negate the shortcomings of company mortars. Today, neither the army of the FRG nor Russia is armed with company-owned mortars, but there are automatic and under-barrel grenade launchers.

              and then, they had to make work or finish not just like that, but the moment the war started!
              -when there is an evacuation.
              -when many types of weapons are lost.
              -when urgently need to expand the production of weapons at unprepared sites.
              at the same time, we have a grenade launcher that:
              - it’s like an airplane
              - extremely low-tech (large metal and labor costs, highly qualified)
              -requires special types of lubricants, materials.
              -No production of grenades (no-0 at all)
              -Requires a highly skilled shooter.


              it means that we need not only to establish production, which is not there, but also to teach in the troops, and not only to teach, to determine its place by staff - platoon, company, regiment, division, etc.

              and at the same time we have:
              - substantially cheap
              - extremely high-tech (partisan detachment, school workshop, etc.)
              - extremely easy to use
              50 mm mortar.

              Well, prove to me that the expensive toy was worth it, and the damned lobby ruined everything!
              I’ll remind you how much the DShK was finished, how it was done with the PPD, how it was possible to arrange the release under the 2 license, see the metal, well, to make it clearer, remember the history of fine-tuning air guns, air guns, and now imagine that instead of ShVAK, the plant will produce this freak and ShVAK will not.
              absolutely will not, well, or maybe only towards the end of the war ...
              or there will be no 23 and 37 mm anti-aircraft guns that were going the same hard. Because we have enterprises that can make machines, on the fingers of one pair of hands, and all are loaded to the eyeballs.

              that's why they didn’t ache, but they used what they have, with all the minuses, and I used the remark well, on our part.
          2. gross kaput
            gross kaput 21 January 2016 17: 27
            +1
            Quote: Stas57
            where they used the systems of M. G. Dyakonov created on the basis of a standard rifle grenade,

            What did you manually set there? after the first experiments in 1935, they realized that Dyakonov’s grenades were not suitable for use in the AH and developed their own grenade, in 37 it was modified (increased fuse sensitivity) as a result, the Taubin grenade with Dyakonovskaya has only a common caliber.
        2. Per se.
          Per se. 21 January 2016 09: 50
          +3
          Quote: La-5
          I think that the "Gardens were fencing" due to the fact that it was necessary to start from something
          There was something to build on.
          Hand mortar - a handgun designed for firing grenades. The main feature of manual mortars is the unusual design of the barrel. It seems to consist of two parts: the boiler, where the grenade is placed, and a narrow cylindrical charging chamber.
          There were three types of hand-made mortars: bronze and iron in an ordinary gun box; in a box with an elongated neck and a long butt with a rectangular neckline on the back and a mortar, the chamber of which served as a piece of a gun barrel.

          They were shot from them with grenades from 1 1 / 2 to 3 pounds depending on the caliber of the boiler. Hand-made mortars appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 18th century, in Western Europe - at the turn of the 17th – 18th centuries. In the first decade of the XVIII century. Russia bought them among other weapons abroad, mainly in Poland. So, in 1707 - 1708 years. More 110 mortars were purchased only in Warsaw. In the second decade, manual mortars were already manufactured in domestic factories.
          Here is the "M-79" of the XNUMXth century.
          1. La-5
            La-5 21 January 2016 10: 12
            +2
            Quote: Per se.
            Quote: La-5
            I think that the "Gardens were fencing" due to the fact that it was necessary to start from something
            There was something to build on.
            Hand mortar - a handgun designed for firing grenades. The main feature of manual mortars is the unusual design of the barrel. It seems to consist of two parts: the boiler, where the grenade is placed, and a narrow cylindrical charging chamber.
            There were three types of hand-made mortars: bronze and iron in an ordinary gun box; in a box with an elongated neck and a long butt with a rectangular neckline on the back and a mortar, the chamber of which served as a piece of a gun barrel.

