Military Review

Until the last micron

31
Domestic thin-film piezoelectronics takes the leading position


Designed for the onboard equipment of the latest MiG-29KR / KUBR and Su-35 fighters, as well as Ka-52 helicopters, the PNP-10 piezoelectric tilting platform surpasses many of the world's analogues. It was developed and put into production by the Zelenograd Scientific-Research Institute "Elpa".

Russian arms exports have been growing rapidly for several consecutive years, according to the Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). MiG-29 and Su-30 fighters, Mi-35M and Mi-28 helicopters, Tanks T-90A, TOS-1A heavy flamethrower systems are far from a complete list of hits of the Russian defense industry on the world market. But, as experts rightly point out, the methodology used by SIPRI - counting the so-called platforms, that is, finished products delivered to customers, does not give a reliable picture, because many countries supply abroad primarily microelectronics, high-tech elements, components and assemblies.

It should be recognized that, until recently, the problem of creating our own element base, as well as the development and serial production on its basis of components and assemblies for various types of weapons and military equipment, was rather acute for the domestic industry. The program of import substitution, albeit with difficulty, was able to unfold the situation, and now we already have something to be proud of.

The secret of super precision


If we compare the photos and videos of modern Russian fighters with their Western "competitors", a distinctive drop-shaped protrusion located in front of the cockpit — the so-called optical-radar station (OLS) immediately catches the eye on our machines. Previously, it was intended solely to search for enemy aircraft by their infrared radiation. The newest OLS-U (for MiG-29K / KUB fighters), OLS-35 (Su-35) and others are capable of detecting, capturing and tracking air, ground and surface targets, highlighting them with laser radiation, etc.

Until the last micronIt is clear that for flying fighters at supersonic speeds in air combat conditions and when striking ground targets, the accuracy of movement of optical and laser systems that form the basis of optical-location stations should be measured not with centimeters and not even millimeters, but with micrometers. But how to achieve such accuracy?

At present, devices based on the so-called thin film piezo ceramic actuators are used to control precision and adaptive optical systems.

“A layer is made from 10 to 100 microns thick, and from these layers a piezopack is formed, which reaches thickness from 2 to 100 millimeters. When a certain potential is applied to the structure of a piezoelectric package, it can make quite large displacements, in some cases up to 100 microns. If the control of solid ceramics requires a voltage of up to one kilovolt, then for thin-layer ones - from 90 to 150 volts, ”Sergei Nersesov, general director of the Elpa Research Institute, reveals the advantages of development.

Interestingly, to control the mirrors installed in the latest OLS-UE optical-location stations purchased by Indian naval forces MiG-29K / KUB fighter jets, a block with piezodrives of the S-330 family of the German company Physik Instruments was used.

The S-330 piezo-tilting platform is a high-tech product with tilt angles up to 10 mrad (milliradian), which is based on two pairs of differential-controlled actuators. It should be noted that these platforms are not only in Russian OLS, but are also actively purchased by American, French, Israeli firms - manufacturers of high-precision aviation optoelectronic systems.

But for our MiG-29K / KUBR, which will soon join the fleet of naval aviation of the Russian Navy, the development engineers of the Elpa Research Institute could create their own PNP-10 piezoplatform, which is not inferior to S-330, but also surpasses certain characteristics her.

“Our piezoplatform consists of four actuators expanding to 40 microns when energized. The control system of the PNP provides for the movement of actuators under a special program. The actuators themselves act on the platform on which the rotary mirror is located, deviating in two planes (axes X and U. — AR) on the 10 mrad. At a distance of up to five kilometers, our platforms provide pointing accuracy of up to one meter, ”says Anatoly Gritsenko, developer of a unique piezoplatform.

In PNP-10, specialists from Zelenograd introduced their own know-how - strain gauges used for feedback and eliminating the so-called withdrawal. “On our actuators there are special strain gauges used for feedback, thereby increasing the resolution (the minimum possible movement of the actuator's working body per unit of applied voltage. - A.P.). To make it clear: without strain gauges, the accuracy of the actuators is 10 – 15 nanometers, and with the use of strain gauges this figure reaches one nanometer! Accordingly, the accuracy of the guidance increases, ”explains Andrey Daineko, director of the project management center of the Elpa Research Institute.

