Military Review

Admirals need atomic submarines

24
Admirals need atomic submarines



Brazil is far from the traditional for the world stories theaters of war, at least in our European understanding of it. And its history as an independent state cannot be compared with the countries of the Old World. The country gained independence only in 1822 year, and before that it was ruled by the Portuguese crown. However, all this did not prevent Brazil from becoming one of the leading naval powers of Latin America, whose fleet in the Western Hemisphere is second only to the US Navy in terms of combat potential. In addition, today Brazil is the only Latin American country that implements a large-scale program to create modern submarine forces, and in the future - a nuclear submarine.

AND INCLUDING SPECIAL FORCE


The Navy is currently one of the three types of Brazilian Armed Forces and organizationally includes a fleet, Aviation, marines, as well as units and units of special purpose, rear, etc.

The Brazilian Navy is headed by the Minister of Navy, who oversees the national Navy through the headquarters of the Navy, command of maritime operations and general command of the marines. The main headquarters of the Navy is located in Brasilia. The headquarters includes the Admiralty, the Department of Hydrography and Navigation, the research and development department, the personnel department, the logistics department and the general secretariat.

The command of maritime operations includes the command of the surface fleet, submarine forces, naval aviation, as well as control of maritime shipping and naval areas.

It should be noted that the division of the special operations forces is subordinate to the head of the command of the submarine forces - a separate elite squad of GRUMEC combat swimmers (Grupamento de Mergulhadores de Combate, the official creation date is December 12 of 1997). This is a Brazilian naval special forces, whose personnel was prepared by American and French military instructors. The training of personnel of this squad is carried out at special 6-month training courses at the Center of the Underwater Systems of the Brazilian Navy, located in the basement of Niteroi. The main part of the teachers and instructors of the center today are the French military. The training program for Brazilian combat swimmers includes preparation for conducting any type of reconnaissance and sabotage operations (actions). The detachment has a special “capture and rescue” special group (GERR / MEC) numbering about 50 people, designed to carry out operations to rescue hostages held by sea, river vessels or in the jungle, as well as to free oil platforms, ships, etc. P.

FOCUSED ON GERMAN GENIUS


Submarine forces are among the most numerous, modern and efficient in Latin America. The main base of the Brazilian submariners is the Admiral Castro e Silva naval base near Rio de Janeiro. There are five non-nuclear submarines in combat, including four Tupi type diesel-electric submarines and one Tikuna type diesel-electric submarines (Tikuna, an improved version of the Tupi type submarines), which are modifications of the famous German project 209 Type (respectively Type 209 / 1400 and Type 209 / 1400Mod).

The Tupi-type head submarine (S30) was built by the German HDW shipyard in Kiel in 1989, and the remaining three Tamoyo (S31), Timber (S32) and Tapayo (S33) ships were built in 1994– 1999 years already at the Brazilian shipyard in Rio de Janeiro (Arsenal Navy) from materials and kits obtained from Germany. It is worth noting that under the original contract from 1984 of the year to the end of 1990-s it was planned to build four submarines of the Tupi type in Brazil, and then two more on an improved project. As a result, only three submarines of the Tupi type and one submarine of the improved project - of the Tikun type (project SNAC-1) were built. The latter was laid by the shipyards in 1997, launched in April 2000, and subsequently transferred to the fleet.

The advanced Tikun (S34) differs from the basic project by an increased displacement (above-water - by 600 t more, underwater - by almost 1 kt. More), by increased dimensions (length - by 6 m more, width - by 2 m), increased up to 300 m depth, as well as expanded weapons - new torpedoes "Bofors-2000", anti-ship missiles "Exocet" or "Sub-Harpoon", the total 16 ammunition missiles and torpedoes (or up to 32 min type MCF-01 / 100 instead of torpedoes) torpedoes), and the new shipboard fire control system of the ISUS 83-13 type.

