Military Review

Russian submarine fleet (part 1)

Russian submarine fleet (part 1)

The submarine ministry of Russia began to design the submarine in 1900. Wanting to get acquainted with foreign experience in the field of submarine shipbuilding, the maritime ministry in the summer of 1900 entered into negotiations with the US firm Holland, which already had some experience in this field. However, negotiations conducted through the Chief Inspector of Shipbuilding, Lieutenant-General N.Ye. Kuteynikov, ended in failure. The Americans did not agree to sell one boat, insisting on ordering at least 10 PL (total 1 million 900 thousand dollars), which did not suit the Russian Naval Ministry, who did not want to invest such a large amount "on a company with fairly uncertain results."
There was nothing left to do, how to build a submarine on their own, choosing for this purpose engineers "in the specialty of shipbuilding, mechanics and electrical engineering, who would undertake the solution of such a task ...".

Already 19 in October 1900 was elected to the commission for the development of the submarine project a senior assistant to the shipbuilder Ivan G. Bubnov, an assistant to the senior mechanical engineer I.S. Goryunov and the captain 2 of the rank M.N.Beklemishev. All work was to be carried out in separate rooms at the Experimental Shipbuilding Pool, moreover, "secretly", holding all the drawings and documents "under the key and seals". The leadership was instructed to provide the commission with all possible assistance, including experiments in the basin, which "might seem necessary for the intended purpose."
The main difficulty of the design was as follows: the commission practically had no materials on submarine shipbuilding, except for clippings from foreign periodicals, and, perhaps, Holland advertising brochures of the USA (the sixth model).

When construction of the “improved Hollan boat” (type 1901) began in the US in 7, Beklemishev suggested sending a member of the commission there. However, it was not so easy to carry out this mission in the secrecy environment around the submarine building. Without the permission of the government, the head of the company "Holland" refused to allow the Russian representative at the shipyard. Only after lengthy negotiations, Mikhail Nikolayevich Beklemishev was finally allowed to inspect the Holland -7p (Fulton) submarine. Arriving in Greenport, he took part in one of the dives, having spent on the submarine for about half an hour. The Americans refused to explain and show the drawings, but on the whole the ship made a "very good impression" on Beklemishev.

Watch movie: Impact Force: Submarine Sword

The film is dedicated to the creation of submarine forces in Russia. The main characters of the film are General Designer of the St. Petersburg Central Design Bureau MT Rubin Sergey Kovalev, creator of the strategic nuclear underwater fleet countries and Chairman of the Union of Russian Submariners, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy (1985-1993) Admiral Vladimir Chernavin. They will talk about how the idea of ​​scuba diving developed at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, how the experience of using the first Russian submarines in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) led the tsarist government to the necessity of allocating them as an independent branch of the military Navy. Military submariners talk about how they won victories in the Great Patriotic War, how they prevented the third world war around Indonesia in the 62nd, answer the question - who sank the K-129 missile carrier in the Pacific Ocean in the 68th, and why the Chief inactive the headquarters of the USSR Navy, when the Americans made an attempt to raise it from the bottom of the sea. For the first time, viewers will learn the details of the dramatic fire on the K-19 submarine in the Atlantic, the K-314 collision with the American aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan, and the military service of the Kursk cruiser in the Mediterranean, when the US 6th fleet spent in vain to catch it 20 million dollars.

The first domestic submarine "Dolphin".

The design of the first Russian military submarine by that time was completed, the close coincidence of the dimensions of the Holland boat and the Russian once again confirmed the fact that in its development the commission "is on the right track".

3 in May 1901 presented a draft in outline at the MTC - theoretical draft, two longitudinal section drawings and one mid-section, an explanatory note with a detailed calculation of cargo and stability, hull specification and two drawings for gasoline motors, designed by engineer B.G. .Lutsky.
The main dimensions of the designed submarine ("Destroyer № 113") were as follows: length -19,6 m, maximum width - 3,59 m, medium depth - about 3 m, surface displacement - 113 t, underwater - around 123 t. Riveted case in sections throughout the length had a round shape and was made of nickel steel with a thickness of plating of durable casing - 8 mm, light - 4 mm. It was based on the 32 outer "Z" -shaped frame (shpator around 400 mm) and 8 internal stringers.

The boat was built during the winter of 1901 and the summer of 1902. In August, tests of ballast tanks began, and in October, the hull was waterproof. However, the assembly of the battery at the plant "Duflon" was delayed until late autumn, and the Obukhov factory that manufactured air cylinders did not meet the contract deadlines. But worst of all was the case with gasoline engines - the increase in power was given with very great difficulty. In 1903, the manufacture of the motor was completed. In April, the selection committee, which left for Germany, the captain of the 2 rank A.D. Dolgolenko and BVVernander, who left for Germany, insisted on additional tests that were successfully completed in a month (the motor developed the power of the 315 hp). 9 August 1903 g. Tried gasoline engine at mooring, after which the tests continued until September 14. It turned out that the submarine is satisfactorily controlled and holds the specified depth only at the speed of 5 knots, and at higher speeds it was necessary to increase the area of ​​the horizontal rudders, which was done during the winter of 1903 - 1904. The highest surface speed under the electric motor was 7,8 knots. In the first case, the practical cruising range was determined in 60 miles (node ​​5,2). The greatest immersion depth on the test was 26 meters. The total cost of the submarine was 388 thousand rubles. Armament - two external torpedo tubes designed by S.K. Dzhevetsky, which was a frame with yoke, where the Whitehead mines were held by a special clamp for the tail section. When firing, the boomies folded back, and the torpedo deflected to a predetermined aiming angle, the tail clamp folded back and released the trigger, the air entered the torpedo car, which began to move towards the target. All these operations were to be carried out using a pneumatic device driven from the inside of the submarine. Observation in the positional position was supposed to be carried out with the help of a periscope mounted on the lid of the entrance hatch. Order from 5 June 1904, the PL "destroyer number 150" assigned the name "Dolphin". Starting the company the next day, Dolphin 7 June 3 times plunged with 30 trained submariners. For the next three days, the submarine went out to the seaside for training dives and practicing underwater management skills. However, excessive haste in learning led to disaster.

