Military Review

The first jet fighters A.S. Yakovlev. Part I

29



The Yak-15 aircraft had every chance of becoming the first Soviet jet fighter to fly into the air. However, due to caution A.S. Yakovlev, who delayed the preparation for the first flight, the Yak-15 only a couple of hours behind the MiG-9. But this does not in the least detract from his significant contribution to the development of domestic reactive aviation. This fighter and its further development of the Yak-17 will be discussed in this article.

By the end of World War II, Soviet aircraft manufacturing, due to a number of circumstances, had lagged behind the level of Germany and our allies, the United States and Great Britain, in the development and implementation of turbojet engines. By this time, the British already had Gloucester Meteor and De Havilland Vampire, the Americans had the unsuccessful P-59 Erkomet, who was replaced by Lockheed P-80 Shuting Star. In the Soviet Union, on the 9 of May 1945, there was practically nothing, and it was urgent to overcome this lag.

Great help in this was the study of captured German samples of jet technology captured at the end of the war. Among them were jet engines YuMO 004 and BMW 003, which were in the hands of Soviet specialists in quite a significant number. It was decided to copy these engines and launch them into mass production in our country (under the names RD-10 and RD-20, respectively), and also to start developing several types of fighters and bombers for these engines. Among the design bureaus that received the corresponding tasks, there was A.D.-115 OKB. Yakovlev.

In early April, the GKO issued a decree that instructed the OKB-1945 to construct, construct and submit for testing a single-seat fighter with a turbojet (TRD) YuMO 115. To save time and quickly complete this task, Yakovlev decided to use the well-tested and tested Yak-004 piston as a basis for the new aircraft.



The first prototype of the fighter, later known as the Yak-15, originally wore the designation Yak-YuMO (Yak-3 YuMO). It was essentially a repetition, with minor changes, of the design of the all-metal version of the Yak-3 with a VK-107A piston motor, in place of which the German trophy YUMO 004B was put in with the 900 kgf. By the way, there are not so many examples of direct reworking a piston fighter into a jet. At Focke-Wulf, in 1942, an experiment was conducted as an experiment to adapt the FW-190 fighter to a turbojet engine (Yakovlev, apparently, did not know about this during the work on the Yak-YuMO). At one of the creators of the aircraft LaGG, M.I. Gudkov, the project of reworking LaGG-1942 for the RD-3 AM engine was worked out in 1. Cradles under the redannaya scheme, similar to the one that later successfully used Yakovlev. The Swedes built and successfully tested a SAAB J-21R fighter jet on the basis of the two-beam SAAB J-21, on which, instead of a DB 605 piston motor with a pushing screw, they mounted an English TRD of the Goblin type.

The fuselage of the Yak-YuMO was generally similar to the design of the Yak-3 (a truss from steel pipes with duralumin cladding), but it had to be significantly modified for a new powerplant. A jet engine with a frontal air intake was installed from the bottom in front of the fuselage with the engine tilted at 4 °, with a nozzle exit from the bottom of the middle part of the fuselage (the so-called redannaya scheme). As a result, the nose of the aircraft acquired a characteristic "hanging down" profile, which improved the visibility for the pilot and made it possible to have a fairly good overview ahead also on the taxiing. The redrawn scheme avoided the long inlet duct and the long nozzle pipe, and thus the losses in the engine, which is not very powerful. The tail section behind the engine nozzle was cut from below and covered with a heat shield steel screen. The wing, landing gear and tail unit were preserved in almost unchanged form. It was necessary only to give the forward spar curved upwards in the place of its passage above the engine and remove the oil radiators from the leading edge, as well as slightly increase the area of ​​the vertical tail. At the same time, the wing was slightly raised and with the new form of the nose of the fuselage became almost midway. The wing housed four main fuel tanks. The fifth (reserve) was located above the engine. It must be said that the thick profile of the wing, taken unchanged from the Yak-3, limited the speed capabilities of the aircraft. The maximum speed was also limited for reasons of strength.

In the nose of the aircraft above the engine was designed to install weapons, consisting of two guns NS-23K, although the prototype guns were not. The first experienced Yak-YUMO, obtained by reworking the serial Yak-3, was completed in October 1945. The first races of the engine on the plane showed that the designers had made some miscalculations. The temperature of the gas jet was significantly higher than expected. The steel screen of the lower part of the fuselage was made too short, and the duralumin sheeting behind it immediately burnt out. Rubber wheel flared. I had to send the plane to the pilot production for repairs and modifications. The bottom skin was made double, with an outer screen made of heat-resistant steel, providing thermal insulation by blowing air between the screen and the fuselage. Tail wheel with pneumatics, replaced by a metal with a sprung rim. These works were completed at the end of December 1945.



