Military Review

Slaughter something prettier!

57
As is known, the oldest daggers were made of stone. These could be flint or obsidian tips with a barely sketched grip, which could, if desired, also be used as a spearhead. In Denmark, a knife was already found with a clearly outlined handle, and one of the later samples, found in Sweden, generally imitates a bronze dagger and dates from around 1600 BC.



Bronze Celtic Dagger. Approximately 1200 BC. The blade is cast together with the handle, the latter has an anthropomorphic form. Such handles are known, like those of daggers and swords, but with which such a form is connected is unknown. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Slaughter something prettier!

Bronze Celtic Sword. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

However, why be surprised? In the Museum of Mexico, you can see the ritual knives for human sacrifice from obsidian, decorated with turquoise and gold. Probably could have made a golden dagger. After all, the Egyptians did them, but ... they left obsidians, it is sharper. The emperor Geliogabal in Rome, however, ordered gold swords for himself in order to kill himself in case of an attempt, but he did not manage to use them.


Dagger Tagar culture, V century. BC. Draws attention to the technology of making a dagger. The iron blade, but the handle is cast from bronze in the famous "animal style." State Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

And here it is important to note one curious fact: cold weapon with a short blade, over time, it began to be decorated much more abundantly than a long blade. Of course, we can find both richly decorated Turkish and Indian sabers, and Japanese swords, yes, of course, but the richly decorated daggers are more at times. Why is it so clear! The more often we use, then decorate. In the novel A.P. Chapygin "Razin Stepan" imperial detectives conspire to seize Stepan in call, that is, in the outhouse. “It’s not possible to climb a saber with a saber!” The clerk gave instructions to them, that is, it was uncomfortable to walk with a saber, I had to take it off, which was also inconvenient. But since the times were harsh, and people needed weapons all the time, they took the daggers with them, which they began to decorate richly, in addition to emphasizing their social status.


Turkish dagger XVIII century. with slotted blade. Length xnumx; Weight 33,8 Metropolitan Museum, New York.


For comparison - the Indian dagger also with a slotted blade of the XVIII century. The decoration used jade, gold, rubies, emeralds. For the length of the 43,18, see Metropolitan Museum, New York.


And another dagger and blade with a slot - also India and also the XVIII century. Shark leather, gold, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, silver. The length of the blade 16,5, see Metropolitan Museum, New York.

At the same time, different forms of blades and methods of finishing handles and scabbards were developed in different countries. And if earlier the same Romans looked at weapons as a very functional object and no more, then over time it turned into an object of art, a means of capitalization and ... PR. We read R. Kipling's novel “Kim”: “Sahib gave me a gard sword, and she blushed from the blood of my brother,” says one of the characters there. That is, an Englishman-sahib made an expensive gift to him, well, well, it was worth it - to fight with someone else’s hands on a beautiful tsatsku is the most correct method, however. That is, if a person is stupid, then why not take advantage of this? From here, by the way, the custom of giving a weapon takes place: it was given by kings, kings, emperors, shahs and padishahs, well, but now it is given by presidents and presidents, and, like in old time, they do not regret gold.


Turkish saber kilich XVIII century. Damascus steel, gold. Length xnumx; 96,5 blade length, see Metropolitan Museum, New York.


Polish ship saber beginning of the XVII century. Compared with the Turkish looks, of course, poorly. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

What types of weapons with a short blade are considered the most decorated? Judging by the museum exhibits, for example, samples from the Metropolitan Museum in New York for the title of the most richly decorated Turkish and Indian samples. Then comes Iran, and all the rest are just pale copies of what was created by the local craftsmen. The Kubachi weapon had an excellent finish, but ... it was a masterful, but still not so rich. Turkish masters used for decoration not only gold and silver, but also gems, corals, pearls, shark skin - that is, the value of the decoration itself sometimes repeatedly exceeded the value of the blade itself.


“The decoration of my gold golden dagger shines ...” To whom these lines are unknown M. Yu. Lermontov? And here he is in front of you: Caucasian dagger Kama XIX century. and Dagestan work, as indicated by the extended head of the handle. But what is his wavy blade? A very unusual weapon, and a blade of a form completely uncharacteristic for the Caucasus. Steel, silver, enamel. Length 54,9, see Weight 354,4, Metropolitan Museum, New York.


But the Persian Jambia XIX century. The blade is generally not half sharpened. Steel, gold, carved ivory. Length 43,8, see Weight 462,1, Metropolitan Museum, New York.