The second submarine of this type, the Tapuya (S 35), was never built (initially it was planned to introduce it into the fleet's combat strength in the 2005 year). The preference was given to the purchase of a batch of submarines of the type "Scorpena".

As part of the MODSUB program, Tupi-type submarines were upgraded: the contract worth 35 million dollars, issued to 29 in January 2008, is performed by Lockheed Martin. As part of the modernization, it is planned to install a new automated combat control system (ASBU) type AN / BYG-501 Mod. 1D (Lockheed Martin), as well as the improvement of auxiliary mechanisms, sonar and electronic weapons, weapons control systems, self-defense and navigation.

OSI Geospatial Inc. supplies the ECPINS navigation system for the submarines, which will be integrated with the BIUS / ASBU and will replace the similar Calypso III system from Thomson-CSF, while the KAFS-A10 automated data processing system will be replaced by the SUBTICS ASBU developed by UDS International, a division of DCNS. In addition, the submarines will receive new side antennas of the GUS, and the Mk. 24 Tigerfish (Tigerfish) from Marconi Underwater Systems Ltd are being replaced by Raytheon’s Mk48 Mod6AT. Work on the first Tapayo submarine (S 33) was completed in 2011. The contract provides for an appropriate modernization of the onshore training center of submarine forces.

FRENCH ASSISTANCE

29 January 2008 Brazil entered into a large-scale military-technical cooperation agreement with France, under which 23 December 2008 was signed preliminary, and 3 September 2009 was the final, more detailed contract on the provision of assistance to France in upgrading the Brazilian naval forces (cost contracts - about 6,7 billion euros).

In particular, the Brazilian government entered into a contract with French shipbuilders for the supply of four “Scorpene” type naval subs (Scorpene, modified in Scorpene S-BR), specially modified to meet the requirements of the Brazilian Navy. The new submarines are categorized as Riachuelo, and they plan to include the Exocset SM39 Block 2 Mod 2 into their armament. Submarines will also receive ASBU SUBTICS, S-CUBE hydro-acoustic complex from Thales Underwater Systems (TUS) and Sagem lifting-mast devices.

The contractor is the BSC company (Baia de Sepetiba Consortium), a joint venture of the French DCNS and the Brazilian Odebrecht Defesa e Technologia (Odebrecht Defense and Technology), and the actual construction of the submarines is carried out at the ICN shipyard (Itaguai Construcoes Navais), which became the founders of the DCT, which became the founders of the company, and Odebrecht Defesa e Technologia and NUCLEP (Nuclebras Equipamentos Pesados ​​S / A). The latter specializes in nuclear technology. It is assumed that these submarines will be included in the combat structure of the submarine forces of the Brazilian Navy in the period starting with 2016 – 2017, with an interval of two years and will be named after Brazilian geographic objects: “Rihuuello” (S40, 2016 – 2017), “Humaita ”(Humaita, S41, 2018), Tonelero (Tonelero, S42, 2020) and Angostura (Angostura, S43, 2022).

ALL FORCES - AT ATTIC


Brazil’s military-political leadership pays special attention to the extremely ambitious submarine shipbuilding program — developing and building on its own, but not without the help of foreign experts, a multi-purpose nuclear submarine displacing about 6 KT (received the designation SN-BR), which is in the budget It is planned to allocate about 1,4 billion dollars. Moreover, the project to create its own nuclear submarine, the first steps on which in Brazil were taken in 1979 year, today is part of a more complex of the PROSUB program, which provides for the construction of a large number of submarines of various classes and types for the Brazilian Navy.

From Brazil, COGESN, which has its headquarters in Rio de Janeiro and has an annual budget of $ 250 million, manages the nuclear-powered shipbuilding program.

Under the terms of the agreements and contracts signed in 2008 – 2009, the French side committed to assist Brazil in building a new naval base - the home base of future Brazilian submarines - and a modern shipyard in the city of Sepétiba Bay in the Rio region de janeiro. Here it is planned to build a nuclear head multipurpose submarine, as well as four modified submarines of the "Skorpen" type. Metal for the first submarine began to cut 2011 of the year in June, and its laying took place in 2013 year. The main submarine "Riachuelo" was originally laid in 2010 year at the shipyard in Cherbourg and will be completed in Brazil.