By this time, they managed to finish the second experienced Yak-YuMO. He mounted a stabilizer of increased scope and area, and heat-resistant steel tail wheel. The second prototype had standard armament of two X-NUMX-mm guns НС-23. The guns on the Yak-YuMO (as well as on the serial Yak-23) were installed so that their trunks did not protrude beyond the edge of the engine air intake; thanks to this, the firing of guns did not adversely affect the stable operation of the engine. This decision turned out to be the right one, since the MiG-15 fighter, with its highly protruding cannons, brought designers many problems with the surge of the propulsion system during firing.

Shortly after the first flights, this copy was transferred to TsAGI for full-scale blowing of an airplane with a running engine in a T-101 wind tunnel. These blowdowns with various combinations of airspeed and angle of attack provided valuable data regarding the pitch balancing of the aircraft, given that the thrust line was below the center of gravity.

In mid-February 1946, the second prototype was returned to LII, where the runs were resumed. And on April 24, 1946, the first flight of the new fighter took place.

Factory tests of a jet engine, which was held in different documents already under the names Yak-15, Yak-15-RD-10 and Yak-RD, ended on 22 June 1946. During the tests, 19 flights of the total duration of 6 hour were completed. 34 min. In the course of these tests, the aircraft, which had a take-off weight of 2570 kg, managed to reach a maximum speed at the ground of 770 km / h and 800 km / h at altitude. The practical range of flight was equal to 575 km. These indicators were at the level specified in the order of the MAP from 27 March 1946 g, with the exception of speed at height - the plane didn’t get 50 km / h to the required 850 km / h. The plane had a run-up 520 m, mileage 480 m, landing speed 148 km / h , and its technical flight duration at a speed of 500 km / h was 45 min.

The longitudinal, transverse and ground stability of the aircraft was rated as good, the landing was “simple and similar to the Yak-3”. Test-pilots who flew around the plane unanimously gave a high rating to its aerobatic qualities. Gm Shiyanov pointed out: “It is very pleasant to behave at high speeds. Aircraft control is soft and not tiring. " The pilots noted that the aircraft "can easily be mastered by the flight crew of the medium-skilled air force."



It is curious that the designation Yak15-РД-10 appeared even before the engine РД-10 was actually put on the plane. 29 of April, by a government decree and the relevant order of the IAP OKB-115, was commissioned to release two prototypes of the new fighter already with the TRD RD-10 - the Soviet version of the YuMO 004В engine. The first one was to be submitted for testing in the third quarter of 1946. In fact, the designers had only to replace the YuMO 004В engines with the RD-10 on the already built two experimental machines.

In August 1946, the Yak-15, together with the I-300 (MiG-9) took part in the Tushino air parade. Shortly thereafter, Yakovlev and Mikoyan received a personal assignment from I.V. Stalin on the construction of 15 copies of each type for the November parade. “Front” Yak-15 (Yak15-RD10) were to be performed without armament and body armor, with an increased increased fuselage tank (due to the volume occupied on combat vehicles with automatic ammunition cannons) and reduced set of radio equipment. Production of the Yak-15 was assigned to the aircraft plant number 31 in Tbilisi, which was able to produce a small series in time. However, that year the parade over Red Square was canceled due to bad weather conditions.

The first Yak-15, made in Tbilisi at plant No. 31 and the last car of the small series in December 1946, were presented to the State Research Institute of the Air Force for state tests, which were successful in April 1947. These machines were equipped with one HC-23 gun, and their take-off weight was 2742 kg. The gun was located on the right in the nose of the fuselage. The remaining vehicles of the experimental series did not have weapons at all and had a full-sized tank in the bow (which was reduced in size with weapons). These aircraft initially had a single-beam antenna without a rack; later, on the recommendation of the Air Force Institute on two airplanes that underwent state tests, a dual-beam antenna was installed with a stand to the right of the lantern (which was later introduced into the series). On aircraft No.31015, the RPKO-10М radio-compass with an external loop antenna was supplied.