At the same time, the master gunsmiths tried to make the blades themselves more constructively more beautiful and more deadly, for which they used various tricks. Used blades with slots, in fact, no role played, with a wavy or serrated blade.

Sometimes it was justified, but only sometimes in some specific types of weapons, in particular, boarding. But for the domestic weapon the blade form did not play any practical role. After all, it is possible to slaughter a person with the most ordinary kitchen knife, and the slaughtered person will be a little consolation to see a dagger sticking out of his chest with a jade handle and gold and diamond trim!


Dagger-blade blade. How he was used in battle is very well shown in the Soviet film "Black Arrow", filmed on the eponymous novel by Stevenson. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

But as evidence of the skill and skill of the master gunsmiths, the richly trimmed weapon, of course, has no equal. It has mastery, a fusion of technologies of many generations, aesthetics of ancient views on the concept of “beauty”, local traditions, attitude to religion and much, much more, which allows us to better understand the spiritual culture of other nations!


Bayonet XVIII. The same dagger inserted into the barrel of a musket. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
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  1. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 11 January 2016 06: 49 New
    11
    Very beautiful!))) I respect the author for finding unbroken topics in his articles.
  2. alex-cn
    alex-cn 11 January 2016 07: 11 New
    +4
    Beautiful article. "+ .. 2" Apparently something ancient is sitting in each of us, the devil knows from what times ...
    But I do not think that so decorated weapons participated in the battle without emergency. It is rather a ceremonial and status decoration.
    I don’t really know how much the finish was more expensive than another blade. Indeed, the development of a high analysis of Damascus or damask blade took months, and sometimes, in a full cycle, and years ...
    But, that the carabels were also with elman, he did not pay attention before. Thank you.
    1. ICT
      ICT 11 January 2016 07: 22 New
      +6
      over there wink
      1. ICT
        ICT 11 January 2016 07: 23 New
        +4
        but almost the same I have
        1. kalibr
          11 January 2016 07: 49 New
          +2
          And where did you get it from? Have you been to Mexico? If, yes, then you can only envy. And what else did you get there as interesting?
          1. ICT
            ICT 11 January 2016 08: 08 New
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            And where did you get it from


            souvenir craft. I brought a sailor from a voyage. I’ll fill in some photo
            1. kalibr
              11 January 2016 08: 57 New
              +1
              "I envy" - as they said in my yard in childhood!
            2. ICT
              ICT 11 January 2016 17: 54 New
              0
              Quote: kalibr
              Have you been to Mexico?



              it turns out that in PERU Inca (there is an inscription on it as a souvenir)

              and yes, almost one in one, only the shoulder blade is sharper and the peasant holds in his hands something else. (material bronze)
    2. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 11 January 2016 07: 32 New
      +2
      Quote: alex-cn
      It is rather a ceremonial and status decoration.

      This is a work of art.
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn 11 January 2016 07: 38 New
        +2
        Any really worthwhile decoration is a work of art.
    3. Mavric
      Mavric 11 January 2016 14: 01 New
      +2
      Weapons were specially decorated so that they would not be thrown into battle.
    4. gladcu2
      gladcu2 11 January 2016 16: 28 New
      +2
      These are status but functional things.
    5. Alex
      Alex 11 January 2016 17: 47 New
      +2
      Quote: alex-cn
      But I do not think that so decorated weapons participated in the battle without emergency. It is rather a ceremonial and status decoration.

      Probably. But in I.Le’s novel “Bogdan Khmelnitsky” there is a moment when the young regimentar Alexander Konetspolsky boasted of the rich decoration of the saber, with which he was going to lead troops to Khmel. Maybe the status of commander in chief did not imply a battle in the field, or maybe young blood required a demonstration of ambition and wealth, even on the battlefield.
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 11 January 2016 07: 39 New
    10
    Bao Teng - a saber worth $ 7. 700 century
    1. Hairy Siberian
      Hairy Siberian 11 January 2016 08: 33 New
      +2
      Quote: Tlauicol
      Bao Teng - a saber worth $ 7. 700 century