The new shipyard was solemnly inaugurated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in March 2013. In addition, French specialists provide substantial assistance in the design of nuclear submarines, in which, as stated, many of the solutions implemented in the Barracuda multipurpose nuclear submarine project, as well as some of the most important systems, including the nuclear power plant, will be implemented.

In addition to the above, in the framework of the agreement, the French side has pledged to fulfill a number of other conditions: to carry out technology transfer; equip training facilities and prepare the necessary personnel; supply 30 “heavy” torpedoes from F21 developed by DCNS, Thales Underwater Systems and ATLAS Elektronik GmbH, 50 underwater target simulators CANTO (Terma and DCNS); assistance in the construction of the complex as a part of the submarine forces and shipbuilding complex (EBN); construction in Brazil of a specialized manufacturing complex for the production of metal structures (Manufacturing Unit for Metal Structures - UFEM), etc.

We add that the agreement on military-technical cooperation from 2008 of the year also provides for the supply of Brazilian Navy 50 helicopters in the amount of 1,9 billion dollars.

The first national nuclear-powered vessel is to be deployed in the fleet in the 2023 – 2025 years (originally planned to be in the 2010 year). However, the Brazilian specialists, before embarking on the active phase of the nuclear-powered icebreaker program, decided to test their forces in a less complex version - to develop and build a non-nuclear submarine on their own. It was assumed that in case of successful implementation of this project, two tasks will be solved: first, replacing outdated Tupi-type submarines in the fleet's combat fleet will increase the combat potential of the Brazilian naval submarine forces, and secondly, it will give Brazilian ships an invaluable experience in designing and building modern submarine warships.

In the form of such a pilot effort, the project SNAC-1 (Ticuna-type naval submarines), developed by the Brazilian Navy engineering department as a transition to the creation of the first national submarine (the SNAC-2 project), became. Subsequently, however, the Brazilian admirals decided to change their partner in the national submarine shipbuilding program: instead of Germany, as we see, today the emphasis is on cooperation with France.

The results of this, we learn only a few years. So far, in specialized media, information has been made public that the national atomic submarine shipbuilding program has made a significant step forward due to very serious advances in creating a prototype national nuclear reactor. As is known, a PWR-type nuclear reactor (water-cooled nuclear reactor) is being developed as part of the IPEN / MB-1 project at the Aramar Technology Center, which entered service in the São Paulo region in 1988. In accordance with the approved plans, a nuclear reactor with a capacity of 50 MW designed for a promising Brazilian submarine nuclear-powered vessel will ensure the submarine speed to 25 knots and should have been prepared for installation on the nuclear-powered ship in the 2004 year, however, for a number of reasons, plans were postponed for a longer period .