On the 9-th serial copy, tests were carried out to determine the piloting characteristics. 25 February 1947, test pilot PM Stefanovsky performed a series of aerobatics on this plane. In early May 1947, an act of state trials was approved. It reflects the many identified shortcomings of the aircraft. However, in conclusion, it was noted: “The Yak-15 jet fighters in the training version No. 31015, 31002 and 31009 state tests were satisfactory ... The Yak-15 aircraft meets the requirements of the Air Force for a training jet fighter ... Owing to extremely small the flight range (300 km) to bring the aircraft to a combat state is inexpedient, since in this case its flight qualities deteriorate due to a significant increase in flight weight due to fuel to achieve a flight range that 800-900 km. Consider it necessary, due to the simplicity of the design, low thrust of the RD-10 engine and ease of piloting, to modify the Yak-15 in the training with dual control and three-wheeled chassis ... "

The first jet fighters A.S. Yakovlev. Part I


As can be seen from the above conclusion, the single Yak-15 was considered as a training fighter, and not as a combat one. As always, the overall positive opinion was accompanied by a list of defects to be fixed and the desired improvements. In particular, it was proposed to eliminate the longitudinal instability of the aircraft (in state tests, in contrast to the factory tests, the Yak-15’s longitudinal stability was more critically evaluated). It was recommended to install a two-beam mast antenna; Strengthen the cannon farm, ensuring its survivability up to 4000 shots; equip cabin with heating system; install a camera-type gun shooter on the type of the Yak-11 aircraft, and much more.

In the middle of December 1946, when state tests were still underway, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a decree, followed by the corresponding order of the Anti-Monopoly Ministry, in which the Tbilisi Aviation Plant was instructed to release 1947 YN-50 fighters with TRD RD-15 in January-March; Of these, 10 should have been single, and the rest should be released in a double training modification. Unlike the first series in 25 machines, these aircraft were supposed to carry weapons, however, the Deputy Minister of Aviation Industry P. Dementiev, in January 15, argued that these aircraft were built without weapons, because at that time the NS- 1947K did not pass state tests and were not mass-produced. Only upon completion of this series in 23 machines (50 together with the initial series) could, according to Dementiev, proceed to the release of these fighters with armament, armor and radio subwoofer RPKO-65М with the antenna hidden in the fuselage (it was originally mounted outside). It is not known to what extent this recommendation of Dementiev was implemented, but it is clear that a significant part of the production machines did not have weapons or had only one gun. Later serial cars were produced with two automatic guns НС-10 and with a stand of a two-beam antenna on the right side of the cabin canopy.

As E. Adler (at that time, the lead designer for the Yak-15 who was responsible for the release of the "front party" Yak-15 in Tbilisi) said in his memoirs, on his initiative, in parallel with this work, the "above-plan" copy of the Yak -15 with a pair of 30-mm experienced guns, which were obtained by Yakovlev from Spit. The aircraft was shot in the factory dash and sent to Moscow with the main batch of aircraft, but this option was not developed further.

1 of May 1947 of the year during the parade over Red Square links passed 50 Jacob and the same MiG-9. In the same year in Tushino for the first time demonstrated aerobatics on jet machines. First, the complex of aerobatic maneuvers was performed by Colonel I. Polunin, followed by his skill demonstrated by the link of Colonel N. Khramov. In 1948, the flight five was created on the Yak-15, which was headed twice by the Hero of the Soviet Union, General E.Ya. Savitsky, in 1949, another five of Colonel P. Chupikov was added to it.



The Yak-15 was built serially from 1946 to 1947. At the Tbilisi Aviation Plant, 280 machines were produced. Most of them remained in service for several more years. During operation, various defects were detected. So, for example, there were cases of stopping RD-10 engines at high altitudes. The reason was the power failure of the fuel engines due to the formation of air plugs in the booster computations of the fuel tanks. To eliminate this phenomenon, it was decided to drain the boosterpacks, as well as install fuel tanks on the Yak-15, adapted for negative overloads. It should be said here that the RD-10 engines, despite such a disadvantage as a small resource, have generally proved themselves to be reliable enough and consistently working on the Yak-15 and further versions of this aircraft - of course, provided that the new technique.

As they were decommissioned, some copies were transferred to aviation schools. Thus, in the 1954, at the Leningrad Institute of Aviation Instrumentation, it was possible to see the Yak-15, which, along with several MiG-9, was used as a teaching aid (field stand).