      77 million dollars? belay Are the dollars exactly American? lol
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 11 January 2016 08: 39 New
        +3
        extra toe hi
  4. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 11 January 2016 08: 13 New
    +3
    A dagger with a blade-knife ... It will break itself when meeting with a sword, but if with a sword, then it is possible.
    the last picture bayonet plug is a baguette or a bayonet, many copies are broken in the correct name, but this is both trebuchet and trebuche, both are true.
    1. ICT
      ICT 11 January 2016 08: 21 New
      0
      Quote: cth; fyn
      Itself will break when meeting with a sword


      Well, as I understand it, it is not hardened. so that if only chases
      1. kalibr
        11 January 2016 09: 00 New
        +7
        It was used in tandem with a sword. With a blade breaker they intercepted the enemy’s sword to get the letter X. Then they struck the enemy’s side with their sword, and since it was fixed, it broke. That's all!
        1. otto meer
          otto meer 11 January 2016 13: 26 New
          0
          Quote: cth; fyn
          Itself will break when meeting with a sword, but if with a sword, then it is possible.
          If we talk about the late (high) Middle Ages, the Renaissance, then the devil himself will break his leg - where is the sword, and where is the sword. One and a half meter drin with a mass of 1,5 kg - a sword, and a 60 centimeter hole punch in 400 g. - the sword. And there is still no common denominator in this matter.

          Quote: kalibr
          The bladebreaker intercepted the enemy’s sword
          Still, probably not intercepted, but caught, in statics or on the fly, fint. Because it’s fraught to accept the prima strike of the sword on the dag — it turns the wrist and tears out of the hand, you can lose weapons or damage the wrist. Or maybe I'm just a wimp? But for healthy guys, Doug flies with a direct block.
          Quote: kalibr
          Then they hit with their sword on the enemy side, and since it was fixed, it broke at the same time.
          Yes, there is such a thing.
          1. kalibr
            11 January 2016 14: 21 New
            0
            Of course I was caught, I just had to think about how to say it better ...
          2. abrakadabre
            abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 30 New
            0
            And there is still no common denominator in this matter.
            There is no common denominator in this issue only in Russian. All European languages ​​do not distinguish between these terms at all. There, all straight double-edged blades are a sword.
            In Russian, confusion is only because borrowings of "sword", "rapier" came from different European languages.
          3. Alex
            Alex 11 January 2016 17: 56 New
            +3
            Quote: otto meer
            If we talk about the late (high) Middle Ages, the Renaissance, then the devil himself will break his leg - where is the sword, and where is the sword.

            That's for sure. It was once read by Druon and Dumas, so in Isabella of Bavaria only swords appear in general, as if there were no swords in the 14 century. Maybe the translation error? Although hardly ...
            1. ICT
              ICT 11 January 2016 18: 19 New
              0
              Quote: Alex
              Maybe translation error


              like this lol
              And this is a cheerful bird-tit,
              Who often steals wheat,
              Which is stored in a dark closet
        2. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 10 New
          +3
          Dagger-blade cleaver. How they used it in battle is very well shown in the Soviet movie "The Black Arrow", based on the novel of the same name by Stevenson.
          This will not work. Even on a normal sword. Already on the sword and even more so. Unless on a defective blade: overheated and without subsequent leave.
          This is not for breaking, but for capturing, blocking, knocking out. While the enemy’s blade is blocked, you can strike your own. Similar devices can be seen on the famous lamppost - rondash. Both along the edge and riveted along the shield field.
          1. otto meer
            otto meer 11 January 2016 16: 43 New
            +1
            Quote: abrakadabre
            There is no common denominator in this issue only in Russian. All European languages ​​do not distinguish between these terms at all. There, all straight double-edged blades are a sword.
            Not at all. The differences between the late Schwert (sword) and the early Degen (sword) are so minimal that the Germans themselves put an equal sign between them and believe that it is right and so.

            Quote: kalibr
            Of course I was caught, I just had to think about how to say it better ...
            So I thought, just decided to clarify, t.s. for clarity...)
  5. FID
    FID 11 January 2016 08: 48 New
    0
    I apologize, I'm not a connoisseur of weapons, but pay attention to KATAN ...
    1. kalibr
      11 January 2016 09: 31 New
      0
      And what about katana, what is the matter with them?
    2. engineer74
      engineer74 11 January 2016 10: 44 New
      +3
      Quote: SSI
      I apologize, I'm not a connoisseur of weapons, but pay attention to KATAN ...