In conclusion, according to the plans made public in 2012, before the 2031 year, the Brazilian fleet should receive a significant number of warships and auxiliary vessels, including nuclear and non-nuclear submarines, frigates and URF corvettes, ocean-class patrol (patrol) ships, landing ships, etc. As a result, by the 2034, the Brazilian admirals expect to have a submarine fleet consisting of at least 15 non-nuclear and six atomic multi-purpose submarines.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2015-12-18/11_admiraly.html
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  1. Ruslan
    Ruslan 19 December 2015 07: 28 New
    +7
    I don’t know, it seems to me for Brazil there is no need to build an apl. okay, the Russian Federation, the United States, the People's Republic of China will always be in a state of permanent cold war because of which the forelocks of the lackeys are cracking :) in short, we have a need for apl. but for Brazil, this is clearly not the weapon for which the navel is worth tearing off already, but since 1979. it would be better if the Gotlands were mastered under license.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 19 December 2015 08: 10 New
      +2
      Мне кажется,что если не стратегических ракетоносцев,то и многоцелевые АПЛ не нужны.Сейчас во всём мире делается упор на анаэробные ГЭУ,что у нас,что за рубежом.Немцы и шведы отработали подобные ГЭУ.В России,США и Японии идут опытные испытания подобных силовых установок.Вчера на Военных новостях появилось сообщение о продлении опытной эксплуатации ДЭПЛ Сант-Петербург "для наработки опыта".http://flot.com/2015/211731/ это ссылка на сообщение.
    2. Sergey S.
      Sergey S. 19 December 2015 09: 10 New
      0
      Brazilians are right.
      No comment.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 19 December 2015 17: 15 New
        0
        Of course they are right - they have had aircraft carriers for half a century, but they are only interested in atomic submarines. laughing
        The author gives out wishful thinking with his
        Quote: Author Vladimir Shcherbakov
        ALL FORCES - AT ATTIC
        The military-political leadership of Brazil pays special attention to the extremely ambitious submarine shipbuilding program - the development and construction on its own, though not without the help of foreign experts, of a 6,000-ton nuclear multipurpose submarine

        Actually
        Quote: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_Navy

        In March 2014, the Brazilian Navy announced plans to domestically build an aircraft carrier. It is to enter service in 15 years, with the São Paulo to be modernized until its introduction.

        В марте ВМС Бразилии обнародовало планы о постройке собственным силами авианосца в течении 15 лет, на замену действующему авианосцу "Сан-Пауло" (32тыс тонн)
        До этого у них был авианосец "Минас Жераис" Colossus-class 20тыс тонн
        1. NIKNN
          NIKNN 19 December 2015 22: 04 New
          +2
          В марте ВМС Бразилии обнародовало планы о постройке собственным силами авианосца в течении 15 лет, на замену действующему авианосцу "Сан-Пауло" (32тыс тонн)


          Another state claiming world domination. Something like a defensive strategy does not pull. I wonder what claims. How are you going to reduce the debit with a loan? Due to new territories? request
    3. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 19 December 2015 09: 43 New
      +3
      Quote: ruslan
      it would be better if the Gotlands were mastered under license.

      They preferred to have French Scorpios
      Quote: Amurets
      The Germans and Swedes worked out similar GEMs.
      But do you notice France and South Korea in principle?
      Quote: Amurets
      In Russia, the USA and Japan, pilot trials of such power plants are underway.

      Japan Litter built on a sterling and does not seem to complain. (pictured)
      1. Ruslan
        Ruslan 19 December 2015 11: 18 New
        0
        it doesn’t matter what they take. I meant that apl and hemorrhoids are senseless for them, which accompanies their creation, especially from scratch.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 19 December 2015 12: 11 New
        0
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        Japan built Soryu on stirling and does not seem to complain. (Pictured

        Japan bought a license for this type of power plant in Sweden. Japan is developing its fuel-cell-based designs.
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        But do you notice France and South Korea in principle?

        I just didn’t come across materials on these countries. And those countries that I mentioned, GEMs undergo either trial operation in ship conditions, or are built in series
    4. Samaritan
      Samaritan 19 December 2015 09: 43 New
      +1
      The main thing is that we build:
    5. Azitral
      Azitral 20 December 2015 10: 56 New
      +1
      Есть обоснованное предположение, что к концу 21в. мировым лидером, "мотором" развития цивилизации будут не США и не Китай, а именно Южная Америка. Если есть возможность побывать в Бразилии, - сделайте это. Производит впечатление. Новенький, с иголочки, зверски энергичный этнос. Я почему попал? Был у родственника, который "застрял" там с 90-х вместе с "Мостоотрядом". Почему застряли? А - мосты строят. С тех пор, все время.
  2. bad
    bad 19 December 2015 08: 26 New
    0
    Quote: ruslan
    I don’t know, it seems to me for Brazil there is no need to build an apl. okay, the Russian Federation, the United States, the People's Republic of China will always be in a state of permanent cold war because of which the forelocks of the lackeys are cracking :) in short, we have a need for apl. but for Brazil, this is clearly not the weapon for which the navel is worth tearing off already, but since 1979. it would be better if the Gotlands were mastered under license.
    .. yes and let them tear .. laughing ..want to be the coolest in their field ..
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag 19 December 2015 09: 22 New
      +4
      Quote: bad
      .. yes and let them tear ..