But the accuracy of the actuator depends not only on the use of strain gages. The most important role is played by the power source, which directly supplies the current to several piezoplatforms. The PI itself is actually a mini-computer based on a programmable unit that, depending on the command received, sends electrical impulses to platform actuators using complex algorithms.

“Our power source is a separate original development made by SPP SPC from Veliky Novgorod. It ensures the accuracy of voltage supply up to ten nanovolts, due to this, the resolution of the positioning of the mirror itself increases. After all, the actuator monitors any voltage fluctuations, which seriously affects its accuracy, ”says Andrei Daineko.

But not only high accuracy distinguishes the Russian product from foreign analogues. In particular, in electron-optical systems where the German S-330 is used, there are often failures, since the actuators do not always withstand too large lateral bends and fall apart when overloads occur. “While developing PNP-10, we immediately paid attention to the problem of survivability of actuators and increased the area of ​​their cross section by one and a half times. Strength has increased, and therefore, resource life has become higher. Conducted a durability test and achieved 30 thousands of hours. They put three actuators, applied voltage to them and continuously “hollowed” them at a temperature of + 85 degrees. In the process of testing, physical properties were measured every thousand hours. 30 thousands of hours - meaning continuous work. If measured in pulses, this figure will increase many times. The plane does not live so much! ”, - said Viktor Nikiforov, deputy head of the research and production complex for science.

At present, PNP-10 are being tested as part of optical-location stations intended for MiG-29KR / KUBR, Su-35 fighters, and as part of the laser illumination system of the latest Ka-52 reconnaissance and attack helicopters.

The range of possible use of PNP-10 - for the sighting complex "Alligator", as well as a suspended sighting container, which is planned for use on such machines as the Su-35, MiG-29 and T-50.

Prospection


Designers and engineers of the Elpa Research and Development Institute do not stand still. Now, when PNP-10 has been brought to mass production, it is planned to create a line of piezoplatforms at its base that differ in resolution, displacement, etc. By the way, thanks to the unique technology of the thin-film piezoceramics developed at the Elpa Research Institute for several years from scratch , actuators are cheaper than foreign competitors.

“The actuator is multi-layered, which means there are many contacts on it. In the manufacture, the layers are sintered at very high temperatures, so palladium is used for contact pads - not the cheapest raw material. We found a way to reduce the sintering temperature, which reduced the palladium demand by more than 30 percent. Accordingly, the cost has fallen. To make it clear to readers: the actuator is recruited from the so-called cubes. For example, in one 70-millimeter actuator PNP-10 their 30. In the world market, the standard price of one 40 – 50-layer cube is about four euros. Our cost is about a quarter cheaper. And the line for the production of thin-film piezoceramics is already ready to produce up to a million of such cubes per year, ”says Andrei Daineko.

On the basis of PNP-10, a piezoplatform of linear displacement is also created, that is, moving in planes not only X and Y, but also Z. Such a product is in demand both in aviation and in space programs, it is necessary for reconnaissance systems, as well as high-precision weapons. According to representatives of the Elpa Research Institute, the institute conducts joint work with several enterprises in this direction, but it is too early to talk about concrete results.

Another important application of thin-film piezo-ceramics is vibration damping systems. “They were first tested by American aircraft manufacturers on the F-16. To dampen the vibrations of the tail, special panels made of tape actuators were used. The principle of operation is quite simple. We have a structural element of the aircraft, which oscillates, and we in the opposite phase put the actuator, which presses from the opposite side. Our institute offers a more interesting option - to use piezoplatforms as a kind of shock absorbers. In particular, it is very important for units and assemblies of nuclear submarines. We carried out joint research with the Institute of Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and came to the conclusion: if the PNP is installed on some subassemblies and mechanisms of the nuclear submarine, then the vibration can be reduced to almost zero! ”- summarizes Andrey Daineko.