      Katanas? The technology is interesting (local heat treatment is almost HD!), But the laboriousness is wild ... And the rest - weapons as weapons, now, rather, an object of worship among the Japanese ... request
      (also not a connoisseur, but was once interested).
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 13 New
        +4
        Wild laboriousness stems from the disgusting quality of ore. Moreover, the famous Japanese two-handed saber is no different. Okromya hypertrophied and unreasonable rasparovarnost.
        In the same Japan, there were much more justified and severe Kovyryalovs — Tatis and Ono-Datis.
  6. lysyj bob
    lysyj bob 11 January 2016 11: 31 New
    +2
    Weapons, like clothes and armor, at all times were an indicator of the status of the owner, and therefore they decorated as best they could. The people at all times tried to stand out. And the cunningly tortured forms of the blades are a search for technical excellence. In my opinion, it is important not only in your hands, but also how you can use it. One of the examples is simple in form and very elegant katana, together with possession
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 18 New
      +4
      In self-education, you can look at fencing with Polish sabers. Your enthusiasm for katana will fade significantly towards real appreciation. The same thing when you get acquainted with the video about a half sword. For example, competitions within the framework of HEMA.
      On the same youtube of this good laid out a lot.
      At the same time, I recommend not comparing with cinema staged fights, but with the same sports fights in the Japanese tradition - kendo and kenjutsu.
  7. Leader
    Leader 11 January 2016 13: 05 New
    +5
    cold weapons with a short blade over time began to be decorated much more abundantly than long blades .... Why is that - understandable! The more often we use, they decorate.

    And not vice versa? Longblade weapons were little decorated, because they were used in battle. Why are there decorations? But additional difficulties when cleaning and wearing - decorations created.
    And short blades, all these daggers, are just an indicator of status. Continuous wearing is not an indicator of continued use; this is an indicator of wealth (weapons were expensive; not everyone could afford to have an extra short blade). Where were they used in everyday life?

    In addition, all this decorated weapon therefore came to us that it was not used as a weapon, but was only a status indicator. Hence the pretentiousness. He was kept carefully (this is an investment).
    But the combat, which was used for its intended purpose, did not survive.
    1. kalibr
      11 January 2016 13: 13 New
      0
      Yes, the simplest tsuba at Japanese swords did not belong to the katans, but o-tati, or even o-o-dati - to the especially large swords (two-handed) that they fought, but not samurai, but asigaru foot soldiers and ... why should they decorate their teeth
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 33 New
        +3
        I think, for the most part, during the period of civil wars, the samurai blades were far from being very decorated.
        But on the unification of the country and the onset of a long peace during the Tokugawa Shogunate ...
        1. kalibr
          11 January 2016 15: 30 New
          +1
          Yes, of course, but there they even tried to at least stick a sakura flower. And the "big swords" just "round" and ... that's it! And with Tokugawa there were even tsuba from jade and onyx. From a military point of view - complete nonsense!
    2. otto meer
      otto meer 11 January 2016 13: 33 New
      10
      Quote: Leader
      not used as a weapon, but was only a status indicator. Hence the pretentiousness.
      I agree. And my five cents. Like a hypothesis. They also ate feasts with daggers and knives (there were no forks) and flaunted one another. It seems that you sit yourself so modestly plastush some sort of shank, but the knife is in sight, everyone sees! And out of envy bile come.
      1. kalibr
        11 January 2016 14: 18 New
        +3
        Yes, of course, it was. And not only in the East, but also in the West, where in the Middle Ages at first only women and King of England Edward 2, generally recognized fagot, used forks at all.
        1. otto meer
          otto meer 11 January 2016 16: 53 New
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          And not only in the East, but also in the West
          Here the West especially had in mind. The food culture of the western nobility was in its infancy for a long time. To eat with your hands, to burp, to blow gases, it was considered quite respectable, eh! yes there! until the 16th century, people really didn’t have plates, they grabbed from the plates. Savages !, what to take from them.
          1. kalibr
            11 January 2016 19: 35 New
            0
            No, not from the planks! And with a loaf of bread! Juice and fat flowed onto it, and then the chunks were collected and given to the poor, who were crowding at the entrance! There was usually 3 change of dishes and, accordingly, 3 chunks from each feasting person. The plates were served to the owner and hostess as a sign of status, he himself could not sacrifice the poor - it was important that he allowed others to give bread! But this is the early Middle Ages ... After the 100-year war, everyone ate already from the plates!
            1. otto meer
              otto meer 12 January 2016 00: 02 New
              +1
              From the planks, from the planks I saw with my own eyes in Hohenschwangau, where the royal dining room and frescoes about Lohengrin are perfectly preserved, so they ate at feasts from boards like our chopping boards.
        2. otto meer
          otto meer 11 January 2016 16: 55 New
          +2
          By the way, Eddie-fagot, according to one version, finished very poorly. Incandescent poker in w ...., this is OOOO! On the other hand, they simply smothered a pillow.
          1. kalibr
            11 January 2016 19: 31 New
            0
            Druon through the ass! And he was the Minister of Culture of France!
  8. 31rus
    31rus 11 January 2016 14: 17 New
    +1
    I have another question: where do these unique items come from in this museum? I do not see the first collection of weapons of this museum, so the question arose
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 11 January 2016 14: 35 New
      +3
      Where is the robbery, where is the buying up for the "beads" in the colonial world ...
    2. kalibr
      11 January 2016 15: 33 New
      +2
      I will tell you a "terrible secret"! This is not a robbery, but ... gifts! That is, initially - "who knows", but most of the samples that you saw here are gifts from specific individuals to the museum in different years. The passport indicates from whom, when. Well, buying a museum at auctions.
  9. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 11 January 2016 14: 35 New
    -8
    That is, if a person is stupid, then why not take advantage of this? From here, by the way, the custom of giving weapons arises: it was given by the kings, kings, emperors, shahs and padishahs, well, now presidents and presidents give it, and, like the old one, they do not spare gold.