      Один раз вот так "понадрывались" и теперь их Эмбраеры по всему свету продаются
      1. Ruslan
        Ruslan 19 December 2015 09: 32 New
        0
        not a correct comparison. Apple market is not as capacious as the civilian aircraft market, or rather zero. I personally remember only one apl seals sold on leasing to India. and why do they need the industry for the construction of apl for the sake of a couple of ships? therefore, I wrote, it would be better to take a license for the Gotlands or similar boats, just with a chance to create a new successful product in the future.
        1. sa-ag
          sa-ag 19 December 2015 09: 50 New
          0
          Quote: ruslan
          and why do they need the industry for the construction of apr for the sake of a couple of ships?

          Well, the development of technologies, in addition to the neighbors Chile and Argentina, it is quite possible to sell something later and this is not necessarily the entire nuclear submarine
          1. Ruslan
            Ruslan 19 December 2015 11: 17 New
            +1
            so let's figure out what Brazil wants to get: just learn how to build pl (any) or exactly apl?
            because, if the first, then a license and maximum localization of production of any successful models of non-atomic power supply are enough, which will allow us to raise industry, trade with poor countries, get technology, etc.
            but if the latter, then you need to create from scratch the entire nuclear industry (and this is the risk of quarreling with the nuclei of countries-a competitor, non-proliferation, etc.) in order to create a reactor and provide its atom with fuel. because without independence in these matters, the whole undertaking is absolutely meaningless. and there are no benefits at all, except for the show-off: expensive maintenance, dependence on suppliers, zero sales market, no specific technologies will be transferred, only the body will be sawed.
            here and compare two options: general, they will learn how to cut corps of pl, only in the first case it is much cheaper, it is possible to agree on a license, in the future cheap goods for chile, Argentina, etc.
            nobody will buy apl, especially Chile or Argentina, even a little French. Barracuda is more than 1,1 billion euros.
            so what's the point of overpaying?
            1. Sergey S.
              Sergey S. 19 December 2015 11: 48 New
              +2
              Quote: ruslan
              nobody will buy apl, especially Chile or Argentina, even a little French. Barracuda is more than 1,1 billion euros. so what's the point of overpaying?

              You talk about PLA as a nuclear weapon. This is not the same thing.
              PLA will buy.
              The submarine will not be subject to sanctions - this is nuclear energy - Russia, even in Iran, has legitimately built a nuclear power plant.

              PLA have fundamental differences from DEPD, even with VNEU.
              If there is no PLA, DEPL is the weapon of the poor.

              For example, in the ocean, the passage of a cruiser or an aircraft carrier, or during long-term military service, can only be provided by anti-submarine defenses, DEPLs will not be in time, especially under VNEU.
              Лучшие из них, типа "Сорю" имеют подводную скорость под Стирлингами 10 узлов, автономность не более 20 суток.... и это из рекламы....

              And Brazil has already grown from a coastal state.

              I would also like to add popular arguments ...
              Когда была война между Англией и Аргентиной, Англия использовала две ПЛА... (может и больше) - потопила старый крейсер "Генераль Бельграно"...
              She defended her surface ships from torpedoes ...