            They were shot from them with grenades from 1 1 / 2 to 3 pounds depending on the caliber of the boiler. Hand-made mortars appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 18th century, in Western Europe - at the turn of the 17th – 18th centuries. In the first decade of the XVIII century. Russia bought them among other weapons abroad, mainly in Poland. So, in 1707 - 1708 years. More 110 mortars were purchased only in Warsaw. In the second decade, manual mortars were already manufactured in domestic factories.
            Here is the "M-79" of the XNUMXth century.

            Meant in terms of ammunition.
        3. gross kaput
          gross kaput 21 January 2016 16: 11
          +5
          Quote: La-5
          I think that the "Gardens were fencing" because of the fact that it was necessary to start from something, it was possible to start from automatic grenade launchers, but the topic was ruined not without the participation of the same mortars who shoved their company mortars.

          Quote: La-5
          Now it’s easy to say, of course, that the idea lay on the surface, but then for such bold ideas it was possible to get shot, as it was with Taubin.

          This tale about insidious mortarmen, with the "scoundrel" Nudelman usually attached to them, had already gotten out of it, Taubin was shot not for AG, but for his attitude to work, he essentially threw AG without finishing, but spending a huge amount at that time, although the infantry and the fleet (river flotillas) showed a great desire to get into service with the AG, after which he undertook to design a 23mm cannon (MP3-MP6) for aviation first, but in the end he did not cope, although the LAGG-3 was designed specifically for it, and then had not yet finished the epics with cannons, undertook to design a 12,7 rapid-fire machine gun (AP 12,7), which, according to his promises, should have been lighter than analogues and faster, while aviation designers were obliged to link the design of new aircraft with this machine gun - as a result, the machine gun was tested and launched into an experimental production of BUT when shooting the first batch of 5 pieces, all five machine guns collapsed during the second round, so that the Taubin AG was just one of a long row and was not brought up and abandoned x them samples, in this whole story, the patience of the "bloodthirsty" gebny is surprising, which, if you follow the tales of our "crapcrats", should have shot him back in 1938 for failing to develop a 37mm aircraft cannon, but which for some reason allowed him to spend money on failed 23mm cannon, 12,7mm machine gun and automatic grenade launcher, so the military, looking at this whole epic with the Taubinsky underdeveloped, quite logically decided that a company mortar is better than a more effective AG, but it is not known when brought to the end.
      2. tchoni
        tchoni 21 January 2016 09: 10
        0
        Earlier, much earlier. As soon as a machine gun appeared on the battlefield, a means of dealing with it was immediately needed. But such that it could move with the infantry. By accident, tanks became such a means. And could become an infantry grenade launcher. Although, tanks, of course, are more universal.
        1. Per se.
          Per se. 21 January 2016 09: 38
          +4
          Quote: tchoni
          Earlier, much earlier.
          In general, we can say that the idea is as old as the world. Grenadier units made extensive use of hand-held mortars almost as early as the 17th-18th centuries. Why this was not developed later is another question, but manual mortars were the prototype of gun grenade launchers, be it M-79, or later ideas with grenade launchers.
    4. Stas57
      Stas57 21 January 2016 09: 14
      +2
      Quote: La-5
      . It’s a pity that the topic of automatic grammar machines in the Union was ruined

      It’s good to be rich and happy. yeah
      but in reality, before the war, Soviet industry, for the most part, could only in exchange for the reduction of something no less important, if not more important.
  3. alex-cn
    alex-cn 21 January 2016 06: 55
    +1
    I myself wouldn’t dare to shoot such a thing, for sure, there were people ...
    But, judging by the instruction, they fired then resting their butt on the ground, so that they had a mortar weakened for the sake of mobility?
    1. La-5
      La-5 21 January 2016 07: 07
      +2
      Quote: alex-cn
      I myself wouldn’t dare to shoot such a thing, for sure, there were people ...
      But, judging by the instruction, they fired then resting their butt on the ground, so that they had a mortar weakened for the sake of mobility?