16 June during a training dive with 37 sailors on board at the western wall of the Baltic submarine plant sank. Killed sailor 24, led by temporarily commanding lieutenant A.N. Cherkasov. The investigation revealed that the tragedy happened due to an unclosed in-time manhole hatch, which was kept open when pressure was released inside the boat. The submarine, which was raised on the same day, was examined by a special commission, after which the Baltiysky Zavod started repairing it.

In early October, 1904 "Dolphin" and "Kasatka" participated in exercises at the Great Kronstadt raid, which were attended by members of the ITC. According to their reviews, "Dolphin" under the command of Lieutenant G.S. Zavoiko "maneuvered perfectly."
On October 18, both submarines returned to St. Petersburg and, after a series of training dives, began to prepare for shipment to the Far East. November 15 train with submarines went to Vladivostok.
Immediately after arrival (December 29, work began on assembling and fine-tuning various systems. February 14 Dolphin went to the test, and after 7 days - already to search for enemy ships
13 - 16 March The PL went to Askold Island, and from 28 March to 4 May went to the cove looking for Japanese ships. Together with other submarines, Dolphin remained in position for days, but it was not possible to meet the enemy. Lieutenant A.V. Plotto, head of the submarine detachment in Vladivostok, described Dolphin as follows: "it looks somewhat like Holland's type, but much worse." In the report on the shortcomings, the commander of the ship as the most significant noted the heavy drive of the vertical and horizontal rudders, with the result that, according to him, "to control the submarine, great experience is needed both by the commander and the team."
Even at sea, there was a malfunction of the vertical steering. For repair, it was necessary to open the neck of feed gasoline tanks, pump petrol into the main fuel tank, and thus gain access to the steering wheel drive. Work began on 5 in May on 1905 immediately after arriving in Vladivostok. Then two explosions occurred. The reason was careless handling of the fire of a too curious outsider sailor admitted by the watch. "Dolphin" sank at a depth of about 14 m, and during the rise (as soon as the cutting fell out of the water) there was an explosion of gasoline vapors. The submarine had to be submerged, but during the next ascent a new explosion occurred and this was repeated 5 times. In a sturdy housing, in the area of ​​fodder gasoline tanks, rivets were knocked out around 30, and water entered the submarine through holes, which led to flooding. Emergency repair continued until October 8 1905.
Further service submarine "Dolphin" was held in the Siberian Flotilla. In the winter of 1908 - 1909 He began to repair it, during which they fixed and extended the upper deck, changed the wooden and galvanized skin, and somewhat extended the wooden superstructure in the stern.
Until 23 in May 1916, the boat was in the Far East, and then was taken to Arkhangelsk to assist in the defense of the Kola Peninsula. By October, she was towed to Aleksandrovsk and included in the submarine division of a special purpose. The submarine hull "Dolphin" was badly damaged during the 26 storm of April 1917 in the Ekaterininsk harbor of the Kola Bay. Repairs recognized inappropriate and August 23 ship excluded from the lists of the fleet. Attempts to preserve the corps of the first national combat submarine for posterity ended in failure. According to indirect data, its body existed until the middle of 1930.
The role of the submarine "Dolphin" in stories domestic submarine shipbuilding is difficult to overestimate. It was during the creation of this submarine that the design principles were laid down, which consistently developed up to 1915 projects. In addition, the Dolphin became the first school for many Russian submariners who wrote many bright pages in the history of the national fleet.

Submarine Killer Whale Submarines (6 units).

Successful tests of the first Russian submarine "Dolphin" have once again confirmed that the direction in designing such ships, chosen by the commission chaired by ship engineer IG Bubnov, is correct. Having enlisted "a wish for success in further constructions" expressed by the Russian emperor Nicholas II expressed during the inspection of "Dolphin", Bubnov on the same day 13 August 1903 addressed a report to the Naval Department Vice Admiral FK Avelan for permission to start the development of submarine drawings of a larger displacement with the speed of the surface 14 nodes and more powerful torpedo armament. 20 December MTC reviewed the project and gave a positive review. According to the results of the research carried out during the summer of 1903 in the Opytovoy basin of the submarine part of the submarine, it was decided to give the contours close in shape to the surface ship. Provided for the installation of two gasoline engines with 400 horsepower. In an effort to get rid of the transmission sleeves, IG Bubnov and M.N. Beklemishev suggested to make the sub-shaft three-way, thus achieving the "independence of all engines". The side shafts would be connected to gasoline engines for above-water, and the middle one - with electric motor for surface and underwater travel. It was supposed to charge the rechargeable batteries from a separate gasoline-powered motor with 4-5-hp power. and a special dynamo. The hull was constructed on the same principle as the Dolphin: the middle part was sheathed with wood (two layers of larch), pierced and covered with galvanized iron. Steel set and plating was calculated on the pressure 10 atm.

Baltiysky Zavod received an order for 5 PL (surface displacement - 140 t, underwater - 177 t, length - 33,4 m, maximum width - 3,39 m, maximum recess - 2,8 m; surface run speed - 14 kn, undersea electromotor - 8,5 node .).
The construction of the submarine was quite fast and 24 July 1904, the submarine "Killer Whale" went on the water. During August, 5 PL was launched: Field Marshal Count Sheremetev (August 8), Makrel (August 14), Skat (August 21), August Bomb and 26 August.
September 6 completion work on the submarine "Killer Whale" has come to an end. Lieutenant P.V. Plotto was appointed commander, and N.A. Smirnov, assistant officer of the Mine Officer Class. Due to the delay of the ordered main engines, it was necessary to install only the auxiliary gas engine of the Panard system. At the same time, the Maritime Office attempted to order in England 6 kerosene engines of the Gazes system with a power 200 hp, which, as it turned out later, was cumbersome and unreliable, but it was not possible to get them in due time.

