Recently, many countries have shown growing interest in the Arctic region and its development. Among them are not only adjacent to the Arctic Ocean, but also not having direct access to it. Increased attention to the Arctic is also observed by international organizations such as NATO and the EU.
This is due to the fact that approximately 25 percent of the world's undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves are located in the region. The Northern Sea Route is very promising for the development of freight traffic in Europe and Asia. The important military significance of the Arctic lies in the fact that the shortest trajectories of the flight of ballistic missiles into any hemisphere of the Earth pass through it. For example, from underwater positions in the north-eastern part of the Barents Sea one can hit most of the priority objectives.
To counter possible threats to Russian security and build up the country's military potential in the Arctic, which has declined significantly over the past two decades compared with the total capabilities of the United States and NATO, the leadership of the Russian Federation has decided to restore the military infrastructure in high latitudes.
According to Deputy Minister of Defense Dmitry Bulgakov, by the New Year 437 facilities will be completed and equipped to accommodate the formed military units in the village of Rogachevo (Novaya Zemlya archipelago), on Alexandra Land (Franz Josef Land), Medium (Severnaya Zemlya), Boiler House. (New Siberian Islands), Wrangel and Cape Schmidt (Chukotka Autonomous Region). Over the year, more than 106 thousand tons of building materials were delivered to these territories by sea and air transport - almost three times more than in 2014. In addition, the logistics services of the Russian Defense Ministry delivered more than 140 thousand tons of various material resources to the remote garrisons of the Far North, Siberia and the Far East.
Dmitry Bulgakov noted the active participation of the Ministry of Defense in the V International Forum "The Arctic: the Present and the Future", which was held in St. Petersburg on December 7 and 8. Military specialists were involved in all key events, issues of socio-economic development, transport potential, technical support, environmental safety and health were discussed.
According to the deputy minister, the increasing role of the region for further economic development and ensuring Russia's security against a wide range of potential threats necessitates our permanent military presence. However, Russia does not lead to the militarization of the Arctic.
Arrangement of six Russian military bases in the Arctic is almost complete, a high-ranking source in the General Staff said. We are talking about the objects deployed on the islands Kotelny, Alexandra Land, Sredny, Vrangel, in the village of Rogachevo and on Cape Schmidt. The infrastructure includes administrative and housing complexes - military camps of the closed cycle, airfields, combat positions of the Arctic units and divisions. By the New Year, hundreds of Russian servicemen will accept the bases, the source specified.
In 2016, the military will continue to build and improve the Arctic infrastructure, as well as recruit troops in the north with personnel, weapons and equipment. “Strengthening of groups in the Arctic zone is planned to be completed by the end of 2016, and during 2017, it is planned to complete the construction of the remaining infrastructure facilities and improve the airfield network so that by the year 2018 there will be self-sufficient mobile forces in the Arctic,” the source added. According to him, the entire RF plans to build 13 airfields and 10 technical radar stations in the region.
Russia in the 2015 year formed and deployed in the Arctic two separate anti-aircraft missile regiments equipped with the Triumph C-400. To protect these systems from air attacks, the Pantsir-S ZRPK batteries were deployed. In addition, a coastal missile division deployed with Bastion complexes will be deployed on Novaya Zemlya. These units and subunits are on duty around the clock.
In addition, coastal missile, anti-aircraft missile and rocket-artillery units and units are on alert duty in other Arctic islands and in some mainland regions of the Russian Arctic. In all locations along the Northern Sea Route - from the Kola Peninsula and Novaya Zemlya in the west to Anadyr and Cape Schmidt in the east - control points are also equipped and equipped aviation, positions of subdivisions of radio engineering, radar and space reconnaissance. All of them carry out combat missions.
Russia has been actively engaged in the construction of military infrastructure in the Arctic over the past few years. At the end of 2014 at the base of the North fleet The Joint Strategic Command was created, which also included a number of units and subunits of the Western, Central and Eastern military districts. In addition, new formations are being created for the new command, in particular two motorized rifle brigades.