      And then to aim from it then? Judging by the sights, shooting with an emphasis on the shoulder was originally conceived, but apparently the return was very strong and in the instruction they wrote emphasis on the ground.
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 21 January 2016 07: 22
        0
        And how do Americans shoot from m224? There are no two-legs, they hold the barrel with their hands, the sight is also somehow not visible ...
        1. La-5
          La-5 21 January 2016 07: 30
          +2
          Quote: alex-cn
          And how do Americans shoot from m224? There are no two-legs, they hold the barrel with their hands, the sight is also somehow not visible ...

          M-224 is an ordinary mortar, the USSR also had such company mortars, but why did they come up with the same product with a butt and sights from small arms. So shooting was implied not like in a conventional mortar. Most likely this is an attempt to make a hand grenade launcher ala M-79.
          1. alex-cn
            alex-cn 21 January 2016 07: 41
            +1
            Most likely, it was an attempt, it is possible that in critical situations shooting from the shoulder was supposed, but, apparently, the main thing was shooting with focus on the ground.
            By the way, weighed a 50-mm mortar more than 12 kilograms. Here, I think, 6-7. But for a diversionary group, this is serious.
          2. AK64
            AK64 21 January 2016 07: 43
            +3
            This is nothing more than an attempt to "give a second life" to a damaged rifle, and nothing more. Military ersatz
          3. tchoni
            tchoni 21 January 2016 10: 47
            +2
            Guys, where did you get the idea of ​​“high recoil?” After all, a blank cartridge with a reduced charge is used as a propellant charge, that is, the muzzle energy is not more than 4 kJ, but in fact, most likely, 2.5-3.
            Devaysina, most likely, was conceived as an additional weapon for special forces. And judging by the article, it was used that way. So, I think they shot from the shoulder ...
            The speed of a kilogram grenade (mines) when using a rifle cartridge with an energy of 3 kJ should have been about 80 m / s. And this is about the same as m79. So a very analogue is obtained for assault groups
            1. alex-cn
              alex-cn 21 January 2016 11: 13
              +3
              Only here the m79 grenade weighs 150 grams against almost 900 mines
              1. tchoni
                tchoni 21 January 2016 12: 24
                0
                Well, this is how lucky Kama is :-) but, in my opinion, the m79 grenade has something around 200-250 grams ..? Or I'm wrong?
                1. alex-cn
                  alex-cn 21 January 2016 13: 09
                  0
                  this is the whole shot including the sleeve
            2. gross kaput
              gross kaput 21 January 2016 21: 43
              +1
              Quote: tchoni
              80m / s

              Oh how! the 40th year’s rotnika has 96 capes on a standard knockout cartridge and you have 80 on the rifle idle - what doesn’t you think?
      2. AK64
        AK64 21 January 2016 07: 41
        0
        in most 50 mm mortars, berthing devices are rudemental. That is, say, the marks on the belt so that the angle is correctly set
  4. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 21 January 2016 07: 10
    +4
    "bipod mounts are visible, which were not removed from the mortar barrel during assembly"

    Something I did not see there are fasteners for bipod, there is a swivel, but there are no fasteners. request
  5. Tankist_1980
    Tankist_1980 21 January 2016 11: 02
    +1
    You can shoot a live cartridge, only there is no rifled barrel, no accuracy
  6. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 21 January 2016 13: 08
    +2
    Author plus! Since "school years" I have been interested in the history of weapons ..... I have known many "stories" for a long time. But I did not know, in general, about this weapon (RMN-50).
  7. lysyj bob
    lysyj bob 21 January 2016 14: 48
    +1
    And, as an integral element of the design - a hole in the breech. ... Green law! .. Gentlemen, collectors, I believe - there will be a holiday on your street! Someday the holes will be canceled!
  8. ser6119
    ser6119 4 November 2018 13: 25
    0
    The prototype of the grenade launcher?