The first “Killer Whales” dives near the plant wall were unsuccessful - the submarines managed to keep them in a horizontal position “with the greatest difficulty.” They did not succeed in diving on the move under Kronstadt - the boat failed astern. To eliminate this drawback, we had to install a wheelhouse-float and increase the area of ​​horizontal rudders. With the arrival of 29 in September of 1904 at the “Kasatka” by M.V. Beklemishev, the tests continued, and in the course of them it turned out that the absence of the planned felling at the main entrance had a noticeable effect on seaworthiness. The device for filling trim tanks was also unsuccessful. Certain difficulties arose under the action of horizontal rudders, and processing and periscopes were required. In an effort to quickly send the submarine to the theater of military operations (to the Far East), the Maritime Department decided to eliminate the deficiencies in Vladivostok, where the submarine can only be transported through the frozen Baikal in winter, because the construction of the Circum-Baikal railway had not been completed by that time.

4 October 1904. The Scat submarines, Field Marshal Earl Sheremetev and the Burbot submersions began to be used to train the teams. On the move, these boats were not tested, as the 8 September batteries had already been sent to Vladivostok. October 12 The Kasatka submarine maneuvered in the presence of the MTC members on the Great Kronstadt raid, and after a few days spent training mine firing and 5 October returned to St. Petersburg. Through 18 - 8 days, all 9 submarines of the "Kasatka" type were put on railway transporters ordered to the Putilov plant in March. In Vladivostok, they coal in pairs - November 4 - "Skat" and "Burbot", November November 2 - "Killer Whale" and "Field Marshal Graf Sheremetev". However, they arrived in Vladivostok simultaneously - 4 - 12 December. It was the first carriage of submarines in the world with a displacement of more than 13 t by rail over a distance of about 100 km. Almost everything had to be redone, except for the hull, including the tiller, structurers, horizontal rudders, electrical wiring, etc. As a result, the first test of the "Killer Whale" began only in March 10000, 1905 of April prepared the Skat for swimming, May 3 - Field Marshal Count Sheremetev, May 1 - the submarine Nalim.
Not without accidents - so, on the submarine "Burbot" 9 in May, the battery exploded, and on the submarine "Field Marshal Earl Sheremetev" damaged the dynamo machine, the repair of which was delayed for 10 days.

The first voyages revealed a number of negative phenomena: a long dive time (5 - 6 minutes), the difficulty of controlling the vertical rudder (on the Nalim submarine - up to 140 steering wheel turns when the steering wheel was transferred from side to side). Low vertical stability when swimming under water. A common drawback, as already noted during the tests of the submarine "Killer Whale" in Kronstadt, was the lack of fencing of average logging. In the surface position, even with slight agitation, the water poured the deck through the open hatch and fell inside. When the hatch was closed, observation was conducted through the windows and the review was extremely limited, especially in fog or at night. This question was raised by Beklemishev 29 on November 1904, and on December 13, the Baltic Shipyard received an order to make them. 5 September 1905 The logging was ready, pressured, sheathed and sent to Vladivostok. Installed them after the war. And the nasal cabin and the cabin-float in the stern removed.

The Killer Whale type boats could operate only in the 50-mile distance from the base, in the surface position they could go more than 2000 miles. The average underwater speed was 5,5 node, the surface - 8,5 node.
Meanwhile, work continued at the Baltiysky Zavod on the last two submarines, Mackrel and Okun, which were left in the Baltic "for the purpose of improving and further developing this type." They were replaced by nasal cuttings with medium-sized valves in tanks with Kingston tanks, and the tips were redone. However, all this was delayed due to the strikes. Only by the end of September 1905 began the tests of the submarine Makrel. Two new gasoline engines, with an 400 horsepower capacity, allowed the submarine to reach speed in the surface position of the 11,5 node, but the fire in the hold made it necessary to stop testing. It was also found that the submarine "Makrel" has low stability and overload on the stern.

The following year, the trials continued. On the Okun submarine, which had repeatedly submerged together with the Makrel submarine near the plant wall, installed the Panhard motor of the Panar system completely using the 2 hp, however, it was not possible to achieve a dive without a trim.

On September 29, both ships left for Bjork for extensive testing, after which even more alterations were needed concerning the ventilation system, immersion and ascent systems, in particular, it was proposed to fill the tanks with pumps, install an air pump to create a vacuum, redo new cabins and etc. . At the same time, IG Bubnov raised the issue of replacing gasoline engines with diesel engines, suggesting several options for their installation.

On the submarine "Killer Whale", which stood at the side of the transport "Xenia". July 29 in 14.00 there was an explosion of gasoline vapors. However, the duty officer for the boats, the commander took timely measures to eliminate the fire and towed the boats away from nearby vessels. Repair took 20 days. It was not possible to replace gasoline engines with diesel engines. The tests continued in 1908 as well. 25 June The “Okun” submarine went to Bjørkö for final official tests, and the speed during the transition under the two “Panarami” was 8,2 node. When running on the surface under the electric motor 5 July reached 8,8 node. Under water, the submarine moved at a speed of 5 nodes, and in one of the dives it reached the depth of 24 m.

Submarine "Perch" was accepted into the treasury 7 July, and after half a month the acceptance certificate was signed on the submarine "Mackell".
In the summer of 1909, they entered the Scuba Diving Training Unit, but did not stay there for a long time due to the following reason: due to the lack of combat-capable submarine connections in the Baltic, the command decided to form a brigade, allocating several MFs from the training squadron and “Perch”, which are enrolled in the 1 division.

When upgrading to 1911, the submarines Makrel and Okun installed one four-stroke diesel engine with an HP 120 power. production plant "Ludwig Nobel". The central propeller shaft from the deadwood inside the submarine rose slightly upwards, so it was not possible to install the diesel in the middle, it had to be moved to the port side. The diesel engine rotated the dynamo, and that fed the main electric motor. A diesel engine, a dynamo machine and an electric motor simultaneously operated in the surface position; therefore, in the event of a failure of one of the three units, various difficulties could arise. Diesels often failed. For balancing it was necessary to have solid ballast on the right board. In the course of modernization, electric centrifugal pumps were installed as pumps for end tanks, and many were reworked. All this led to the fact that the stability of the submarine "Mackrel" and "Perch" decreased so much that they had to put on each lead keel weighing 4 tons and after that the metacentric height did not exceed 0,12 m. Swimming experience showed that the lubricating oil on the submarine was half , what is needed to match the fuel supply, and therefore they had to be towed at long crossings.