              Argentinean very good surface ships as a result of participation in the war did not take ...
              The aircraft carrier did not come close to the Mallvins ...
              And the latest German diesel-electric submarines had no results.
              As the Argentines self-advertised, there was one attack, but the torpedoes failed.
              Maybe it was.
              But in this case, one opportunity to attack for two diesel-electric submarines for the entire war is a mockery of wasted money on diesel-electric submarines.
              Argentina would have had at least one submarine, the British would have already started spending huge grandmothers on anti-submarine activities at home, would have dispersed their modest forces, and Malvin was not blithely attacked by aircraft even from container ships, but would always play anti-submarine attacks ...
              1. Ruslan
                Ruslan 19 December 2015 12: 55 New
                -1
                Well, tell me, what kind of gesheft for Brazil, if the main component of Apple and the difference from non-atomic, reactor and atom. Fuel, will the French, Angles, we or the Americans give? what's the point then? but everything will be more expensive. but if they want to do all this themselves, political issues cannot but arise because getting a bomb will be a matter of time.
                who will buy apl? I only remember seals for leasing in India. What other state bought apl from another state?
                I am not special in the Argi-Brita war, but from what I know, I came to the conclusion that Argentines are noobs and even apl would not help them. such countries often hold armies for show-offs and show off. Well, this is just my vision of the situation.
              2. Ruslan
                Ruslan 19 December 2015 13: 03 New
                0
                add more. Brazil will grow out of the coastal state only when it enters into a geopolitical struggle with the leading powers: the United States, China, the Russian Federation, and the European Union. while they are a regional power, its main competitors in Latin America and the NPL, it will be absolutely enough for it.
  3. surrozh
    surrozh 19 December 2015 09: 36 New
    0
    President Rousseff seems to be pushed, and without a nuclear submarine in Brazil there are enough problems.
  4. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 19 December 2015 11: 16 New
    0
    It is not clear why Brazil is a nuclear submarine. Scare the neighbors? Or do they want to show their flag in all oceans? So after all, they can drown, without understanding, if they climb to where without demand. Brazil, IMHO, there is no one to fight at sea on its own continent. And there is no one to defend. I do not understand.
    1. mav1971
      mav1971 19 December 2015 15: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      It is not clear why Brazil is a nuclear submarine. Scare the neighbors? Or do they want to show their flag in all oceans? So after all, they can drown, without understanding, if they climb to where without demand. Brazil, IMHO, there is no one to fight at sea on its own continent. And there is no one to defend. I do not understand.


      Only one who does not know how to look back does not understand.
      Back to the story.

      Who in the 1988 year could have assumed that the United States, partially helping Iraq (including military operations in the tanker war), would begin to destroy it in 15 years?
      Who in those same years thought that the whole of Europe and the USA would destroy completely pro-European Yugoslavia?

      And it took some 10-15 years and FSE!
      The world has changed.

      And it turns out that some people need your resources, or you do not need competition with you, and a decision has been made to roll you out.


      And Brazil has a lot of resources.
      She has tremendous water resources that will be in demand soon enough. years through 10-20 I think that they will begin to seriously fight for water.
      Large undeveloped area, a lot of different ores and other minerals.

      So you have to look forward.
      that would be oil reserves. which will still be found on the shelf of Brazil, no one could overcome.
      So that no one bothers to develop as you want, they will sponsor and play an interethnic (like in Yugoslavia) or some other card (chemical weapons like in Iraq, although from 1991 to 1998 all chemical weapons in Iraq were destroyed) - and the extermination of the state will begin.
      You need to look at 20-30 years in advance, realizing that looking back, and comparing with what is now, you will see that there is nothing stable and trusting.

      Si vis pacem, para bellum ...
      Millennial wisdom.
      It works now.
      On all 200%
  5. tanit
    tanit 19 December 2015 16: 15 New
    0
    But it’s like armadillos from someone there in their war, especially Latin American, in the 19 century, they took each other to board? recourse
    Brazilians with Argentines? recourse
    1. mav1971
      mav1971 19 December 2015 22: 30 New
      +1
      Quote: tanit
      But it’s like armadillos from someone there in their war, especially Latin American, in the 19 century, they took each other to board? recourse
      Brazilians with Argentines? recourse


      Brazilians + Argentines + Uruguayans on armadillos versus Paraguayans on wheeled river parachutes.

      There was a merry war.