The Elpa Research Institute is an enterprise that in the course of a few years has created not only its own piezoplatform, but also the unique technology of thin-film piezoelectric ceramics, which allows mass production of new, largely unparalleled products in the world, which are used in many branches of the defense industry.
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 27 December 2015 06: 29 New
    13
    "black boxes" normal did not? and then again, "ahead of the rest, hurray!" ... in the PNP-10 photo, the connector is a pleasure, high technology ...! but on the merits of the question, of course it's great that we are moving forward.
    1. tomcat117
      tomcat117 27 December 2015 08: 59 New
      +3
      I agree, but believe me, sometimes journalists insert such photo crap neither in the village nor in the city, plus the notorious closeness and secrecy.
      When we are "squeezed", where do not get ideas come up and after implementation. It is only a pity that the incarnations are not on an industrial scale but piece by piece.
      And so God forbid, I, like the overwhelming majority, for success and Homeland
    2. evil partisan
      evil partisan 27 December 2015 12: 19 New
      0
      "black boxes" normal did not?

      First: already done yessecondly not boxes, but a boxyes (why the hell do you need more!), and thirdly: be sure to sand or it’s alright what ? Not for the counts, after all ... repeat
      Hi amateur! drinks
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 27 December 2015 17: 31 New
        +1
        Quote: wicked partisan
        Firstly: already done, and secondly, not boxes, but a box
        ...one??? what drinks
        1. frollog
          frollog 28 December 2015 00: 23 New
          +1
          And what, someone wants like a pharaoh, a multi-layer coffin? laughing
  2. LÄRZ
    LÄRZ 27 December 2015 08: 58 New
    +5
    Revives our defense industry. It can easily become a “locomotive” of the entire economy. In Soviet times, virtually every enterprise had something to do with the defense industry. Something, yes, "unfastened." And the defense industry was forced to do ("well, at least something!") Consumer goods. Plant them. Kozitsky drove the "Rainbow" TVs, Novgorodsky-"Sadko", NPO "Leninist" tape recorders "Astra", etc. There was laughter ... Go ahead, guys! But not for consumer goods, do your direct business.
    1. Ezhaak
      Ezhaak 27 December 2015 11: 18 New
      +2
      Quote: LÄRZ
      Revives our defense industry.

      In this situation, not so much a “defense industry” as a “electronic”. And where to apply it will always be found. "Your mournful labor will not be lost ..."
      1. i80186
        i80186 27 December 2015 13: 24 New
        +4
        Quote: Hedgehog
        In this situation, not so much a “defense industry” as a “electronic”.

        It is in this situation that not so much electronics, but rather mechatronics. winked
        That is, all systems in the complex.
        1. Ezhaak
          Ezhaak 27 December 2015 14: 52 New
          0
          Quote: i80186
          this situation is not so much electronics, but how much mechatronics

          I’m talking about electronics, because since the mid-70s I have been related to it and fairly well I know in what condition it was and is.
          1. i80186
            i80186 27 December 2015 17: 46 New
            +1
            Quote: Hedgehog
            I’m talking about electronics, because since the mid-70s I have been related to it and fairly well I know in what condition it was and is.

            Well, I have to do with electronics, but I also have to do with the rest. And I know what condition she was in the 90s and what she is in now. So that's all there raves about "nanometers at Intel" - the essence of garbage. For the technological limit of those. the process is just around the corner, two or three decades and there will be nowhere to reduce it. Then I bought / stole / finally spent the money, I didn’t need another to develop my technology, there are no less than “three atoms” of transistors. It’s like steelmaking - a hundred years of rapid development and improvement, and then 150 years of sluggish development of those processes.
            And we have all other areas at the level, including designing our own VLSI crystals, and powerful microwave technology is even ahead. This article is about this in fact.
            1. sa-ag
              sa-ag 27 December 2015 18: 16 New
              0
              Quote: i80186
              So that's all there raves about "nanometers at Intel" - the essence of garbage. For the technological limit of those. the process is just around the corner, two or three decades and there will be nowhere to reduce it.