During the First World War, the Makrell and Okun submarines were listed before the Bars-type submarine was put into operation in the 1 division of the Baltic Fleet Brigade, after which they were listed in the 4 division. Obsolete by then, these ships nevertheless carried the defense of the Gulf of Finland.
21 in May 1915 of the Okun submarine attacked the German squadron, however, it only miraculously escaped the ramming strike of the German ship that bent its periscope. To enhance the existing fleet from the Siberian part of the submarine returned to the Baltic Sea, and some transferred to the Black Sea.
In 1914, the submarines of the Killer Whale type, which were part of the 4 fleet, began to replace the Panaras with diesel engines from the experience of the Baltic boats, but put much more powerful ones - 160 HP. At the end of 1914, the submarine Burbot and Skat arrived by rail on the Black Sea, and Killer Whale and Field Marshal Count Sheremetev arrived in the Baltic, where they were based on Marienhamn (Alan Islands).
During the fighting on the submarine "Burbot" and "Skat" installed on 47-mm gun, on the submarine "Killer Whale" and "Field Marshal Graf Sheremetev" - on a machine gun, the last submarine 4 of August 1917 was renamed "Ketu".
In the autumn of 1917, the submarines Okun, Keta and Kasatka began to overhaul in Petrograd. During the Civil War, the submarines Makrell, Keta and Okun, which had been repaired by the Baltic Plant, were transferred to the Astrakhan-Caspian military flotilla; in the fall of 1918, they were transported by rail to Saratov, lowered into the backwaters. The submarine Mackrel (in November 1918) was the first to enter service. Then she independently moved to Astrakhan. In 1919, all 3 boats were listed as part of the Volga-Caspian military flotilla, and since March 1920, the Naval Forces of the Caspian Sea.
In October 1925 of the submarine "Kasatka", "Makrel" and "Okun" was excluded from the fleet lists and handed over for disassembly. A year earlier, she went to dismantle the Ketha submarine, which sank in 1924 during a flood in Petrograd and later lifted.
The Black Sea Plam "Burbot" and "Skat" shared the sad fate of the Black Sea Fleet - they consistently came into the hands of German, White Guard and Anglo-French troops. 1919 were flooded in April in the area of ​​Sevastopol.
The experience of creating a submarine of the Kasaitka type, IG Bubnov, fully took into account when drawing up a more sophisticated submarine project “Minoga” (displacement 117 t) with internal tubular torpedo tubes, and also when developing together with MN Beklemishev the submarine submarine project " Shark "(displacement 360 t).

Submarine "Gube-2", acquired in France for 150 thousand francs.

This submarine was delivered to Port Arthur, probably on the battleship Tsesarevich, coming from Toulon 19 on November 1903 g. When the 10 displaced it, it had a length of 5,02 m, a width of 1,48 m and a crew of three. The rowing screw in the swing frame served simultaneously. The electric motor provided the speed in 5 units, the battery capacity was enough for 6 - 7 hours of full speed.The largest depth of the dive was 26 m. Armament - two lattice apparatus, mounted on the side keels for firing with short torpedoes.
On the day of the launch of the 1 Pacific Squadron for the breakthrough to Vladivostok (28 June 1904) in Port Arthur they found the old hull of the Gube boat, on which they installed the 2 engine first from the boat of the Tsesarevich battleship, and then a single 20 liter. s., resulting in the surface speed reached 6 knots. The commander of this submarine was midshipman B.P.Dudorov.

Submarine Naletova in Port Arthur.

In the literature there are information about the death of a boat in Port Arthur, but without human victims, and MP Naletov was named the designer.
The capitulation of Port Arthur 20 December 1904 again led to the loss of part of the documents relating to the activities of the fleet. Already in Shanghai 23 in February 1905, the former port commander Arthur Rear Admiral IK Grigorovich issued a means of communication to MP Naletov, certifying that "the 25 submarine built during the siege gave excellent results on ... tests .. according to Admiral R.N. Virenius, who was present at the latest experiments on freezing the boat under water, gave brilliant results. The delivery of Port Arthur made it impossible for Naletow’s technician to complete the construction of the boat, which would have brought great Port Arthur favor. "

Submarine "Keta"

E.V. Kolbasyev with the assistance of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich and the head of the Artillery Training Detachment of Rear Admiral Z.P. Rozhestvensky in March 1902 attracted to design the submarine Lieutenant S.Yanovich (1877 - 1935). Later, Sergei Alexandrovich came up with the idea of ​​building a low-tonnage submarine for the defense of the coasts. For conversion into a prototype, he selected the hull of one of the submarines of the SK Dzhevetskogo submarine system. An insert for placing a gasoline engine with a capacity of 14 hp was mounted into the main part, the submarine length increased from 5,8 m to 7,5 m, the displacement from 6 t to 8 t.
In June, 1904 was tested, while the submarine showed and dive to a depth of 8 meters. The underwater stay was 3 - 4 minutes determined by the ability to work in air contained inside the submarine. The boat managed to get through 4 - 5 and cable, but it created a dangerous discharge for the crew.

26 March 1905. Yanovich became the commander of the crew of the semi-submarine boat "Keta" of three volunteers. On April 12, the submarine was sent by rail to Sretensk, and then on a barge that became a floating base in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. After the port commander A.I. Rusin checked his readiness to leave, the 16 June boat was loaded onto a barge, and the tug delivered them to the Tatar Strait to protect the navigation.