In the Northern Fleet, a new anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Kola air defense unit took up combat duty to protect the state border. It is formed and permanently stationed on the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya. It is armed with upgraded C-300 anti-aircraft missile systems, which are guaranteed to hit the enemy’s air attack weapons within a radius of several hundred kilometers.
The air defense system deployed on Novaya Zemlya became the first full-fledged military unit of the Northern Fleet formed on the islands of the Arctic Ocean. Until that time, only separate divisions and groups were formed in the Arctic archipelagoes.
The Northern Sea Route is open
Icebreakers are constantly needed in the region. And here Russia has the necessary scientific and technical background that allows it to deploy the design and construction of ships of various types. The undisputed world leader in this area is Iceberg Central Design Bureau, which develops several models of nuclear-powered icebreakers.
Alexander Ryzhkov, General Director - Chief Designer of Iceberg Central Design Bureau Iceberg, told TASS that three nuclear-powered 22220 nuclear-powered vessels for Atomflot are being built at the Baltic plant. These are unique ships on which new monoblock reactors, steam turbines, electric propulsion systems, automation. The icebreaker is able to change the draft in the range from 8,5 to 10,5 meters, which allows it to work both on the routes of the Northern Sea Route and in the mouths of Siberian rivers.
With a maximum 10,5 meter draft, the ice carrying capacity is 2,8 – 3 meters, which allows the icebreaker to operate in the eastern Arctic region year-round. Due to the technical solutions used in the 22220 project, new types of icebreakers can replace two types of icebreakers at once - the sea project 10521 (Yamal, 50 Victory Year) and the small-sitting 10580 project (Taimyr, Vaigach).
In addition, the Iceberg CDB is developing a floating nuclear power unit of the 20870 project Akademik Lomonosov, which is planned to be located in the village of Pevek of the Chukotka Autonomous District as part of a floating nuclear power plant. This project is innovative, unparalleled in the world. A floating nuclear power plant must last at least 40 years.
The Iceberg Central Design Bureau also creates the world's most powerful nuclear-powered icebreaker, the 10510 project (Icebreaker Leader). Its capacity is 120 MW,
the maximum ice passability is 4,3 meters, and with an ice thickness of two meters, the icebreaker is able to conduct transports at speeds above 11 knots, thereby ensuring a cost-effective speed of movement along the Northern Sea Route. Thanks to the "Leader", the SMP can be turned into a permanent highway. Ship escorts will be provided all year round as scheduled, regardless of weather conditions and ice conditions. The “leader” will be indispensable for the export of hydrocarbons from the Yamal deposits to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region.
In collaboration with the Krylov State Research Center (KGNTs), a conceptual design of the icebreaker has already been prepared and tests have been carried out in an experimental basin. It is expected that a technical design will be developed from 2016 to 2019, and by 2024, the ship must be handed over to the customer.
The model of the Leader icebreaker of the 10510 project was presented at the V International Forum “Arctic: Present and Future”. As representatives of KGNC reported, the options for creating an icebreaker in a three-hull version have been worked out, which will ensure reliable wiring of vessels up to 60 meters wide with increased energy efficiency indicators.
The federal target program “Development of marine civil engineering” for 2009 – 2016 includes work on a draft design and the first stage of testing a model of a similar ship. These activities have already been carried out by specialists of Iceberg Central Design Bureau and the Krylov Center. The customer, Atomflot FSUE, was pleased with the results.
In addition to the “Leader”, mockups of other developments of the enterprise were installed at the stand of the KGNC, including the 22420 project supply transport, the 035 project drilling vessel and the 22740 project icebreaker.
JSC "Experimental Engineering Design Bureau of them. I.I. Afrikantova ”, a member of Rosatom, is engaged in a draft design of a new nuclear power plant (NPI) RHYTHM-400, created for a promising high-capacity icebreaker. It is expected that since the beginning of 2016, work on the “Leader” will be intensified.