              And they won’t, here the people begin to do photonics http://geektimes.ru/company/icover/blog/268308/
              performance, power consumption, according to statements where surpass purely electronic products
              1. i80186
                i80186 27 December 2015 18: 34 New
                +1
                Quote: sa-ag
                And they won’t

                Of course they will not - for it is impossible. Well, in the article they write about something else. There, as it were, about communication interfaces. Well i.e. about how to make the processors not 1000 legs, but three. smile
                This is also one of the main problems - the electromagnetic effect of the signals on the printed circuit board on each other, given the need to reduce the possible power of these, as well as increasing their frequency (data transfer speed) is probably the future for optics.
            2. adept666
              adept666 28 December 2015 18: 48 New
              0
              And all the other areas we have at the level, including designing our own VLSI crystals
              Yes, and we have lithographers with a decent process of their own production. Here, rather, the problem is not technical, but economic more (profitability and demand).
    2. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 27 December 2015 13: 36 New
      +2
      You are wrong - every defense enterprise had a consumer goods workshop (consumer goods)
  3. podgornovea
    podgornovea 27 December 2015 08: 59 New
    +1
    Well, finally! And they say they don’t know how to do anything high-tech! Here are some developments you need to invest money in, and not in Rusnano. If they are competitive in the arms market, then there will probably be a civilian application: stabilization systems for cameras and camcorders, mirror control in home projectors. And maybe for tracking systems for unmanned vehicles, a very promising market!
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 27 December 2015 10: 19 New
      +2
      Quote: podgornovea
      Here are some developments you need to invest money in, and not in Rusnano.

      Chubais - untouchable and to feed this miracle-Jude and created "Rusnano".
    2. Ezhaak
      Ezhaak 27 December 2015 14: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: podgornovea
      And they say they don’t know how to do anything high-tech!

      Able, able and will be able to. For the first time in the world, piezoelectric motors were used in a domestic video recorder, then they appeared in cassette recorders. And now we are talking about the same engines, only Western-made in cameras and lenses.
  4. midivan
    midivan 27 December 2015 09: 00 New
    +3
    I’ll honestly say that I didn’t understand anything of all the words, only the pie I know in lighters laughing why a simple philistine question-prizes will be ??? or this office is far from Rusnano and all the loot swelled in the development? bully
    1. Ezhaak
      Ezhaak 27 December 2015 12: 06 New
      0
      Quote: midivan
      I seem to be honest that I didn’t understand something of all the words; only a piece I know in lighters

      Oh, how little you know. Vinyl record pickup heads, sound emitters in modern alarms, Epson printers' recording head nozzles, and much more.
      If you do not know about the existence of gophers, then this does not mean that they do not exist. There are gophers! And they will eat.

      In the application, the EPSON 7700 9700 printer head
      1. midivan
        midivan 27 December 2015 16: 29 New
        +9
        Quote: Hedgehog
        Oh, how little you know. Vinyl record pickups, sound emitters in modern alarms, Epson printers and many more

        crying how am I going to live with this now? Do you know doctors come to me for repair (not a lot of a few people) and you won’t believe in cars they practically don’t know what, and they can hardly change some wheels (they don’t know where to put the jack) , damn it, and they live like that and hands from ignorance have not yet been put upon by anyone laughing conclusion, everyone should do their own thing and know it, and the epson head in my life may not even meet wink
        1. Ezhaak
          Ezhaak 27 December 2015 18: 54 New
          +1
          Quote: midivan
          conclusion, everyone should do their own thing and know it

          And yet there is such a thing as horizons. There is no need to go deep, but having a concept will never hurt.
          1. midivan
            midivan 27 December 2015 21: 45 New
            +5
            thank you smile I will certainly take your advice, but first, if you don’t mind in those areas that are more interesting to me hi
  5. yuriy55
    yuriy55 27 December 2015 09: 13 New
    0
    Our institute offers a more interesting option - to use a piezo platform as a kind of shock absorbers. In particular, it is very important for the components and assemblies of nuclear submarines. We carried out joint research with the Institute of Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and came to the conclusion: if you install an anti-aircraft detector on some submarine nodes and mechanisms, then you can reduce the vibration to almost zero! ” - summarizes Andrey Daineko.