After the end of unsuccessful hostilities of the Russian troops on Sakhalin at Cape Lazarev, 29 June 1905 was informed about the approach of the Japanese landing force. Throwing the barge, the tugboat was gone, and the submarine "Ketha" within 10 hours with the speed of the 3 node towed its floating base. June 30 crew "Kety" and a small garrison repelled the enemy's attempt to capture the telegraph at Cape Lazarev. The next day, the sailors brought their submarines into a state of combat, having installed the torpedo tubes taken during the towing of the barge. Entering the Nevelskoy Strait, the crew of the submarine Ketha found a Japanese destroyer 2 aboard the Pogibi Cape. Lieutenant S.A. Yanovich went the distance of a torpedo shot, but when the cable remained near the 10 cable to the target, the submarine unexpectedly ran aground. The moment for the attack was missed, but from the Japanese ships they noticed it, the ships lay on the opposite course and subsequently did not pass through the Nevelsky Strait. Still on patrol, the submarine hit the September 14 in a violent storm that did not cause her damage, however, at some time as the barge-floating base sank with all the documentation. Submarine "Keta" was delivered on the steamer "Tunguz" in Nikolaevsk. From 3 June to 20 September 1905, she made 170 sails, having traveled 948 miles. In the autumn of 1906, Lieutenant SN Unkovsky became the submarine commander, and in 1908 she was excluded from the lists of the Russian fleet.

Submarine "Trout"

The secret negotiations of the Maritime Ministry of Russia and the F. Kruppa Joint Stock Company “Germany” in Kiel on the construction of the submarine began in March 1904. In the case of receiving the order, a submarine gift (cost 100 thousand rubles) was offered, which was the first experience of the company in submarine shipbuilding. IG Bubnov and MN Beklemishev were seconded to Kiel, who recognized the boat as satisfactory. 24 May 1904, the contract was signed. The “gift” submarine, built with the funds of the Krupp company under the project of engineer R. Equile, was intended to attract the attention of the German government to a new means of naval warfare. With the longest 12,5 m length, non-1,65 m width (without two removable Whitehead tubular apparatuses) and hull height with 2,4 m cabin, the submarine had a displacement of 17 18 m. Single 60 HP motor for surface and underwater running. worked from the battery system Fulmen. The immersion depth is about 30 m. Electric motors were also used to drive the ballast water pump, ventilate the air, and open the lids of torpedo tubes.
7 June 1904 Propulsion Submarine sent from Kiel by rail to Russia. It was accompanied by German engineer Kritsder and a team intended for training Russian submariners. Only after sailing on the submarine 25 on June MN Beklemishea, when it turned out that the control was “very convenient and easy,” there were sailors who made up the crew of 4 people. After installing the Whitehead Submarines, under the command of Lieutenant T.A. Tilen (von der Raab-Tilen) 26 June went to Kronstadt, at the sighting distance. It turned out that the speed after the installation of torpedo tubes decreased from 6 knots to 4,3 knots with a cruising range of 18 - 20 miles, limited battery capacity. 21 August The 1904 of the submarine "not subject to disclosure" by the order of the Marine Department was listed as a destroyer "Trout" in the fleet list, and on August 25 was sent to Vladivostok. A month later she arrived at her destination, mainly assembled, along with batteries. It took the entire 2 of the day to complete the assembly and launch. From 2 in October, the 1904 of the Submarine "Trout" was "in a state of readiness" in case of a blockade. In November, the submarine was taken ashore and placed in a dry, warm room, and since March 29 1905, she was again ready to sail. Its commander TA Tilen considered the destroyer Trout to be one of the simplest in design and, at the same time, one of the most successful types of submarines. "

In 1908 in Vladivostok, there were 12 more advanced submarines, so the Submarine Trout was already characterized as follows: "... not combat, not seaworthy, and is considered to be training." 17 May 1910 Propulsion "Trout" under the command of V.Pogoretsky left Novik Bay to determine the navigation area. In motion on the surface and submerged positions around the 6, the submarine discharged its battery and needed to be towed at the side of the submarine "Gobyk" to return to the port. On the “Trout” they left only the helmsman, and the hatch had to be kept unbroken so that the air could penetrate the gap. When towing, the emergency boat began to bury its nose strongly, and the water pressure began to open the hatch cover. The commander and two sailors managed to jump onto the submarine "Goby" deck and save the helmsman Shtykov, but she herself sank at a depth of 26 m. They found the submarine by trawling, lowered the diver, but when he took the periscope, he was struck with a current, and work on the rise had to be suspended. A few hours later she picked it up and carried the floating crane to the winter parking lot. Comrade Maritime Minister, Vice-Admiral IK Grigorovich supported the decision not to engage in repairs in Vladivostok, but to transport Submarine Forel to Libau, for use in the Training Unit of scuba diving.
The simplicity of the design of the Submarine Trout will enable senior students to practice completely independently. The Submarine Trout has become a "auxiliary vessel", but sending it to the Baltic for unknown reasons did not take place.

During the period in which the formations of the rebel Czechoslovak submarine corps "Forel" were stationed in Vladivostok, they were stored on the shore with a heavily damaged superstructure and partially dismantled torpedo tubes. Her further fate is not yet known.

Submarine Lieutenant A.S. Botkin.

The boat was designed and started by an officer of the GMG, Lieutenant A.S. Botkin, in 1903. From January 28, 1904 was completed at the Baltic Shipyard with funds from a "special committee for strengthening the fleet on voluntary donations." The chief engineer of the French plant Soter-Arlet Boche participated in its construction. Like the submarine "Keta", the boat system of the Botkin was a semi-submarine vessel, and the depth of the dive was regulated by means of two ballast compartments. The displacement with ballast is 14 t, the greatest length is 8,7 m, the case diameter is 1,98 m, the power of the kerosene engine is 14 hp, and the speed depending on the degree of immersion is 4-7 nodes.
In August, the submarine 1905 under the command of VL Sollogub made the transition to Kronstadt. Immediately after the only, not at all successful test, at the insistence of Botkin, she was sent to Vladivostok, moreover, "without any adaptations for diving." Later, its combat value was recognized as insignificant, and Schwarzkopf’s torpedoes were absent. The systems of A.S. Botkin who had no name were not credited to the fleet lists, and submariners called it "Chelim". It was used to deliver cargo to Ulysses Bay, and later its motor was installed on the port boat.