Another sample being developed by Iceberg Central Design Bureau is an offshore-type multipurpose nuclear-powered icebreaker with a capacity of 40 MW (project 10570). Here, the concept of creating a ship was applied - a unified base platform with various configurations having identical solutions for the overall layout, the hull, the power plant, the propulsion and steering system, the dynamic positioning system of the Dynpos-2 class and much more. The proposed concept allows you to create icebreakers that can provide a wide range of work on the Arctic shelf on the basis of common design solutions, which will reduce the cost of design and construction.
On the basis of a single platform, various icebreaker versions can be created: a multifunctional atomic with a low draft; supplier; Provider with towing and anchoring functions; inspection, maintenance and repair of underwater oil and gas facilities; to stimulate hydrocarbon production; for seismic surveys in search of oil and gas fields. The specific configuration of each option can be specified according to customer requirements.
There is a backlog of new patrol vessels for the Arctic. In particular, as the head - the chief designer of the central design bureau "Baltsudoproekt" Andrei Obukhov said, a project of the ship was developed, which allows it to perform all the functions of protecting the resources of the Russian Federation in high-latitude regions. The project has not yet been assigned a number. Several options are under consideration by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. If an order is received for these ships, their construction can begin in 2017 – 2018 at the Pela shipyard in the Leningrad Region.
The delivery of goods in the Arctic will be ensured by the nuclear lighter carrier container carrier Sevmorput, which is currently being designed to equip it. It is undergoing a serious modernization, the ship is being reborn for various needs, including in the interests of the State Program for the Development of the Arctic, said the head of the Baltsudoproekt.
The Northern Sea Route can be used to perform various tasks, including in the interests of transport safety, since it is an ice-class vessel capable of carrying cargo of any size.
Modernization of the lighter carrier began in December 2013 of the year by order of Atomflot FSUE. The ship is being restored taking into account the high modern requirements for nuclear and environmental safety, using the latest equipment to ensure the construction and modernization of the infrastructure of airfields and ports in various regions of the Far North.
"Sevmorput" project 10081 - the only Russian icebreaking transport ship with a nuclear power plant. His design and technical documentation was developed by the Baltsudoproekt Central Design Bureau in 1978, according to a special task of the USSR government. Construction was carried out at the Kerch shipbuilding plant "Zaliv" named after B. Ye. Butoma. After the ship was commissioned in 1988, it carried out both international and domestic flights via the NSR. In 2000-e, it was located on a long parking lot in Murmansk, while in 2013, a decision was made to restore it.
The displacement of the lighter carrier - 61 880 tons, length - 260 meters, the power of the main turbo gear unit - 29 420 kW, full speed - 20,8 node. The vessel can carry 74 lighter carrying capacity of 300 tons or 1328 containers.
Wings of the North
As it was stated during the sectional meetings of the forum “The Arctic: the Present and the Future”, a very difficult situation today has developed with an aircraft fleet providing flights in the conditions of the Far North. Nevertheless, Russia plans to use Il-112 and Il-114 aircraft in the Arctic, whose serial construction will begin in 2017 – 2019.
“We are running out of a resource for aviation, which is capable of flying in the Arctic. These are old cars of the Antonov family. They should be replaced by new aircraft from the Ilyushin family. First of all, we are counting on IL-114 and IL-112. Work on their creation deployed. In 2017 – 2019, they will be transferred to the series, ”an informed government source said.
Helicopter technology capable of serving offshore platforms will also be developed. These are, first of all, proven their unpretentiousness and unique performance in the Arctic Mi-17.
In the interests of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, a special aerostat with a tonnage capacity of 16 tons, adapted to the conditions of the Arctic, will be created, said Mikhail Talesnikov, commercial director of the Avgur RosAeroSistemy company that developed the project. It is stated that the balloon can withstand temperatures up to minus 55 degrees Celsius, wind to 30 m / s, reach speeds up to 120 – 160 km / h. In addition, it has great autonomy, takes off and lands without an airfield, including water and ice surfaces. The balloon can also be used all year round as a residential unit and can serve, for example, as a hospital, base, etc.