    The West already has auditory hallucinations from modern nuclear submarines, but what will happen from the modernized ones? Although ... let our submarines search for days on end, at least they’ll get busy. winked
  6. V.ic
    V.ic 27 December 2015 10: 23 New
    +4
    Oh, damn it, how much time has been lost since the collapse of the USSR! For almost a quarter of a century, the defense industry worked to produce shovels from titanium and other items so much needed in the household ... Thank God, we thought better of it, we started to do business!
    1. cap
      cap 28 December 2015 04: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: V.ic
      Oh, damn it, how much time has been lost since the collapse of the USSR! For almost a quarter of a century, the defense industry worked to produce shovels from titanium and other items so much needed in the household ... Thank God, we thought better of it, we started to do business!


      Here is what the chief defense official says with a comment from the floor:
      “The new Deputy Prime Minister of the Government for Arms Affairs, D. Rogozin, announced that it is urgent to create a“ Volunteer Movement in Support of the Army, Navy and the Military-Industrial Complex of the All-Russian Popular Front. ”There is nowhere else. It must be assumed that this decision did not come immediately and came into force a kind of hopelessness that he saw while visiting defense enterprises. As you know, many of them are simply defeated, being pre-looted. Many have introduced alien and uneducated managers from various state corporations such as Russian Technologies. Today, in place of Khristenko, in the ministers, they read him to deputy Manturov. By training, he is a sociologist who shamefully oversaw the aviation industry. And there are hundreds of such examples. Literate engineers and chief designers of defense enterprises who managed to keep them from collapse are suspended from work. Friends and relatives of large Moscow bosses who don’t besides cutting budgets, they don’t know how, hence the high prices for weapons hence, the scandalous and mortally dangerous for the country disruption of the defense order.
      It is clear that it is against these gentlemen that the Rogozin volunteer army was conceived. But the monster is "stoglava" and is covered at the highest level. "

      Source: http: //nnm.me/blogs/aleeks1/dobrovolcheskaya-armiya-dmitriya-ro
      gozina /

      I sincerely wish D. Rogozin success in the coming year.
      They really are. But to clean the "rubble" agree, not the most noble work. hi
  7. Rigla
    Rigla 27 December 2015 11: 46 New
    0
    To everyone who still considers the inhabitants of Ukraine our brothers, plunge here http://forumodua.com/showthread.php?t=1417512&page=2193 They are creatures and the point
    1. serverny
      serverny 27 December 2015 14: 07 New
      +2
      Why drag this garbage into a decent society?
      Let them boil in their bile by themselves.
  8. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 27 December 2015 14: 04 New
    0
    The piezo power system is the future of exoskeletons, and indeed of all weapons.
    The guys from the institute say that you can start the composition, which will feed itself by simply moving!
  9. Rostislav
    Rostislav 27 December 2015 18: 26 New
    +3
    The right people are at the helm of the Elpa Research Institute. Positioning accuracy - one nanometer.
    Maybe change the head of Nanotechnology?
    Who agrees"?
  10. derik1970
    derik1970 27 December 2015 21: 28 New
    -4
    There is no import substitution, there are only purchases from the Chinese ... We don’t actually produce anything, just bravura reports ... how did it all get ...
  11. DIMbor
    DIMbor 27 December 2015 22: 54 New
    0
    There are a lot of incomprehensible words in the article. But one thing is clear, we are again ahead of the rest. URA.
  12. Mestny
    Mestny 27 December 2015 23: 24 New
    0
    Quote: midivan
    Thank you smile I will certainly use your advice, but first, if you don’t mind in those areas that are more interesting to me

    why a simple philistine question-prizes will be ??? or this office is far from Rusnano and all the loot swelled in the development?

    As I understand it, in addition to replacing the wheels, are you an expert in the field of financing RUSNANO?
    Enlighten please, well, to expand our horizons - how is it really distributed there?
  13. The comment was deleted.