US submarine "Holland" type "Som" (7 units)

Specialists of the Russian Navy Department closely followed the world development of submarines, including in the United States. There, based in 1895 by John Holland (1841 - 1904), Holland Torpido Boat Company built in 1899 the first autonomous submarine "Holland - 7", which became part of the US Navy 11 on April 1900. Next year this the company built for the US Navy another 6 submarine of the Adler type, the seventh Fulton was built with the company's money and was intended for testing new equipment and advertising. Great interest in Holland submarines was shown by the board of the Nevsky Shipbuilding Plant in St. Petersburg. Negotiations with the company ended on September 12 with 1900 by signing a contract. For a nominal fee of 1 ruble, the board has acquired the right of construction for the Russian submarine fleet for a period of 25 years. Already 10 February 1904 meeting of the ITC considered the proposal of the Nevsky Plant to build the submarine "Holland - 7P". It was decided to “recognize the acquisition of one or two such submarines” as desirable. 27 February 1904 g. GUKiS issued Nevsky plant outfit to build 5 PL with the delivery of the first of them by August, and the rest by September. The ships were supposed to be built from domestic materials, individual components and assemblies were allowed to be ordered abroad. 28 on April 1904, the board of the Nevsky Zavod notified the GUKiS about the acquisition of the same type of submarine Fulton for 500 thousand rubles.
On the British ship "Menatik" the submarine 13 June was sent to Kronstadt, where she arrived on July 1. Immediately after the launch, the Fulton submarines were transferred to the Nevsky Zavod for the final assembly, which ended on September 6. Sea trials in Bjerke-Zunda were successful, and the submarine Som (a new name on the order of the Marine Ministry from 31 in May 1904) moved to St. Petersburg, from where 11 November left for Vladivostok by rail. Immediately after arrival (December 29) and the submarine submarine assembly, Som was included in the Separate detachment of the destroyers, but the entry into service was greatly delayed due to the lack of torpedoes delivered from St. Petersburg only at the end of March. While with the Dolphin and Ketha submarines in the area of ​​the Transfiguration Bay, the Som 29 submarine on April 1905 tried to attack the Japanese destroyer 2, which, having discovered the boat, went south at full speed. This episode was the only battle of the submarine Vladivostok squad for the entire war.

1 in March 1904 in Nevsky Zavod began the compilation of documentation, and on 10 in May the tab of all 5 PLs took place. Shipbuilding engineer I.A. Gavrilov was appointed to oversee the building, and Lieutenants A.Andreev and I.I.Riznich were in charge of their commissioning.
The submarine cigar case had a length of 19,8 m, width - 3,6 m. The full underwater displacement was 124,1 t. The main engine is Otto-Deutz gasoline system with a power of 160 hp. Fuel supply for 30 hours of travel at a node's 9,6 speed and twice the time at a speed of 7,2 knots.
The movement under water provided an electric motor with power 70 HP. (power supply for 3 hours with a speed of 6,5 knots, 6 hours - with a speed of 5,5 knots.). The armament is the bow tubular torpedo tube manufactured by the G.A.Lessner plant, one Whitehead torpedo of the 450 caliber mm, two spare ones in the nose section along the sides on special trucks. 15 reload time - 20 minutes. For observation and firing at the periscope depth, a Foss system periscope was provided. The crew - two officers and 7 "lower ranks." Due to lack of experience, the building progressed extremely slowly. The first submarine, Pike, went down on 15 in October on 1904, another 5 months were needed to assemble the mechanisms, only 15 in June on 1905 began testing in Bjork-Sound, which ended on 2 on the day of signing the acceptance certificate. After the end of the sea trials of 9 in July, the Submarine Schuka went to Petersburg, where it was put on a railway transporter and sent to Vladivostok

To 25 in May 1906, the Nevsky Zavod passed the submarine Salmon, Sterlet, Beluga and Pescari, and the Sterlet submarine was sent to Libava by rail, and the remaining submarines went on their own. All of these submarines are included in the diving training squad.

The tests were carried out according to the approved program, and only the Beluga submarine, after successfully moving from St. Petersburg to Libava in November without a single breakdown, was taken to the 2 May 1906 treasury on the basis of Rear Admiral E.Shesnovich underwater swimming. September 15 on the submarine "Salmon" was visited by the Marine Minister, Vice-Admiral A.A.Birilev. The next day, this submarine maneuvered in front of Tsar Nicholas II, who was watching from the steamer Tranzund. True, it didn’t go without an unfortunate incident - the submarine commander didn’t calculate the maneuver and, leaning on the “Amazing” destroyer, broke the back of the periscope, which, however, did not affect the monarch’s favor to the submariners.

4 July 1907. The board of the Nevsky Plant turned to MTC to acquire the sixth Holland-7р submarine. The diving department gave the go-ahead, and the submarine was transported to Sevastopol. After extensive testing, she was credited to the 22 fleet of November 1907 under the name “Sudak”. Together with the submarine "Salmon", transferred from Libava by rail, they formed a subdivision submarine on the Black Sea. Submarines that entered service were intensively used for personnel training and combat training. Concentration in Libava of four similar submarines at once allowed to begin working out the tactics of the division, the commanders were trained joint actions day and night. The Libau submarine division to some extent became the prototype of the "wolf packs" of the Second World War. Holland-7p type submarines made independent transitions to Revel and Helsingfors. Competent operation of the submarine allowed to avoid the death of the submarine or any serious accidents, which in those years often occurred in the fleets of various countries. The only exception was the case with the submarine Peskar, which almost sank near the Khabarovsk transport side on the night of February 5 1906 - water began to flow through the faulty auxiliary pump valve, and the motor mechanic Shmelev, who had fallen asleep on the watch, did not take proper measures. More serious consequences were avoided thanks to the actions of a senior officer of Lieutenant V.A. Makrushev, who was standing next to the Sig submarine, who drew attention to the big trim on the stern and knocked out the Pescari submarine team. Restoration of the failed rowing motor took a whole month.

A serious disadvantage of these submarines was the use of gasoline engines. -the personal composition has gone up, fire and explosion hazards have increased, gasoline was expensive. All this prompted GUKiS to apply 1 June 1909 to the largest machine-building factories on the creation of an internal combustion engine, for which heavy grades of fuel were used. The plant "L.Nobel" designed a lightweight 6-cylinder diesel engine with a piston diameter of 200 mm and a stroke of 240 mm, with a maximum weight of 3,3 tons. However, it turned out that these lightweight diesels do not have an adequate margin of safety - often rods broke, cylinder cooling shirts broke, various components and parts failed; personnel had to spend a lot of time on repairs. On the submarine "Beluga" they installed the kerosene engine of the firm of the Körting brothers, which, despite twice the weight (6,6 t), turned out to be quite reliable.