The Avgur RosAeroSystems holding has developed two modifications of such balloons - A-30 with a loading capacity of 16 tons and A-100, capable of lifting tons of cargo to 60. As expected, the first unit will be ready for submission to customers in 2019, the second in 2020.
The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and, in particular, the Navy are showing interest in the arctic all-terrain vehicle TM-140A developed by Kurganmashzavod. The capacity of the car is four tons, the capacity of the cabin - seven people, including three beds. The passenger module is designed for eight people or four full beds. As described at Kurganmashzavod, TM-140А can be equipped with various types of tracks, there are options for snow with a rubber expander, and there are options for off-season. The all-terrain vehicle is equipped with a YaMZ-236B-2 four-stroke diesel engine with a gas turbine supercharger with a capacity of 250 l. with. (184 kW). Power reserve with additional fuel tanks is 800 kilometers. A loaded machine maintains buoyancy and is able to navigate in water at speeds up to 5 km / h.
Currently, the annual production of all-terrain vehicles ranges from 50 to 100 units. There is a modification of the cargo platform with a free layout that can be adapted to the requirements of the Ministry of Defense. “We are ready to supply an all-terrain vehicle for the military with an integrated module created for the customer’s requirements for the northern latitudes of Russia,” stressed Kurganmashzavod.
A joint Russian-Belarusian enterprise (JV), ready to start work in the Komi Republic, will mass-produce the BelGAZautoservis snow and swamp vehicle. In Minsk, the product is already being manufactured and is in high demand among border guards and employees of the national airport. Development initiated by specialists with extensive experience in the Far North. “This is the third modification, which is made in Belarus. The swamp ship overcomes all obstacles, is able to float, transport up to 12 armed border guards or the cargo of the corresponding mass. Therefore, I hope that the Russian military will appreciate it, ”said Andrei Provotorov, Deputy General Director of BelGAZautoservis. The 80 percent snow and swamp vehicle consists of components of the Gorky Automobile Plant, which is represented by BelGAZautoservis in the territory of Belarus. In particular, the camshaft is taken from Sadko’s all-wheel drive GAZ-3308 model, and the cab is taken from Gazelle-biznes. Cylindrical van covered with fiberglass, installed glider gears of its own design. That is, the snow and swamp-going vehicle includes Nizhny Novgorod details and Belarusian know-how.
The great advantage of the snow and swamp vehicle is well-established service and logistics. Failure of some parts, while the product is very high reliability, will not be a problem. GAZ is widely represented both in Russia and in Belarus, in whose territory there are many dealers.
Despite the fact that the snow and swamp vehicle is quite expensive, according to expert estimates, it justifies itself and surpasses all analogues in Russia in the cost-effectiveness parameter. GAZ certified snow and swamp vehicles in Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus.
The end of the year was marked by the transfer of the first helicopter for the Arctic conditions of the Mi-8AMTSH-VA, created at the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, to the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation. A similar civilian version will appear, said Alexander Mikheyev, Director General of the Russian Helicopters holding company: “It is necessary both for the subjects of the Russian Federation to create a transport infrastructure in the northern regions, and for oil and gas companies to provide offshore projects.” In addition to the Ministry of Defense, other Russian security agencies are showing interest in this type of helicopter.
The Mi-8AMTSH-VA helicopter was created specifically for work in the northern regions of the country at temperatures below minus 40 degrees. The range of its flight with additional fuel tanks is more than 1300 kilometers. Mi-8AMTSH-VA is equipped with VK-2500-03 engines and enhanced transmission. The increased power capacity of the auxiliary power unit TA-14 provides autonomous power to energy-consuming consumer products.
Increase piloting efficiency and accuracy of helicopter navigation in areas where there are few landmarks in the polar night conditions allow digital autopilot and several navigation systems, in particular, duplicated satellite and digital navigation system with a built-in map generator and inertial inertial system to determine the current coordinates of the helicopter without satellite signals. The machine is equipped with an air surveillance system to monitor in low visibility the location of other aircraft and a search finder to search for people in distress and equipment. Mi-8AMTSH-VA is adapted for the use of night-vision goggles, has special equipment, including for heating water and food.