    The author’s head is full of what is so ... why some plumbing fixtures are full. That is, the custom of giving weapons came from human stupidity. Specifically, the author clearly descended from a monkey.
    1. Alexey M
      Alexey M 11 January 2016 14: 58 New
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail3
      That is, if a person is stupid, then why not take advantage of this? From here, by the way, the custom of giving weapons arises: it was given by the kings, kings, emperors, shahs and padishahs, well, now presidents and presidents give it, and, like the old one, they do not spare gold.

      The author’s head is full of what is so ... why some plumbing fixtures are full. That is, the custom of giving weapons came from human stupidity. Specifically, the author clearly descended from a monkey.

      Well, you just froze stupidity. It was always customary to give beautiful things to slaves, horses, weapons. Functionality is another matter.
  10. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 11 January 2016 15: 05 New
    +3
    Beautiful selection. It was nice to see.
    1. kalibr
      11 January 2016 15: 35 New
      +2
      Soon there will be another, no worse than this!
  11. aleksandrs95
    aleksandrs95 11 January 2016 16: 00 New
    +1
    It’s time to create such a selection of unique weapons in Russia, it’s very interesting, here there is culture and jewelry, local specifics, history.
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 11 January 2016 18: 23 New
      +3
      they have been, for a very long time, in the Armory in the Kremlin and in the Hermitage. Occasionally there are exhibitions of art weapons. When you hit one so drool hung to the floor repeat
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 11 January 2016 20: 08 New
        +3
        The Tula Museum of weapons is also very good things.
    2. kalibr
      11 January 2016 19: 31 New
      +1
      Everything is there, but FIG! For example, in GIME there is a very interesting sword with an antenna handle, unique in its kind. But when I asked for a photo, they bumped me at such a price that ... everything! Therefore, there is nothing from the GIM. If someone is interested in katans, by the way, then the mass of their photos on the website of the Tokyo National Museum ... I already wrote about tsuba here, but there will be one more material, they are so beautiful!
  12. Mikado
    Mikado 11 January 2016 17: 28 New
    +3
    The author is smart. the material is interesting. Article bold +
  13. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 12 January 2016 01: 57 New
    0
    Wonderful article and photo! Somehow I am late often. It's a pity.
  14. Engineer
    Engineer 12 January 2016 14: 59 New
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    It was used in tandem with a sword. With a blade breaker they intercepted the enemy’s sword to get the letter X. Then they struck the enemy’s side with their sword, and since it was fixed, it broke. That's all!


    I will upset you, but this is not a military dagger at all. They cannot break the blade because of the small shoulder. But to do what you came up with ... well, in your mind even lose the sequence of actions: crossed, caught, although I would have shot how you held that blow, then hold the sword with your dagger with one hand, and the enemy looks at it and break it with the sword its another. Hollywood, damn it.
  15. sub307
    sub307 13 January 2016 18: 12 New
    0
    Great article ... and beautiful weapons.