As soon as World War I broke out, the Som and Pike submarines transported from the Far East to the Black Sea, and then to the Baltic. During the fighting in the Baltic "Holland-7" additionally installed on 37-mm gun. These submarines, like other small submarines, were mainly used for sentinel services.
25 June 1916 in the conditions of poor visibility of the submarine "Som" was rammed by the Swedish steamer "Ingermanland" and died. The remaining submarines moved to St. Petersburg, where during the summer and autumn they were overhauled at the Baltic Shipyard. Supervised overhaul marine engineer BM Malinin. In winter, the 1917 - 1918 g. "Holland-7р" was repaired in Reval, and all of them "Beluga", "Baker", "Sterlet" and "Pike") remained in the port and were captured by 24 February by German troops. Subsequently, they were taken out and dismantled for metal. During the entire war, as part of the current Black Sea fleet, the Sudak and Salmon submarines were captured at the end of April by German troops in Sevastopol, and in November fell into the hands of the Anglo-French forces that were in a hurry to leave the Crimea. there are Russian submarines. In the summer of 1918, EPRON specialists discovered and then raised the "Salmon" and "Sudak" submarines, which by that time had lost their combat significance. The work was conducted solely for the sake of testing new ship-lifting equipment and training personnel.
The simplicity and reliability of design solutions, high reliability of systems and mechanisms allowed Holland-7p-type submarines to be in the 13 formation for years and become peculiar long-livers of the Russian submarine fleet.

Simon Lake U.S. Submarine US Submarines (6 units)

Along with John Holland in the United States, self-taught inventor Simon Lake began to build a submarine, the first submarines of which are Argonot Junior in 1895, Argonot I in 1897, and Argonot II and 1900, were not intended for military targets. In 1897, the Lake Torpido Boat Company was formed, making a significant contribution to the creation of a submarine fleet in several countries. This company designed and built the Protector underwater destroyer, which embodied the desire to increase the cruising range and seaworthiness. The technical innovation was the “seaplanes” - additional twin horizontal rudders in the area of ​​the mid-section, a periscope and torpedo tubes were added. Built "Protector" in Bridzhport (Kentucky). It was launched on 1 in November on 1902, in December, tests began under the command of the inventor. Under the water control was easy, but in fresh weather before diving it was difficult to undeferentiate. In 1903, the Submarine Protector made 6 junctions up to 120 miles, plunged to the depth of 15 meters in the Long Island Strait and tested mine (torpedo) vehicles. The tests proved the ease of immersion without "harmful" destruction "longitudinal stability and opportunities thanks to better habitability than with Holland submarines, to achieve greater autonomy.

The main dimensions of the submarine are: length - 20,6 m, width - 3,4 m, height from the top of the periscope to the retractable wheels - 7,33 m. Surface displacement - 136 t, underwater - 174,4 t. Immersion depth - 45,7 m. For three torpedo tubes (one in the stern ) - 5 ammunition torpedoes (3 in the pipes, 2 - in the living room).
Two 4-cylinder petrol engines from White & Middleton 120 horsepower. A battery made of 60 cells fed 2 propellers with 37 and 5 kW electric motors.
The submarine hull contained 3 fore bilge tanks with a total capacity of 6,28 t, 4 aft (capacity 13,76 t) and medium (capacity about 2 t). The wheelhouse was surrounded by two annular tanks (capacity about 1 t), in the superstructure there were also 2 (nasal with a capacity of 11 t and aft, with a capacity of 15 t) placed tanks filled with gravity or pumps. Own kingston had only medium and ring tanks, the rest were filled through a common highway.

Simon Lake offered "Protector" to the Russian government. 31 March 1904 US Marine agent Captain 2 rank AG Butakov examined the submarine in detail and came to the following hasty conclusion that its features "put Lack's boat immeasurably higher than Holland's boat." The designer proposed to build another 5 PL in the 6 month. The Ministry of Navy put forward oncoming conditions: 300 miles sailing range at 8 speeds and 20 miles underwater at 6 speeds, air supply for 20 hours, seaworthiness up to 6 points in the wind, dive time - no more than 5 minutes. The “protector” should have been delivered to Libava, subjected to comprehensive tests and, if successful, immediately ordered the rest. Butakov’s panicked reports took effect, and on the same day he agreed in principle with the designer, and the Maritime Department temporarily used the funds of the “Special Committee to Strengthen the Navy for Voluntary Donations” and the Moscow Merchant Bank “Lyon Credit” transferred 246900 rubles for translation of the New York firm "Flint and Co.".

24 in May 1904. Rear-Admiral A. R. Rodionov, Head of the Structures Department at the GUKiS, signed a contract with Simon Dejka, Hart O. Berg, for the purchase of the Protector submarine and the supply of 5 of the same-type submarines. For the submarine Lake and Holland, the Schwarzkopf plant in Berlin ordered the short mines of the caliber 380 mm.
The steamer "Fortuna" with the hull and submarine mechanisms "Protector arrived in Kronstadt 13 June 1904 g.
The hulls of the remaining 5 PLs were built at one of the best shipyards in the USA, Newport News Shipbuilding and Dried Company. The work was carried out day and night. The increase in seaworthiness was increased due to an increase in the superstructure volume, the feed lines of which made more complete, an automatic valve was introduced on the air intake pipe for using gasoline motors in a positional position, improved the design of torpedo tubes, the pipes themselves did not go beyond the superstructure.

In June, 1904, the “Protector”, renamed “Oster”, was examined by the captain of the 2 rank, M.N. Beklemishev. He particularly noted the ability to walk in a “semi-submerged state”, which in Russia “has not yet fully coped with.” After launching, the "Sturgeon" 18 June was towed to the Baltic Shipyard, where they began assembling the battery and bringing it to combat readiness. On August 13, the submarine under the command of Lieutenant O. Gadda began the campaign, and after 3 of the day, she moved to Kronstadt, where the rudders were repaired in the floating dock, eliminated leaks in the stern and sifted through the bearings of the propeller shafts. 25-28 September in Bjork-Sound was conducted acceptance tests. The greatest surface speed on the measuring mile was 8,5 knots with additionally working electric motors - 9,3 knots, in the positional mile - 7,4 knots. Maximum underwater speed - 5,6 knots. The dive time to the positional position was reduced to 11 minutes, and for full immersion - another 2 - 3 minutes. Mines were tested by firing wooden discs. Submarine "Oster" easily maneuvered, well kept the depth (fluctuations plus or minus 0,15 m) and was suitable for coastal defense. Periscope recommended replace. After returning to Kronstadt, the personnel were trained under the guidance of Simon Lake himself.

In 20 in October, 1904, under the leadership of the new submarine commander, Lieutenant I.O.fon Liempgart, the Osetr submarines began to be prepared for shipment to the Far East.

Back in the middle of September, 1904, Lieutenant AO Gadd, seconded to Libava, picked up a platform for collecting the remaining submarines. The 2 PL sent 9 October on the steamer Belgravia, which arrived via 2 weeks at the mouth of the Elbe. A converted Kobold lighter was chartered to Libawa. Through 4 of the day, the details of the first submarine were delivered from Hamburg

December 21 from New York came out with two submarines steamer "Adria", arrived in Xmürg 7 in January 1905. However, the submarine hulls were not disassembled, had to charter and retool the Ulk lighter, which 24 January arrived in Libau. 17 February 1905. GUKiS signed a contract with the Board of the Society of Putilov factories for the manufacture of three railway transporters for the transportation of submarines of the type "Osetr". The submarine arrivals corps were “more than of poor quality”, had the appearance of “unfinished boxes”.
15 March 1905 Propulsion "Oster" was sent to Vladivostok with additional batteries for the submarine type "Kasatka".
25 July after the conclusion of peace with Japan, "emergency" work was canceled. In September, continued sea trials submarine "Oster". A total of 1905, the "Sturgeon" passed 200 miles on the surface and 8 miles on the underwater, sinking 10 times.

The submarines under construction in Libau were named “Mullet”, “Bull”, “Plotva”, “Sig” and “Halibut”. The train from the Submarine Mullet arrived in Vladivostok on July 7. 5 August boat was launched. Surface speed was only 7 knots, submerged - up to 5 knots.
By mid-June, 1905 was completed work on the submarine "Bull-calf." The Sig and Plotva submarines were ready in the second half of July, the Halibus submarines - by August 1. The 102-mm Lake periscope was installed on the goby submarine, the rest of the submarines were Italian. The commission, chaired by Rear Admiral E.N. Shhensnovich, came to the conclusion that the SIG submarine tests can be considered completed, but the remaining submarines will be considered accepted only if the builder removes the numerous comments set out in the 16 paragraphs of the act. The most important were unsatisfactory test firing of torpedo tubes, the absence of mines, a spire, battery ventilation, and a periscope (except for the "Gobyk" submarine).

In Vladivostok, the submarine "Bullfinch", "Halibut" and "Roach" arrived, respectively, on September 24 and October 9. "Bullhead" and "Plotva" lowered 9 in November, and after 20 days, "Halibut" went down on the water. A submarine "Sig" launched a campaign in the Baltic 25 August. This submarine entered into the structure of the Training team of scuba diving. 15 August 1905 Propulsion "Sig" accompanied by the steamer "Worker" left Libau to Kronstadt, where she arrived in 13 days, having traveled 558 miles in very fresh weather. November 1 "sneaked" on Libavsky raid "Sig" three mines struck a training target.

All winter 1905 - 1906 on the submarine "Bychok", "Plotva" and "Halibut", the assembly of mechanisms continued, for the final completion they were towed to Novik Bay on the Russian island and otpchvartali at the side of the transport "Xenia", the submarine "Mullet" came independently.

In August, 1910 of the submarine "Sig" was enrolled in the Baltic Sea diving squadron, but soon the question arose of excluding all submarines of the type "Osetr" from the lists due to "outdated design, small combat value and difficulty in manning." GMG considered this measure premature, especially since in June 1910 ordered the Nobel plant for these submarines 12 diesel engines with an output of 120 hp. with a production time in August 1911. In May-August, the 1911 in the Submarine Kefal, which was in reserve, raised the deck at the bow, which improved the navigability and stability on the course. We decided to perform only routine repairs for the safety of navigation. MGS agreed to maintain their readiness only until 1914. The lack of funds for capital repairs forced the General Staff to recommend 1913 in February to hand over the submarine of the Osetr type to the Vladivostok port during the year. The first to come out of the game was the “Oster” submarine according to the order of 27 in July of 1913, and on November 7 it was followed by the submarine “Bullfire”, “Halibut” and “Plot”. The SIG submarine was considered suitable only for training purposes with the prohibition to go beyond the advance port and dive deeper into 10,5 m. 18 June 1914 of the SIG submarine was given to the port. In June-July, midshipmen passed through the Cefal submarine, the fate is unknown.

Despite the major design flaws, the submarines of the type "Osetr" played a significant role in the development of the Russian submarine fleet, were widely used to train specialists, and had an impact on the development of habitability issues and increasing autonomy. These ships served as a prototype for the creation of submarines of the type "Caiman".

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    CARTRIDGE 8 November 2011 23: 14 New
    "Dolphin", "Holland", Sturgeon "-normal submarines, the rest poop.
    The L.Nobel plant designed a lightweight 6-cylinder diesel engine with a piston diameter of 200 mm and a stroke of 240 mm, with a maximum weight of 3,3 tons. However, it turned out that these lightweight diesels did not have a sufficient margin of safety - often connecting rods, cylinder cooling shirts burst, various components and parts failed; personnel had to spend a lot of time on repairs. On the Beluga submarine, a Kerosene motor company, the Kerting brothers, was installed, which despite being twice as heavy (6,6 tons), turned out to be quite reliable.
    And what prevented them from making "heavy" diesels and not having a brain!