On the basis of the Yak-15 aircraft were released experimental options, remaining in single samples. One of them was the Yak-17 RD-10 (Yak-RD, Yak-RDYu) (the first with the designation Yak-17), completed by construction in the first days of September 1946. It was distinguished from its predecessor by a new wing composed of high-speed laminated TsAGI profiles, a modified tail unit, an ejection pilot seat with an armored seat, the installation of a front armored glass 55 mm thick. The chassis has also changed, since the old one could not be placed in a new thin wing. In the new version, the main supports were mounted on the power elements of the fuselage, and the cleaning was carried out back into the fuselage niches with the wheel turned to 180 ° around the rack. The plane passed ground tests, there were taxiing, but did not lift the plane into the air. At this time, the Yak-15 was produced in series, and its further development saw a machine having a more promising chassis with a nose strut.



The serial Yak-15 (board "47") was used by LII at the end of the forties. As a flying laboratory to work out the wing refueling system in the air. In 1948, a group of designers LII, headed by V.S. Vakhmistrovym (known from his experience with the “Link” aircraft), developed a refueling system in which the tanker aircraft and the aircraft being filled produced cables and obtained their coupling with each other due to the special maneuvering of the tanker. After that, from the wing or fuselage of the tanker, a filling hose was produced, which was tightened by a cable to the end of the wing of the aircraft being filled and was locked there. Then began the process of transfer of fuel under the action of gravity. Soon, the test pilots LII I. Shelest and V. Vasyanin developed a more rational system of refueling “from wing to wing,” in which the planes went on parallel courses and the refueling plane did not need to enter the tanker wake. The system was successfully tested on two modified Tu-2 airplanes, and then the mentioned Yak-15 47 board was also equipped with a dummy receiver on the wing console and simulated refueling in flight from the Tu-2.



In parallel with the creation of the basic single combat version of the Yak-15, it was planned to develop its double training (export) version. Initially, it was designated Yak-YUMO "export", later Yak-15В, Yak-15УТ, but in the end he was given the official designation Yak-21. On the export version there was no armament, and on the place of the fuselage fuel tank mounted cabin for the cadet. Both cabins are a common drop-shaped lantern with two sliding parts without a gap between them. An experienced “Sparka” was also produced in Tbilisi. The plane was laid back in 1946, but the first flight of the Yak-21 took place on 5 on April 1947. The planned release of another 25 aircraft of this modification did not take place, since by that time another version of the Sparky had been developed - the Yak-21T with the nose-post, which became the Yak-17UTI series.



To be continued ...



Sources:
N. Yakubovich. USSR Reactive Firstborn - MiG-9, Yak-15, Su-9, La-150, Tu-12, Il-22, etc. M .: Yauza, 2015. C. 25-43.
Gordon E. Reactive First-born Yakovlev // Aviation and Time. 2002. No.6. C. 5-17.
Shvydkin A. Yak-15: jet “hawk” // Aviapanorama. 2004. No.5. C. 12-16.
Komissarov S. Jet fighters of the Yak-15 / 17 family // Wings of the Motherland. 2007. No.7. C. 27-31.
Yakubovich N. Reactive "pen". Yak-17 // Wings of the Motherland. 1999. No.12. C. 1-3.
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master 2 December 2015 06: 56 New
    +7
    Thanks to the author for the article. It is interesting to read about the first steps of our jet aircraft. In the article for myself, I highlighted the following:
    1) The first experimental Yak-YuMO, obtained by reworking the serial Yak-3, was completed in October of the 1945 year.
    2) On 24 on April 1946, the first flight of a new fighter took place.
    3) Test pilots flying around the plane unanimously praised its aerobatic qualities. G.M. Shiyanov pointed out: “The behavior of the aircraft at high speeds is very nice. The control of the aircraft is soft and not tiring. " Pilots noted that the aircraft "can easily be mastered by a mid-range air force flight crew." (That is, as soon as possible, on the basis of proven technologies, a machine was created that, if necessary, could enter the troops and fight, as well as allow retraining of crews without any problems)
    You can say anything about that era. But the speed of implementation of ideas and the quality of refinement are not just amazing. It strikes to the core. I look forward to continuing the article.
    1. lis-ik
      lis-ik 2 December 2015 12: 40 New
      +3
      I support the article in the same way and look forward to further publications by this author, the materials are balanced, technically competent and just very interesting. As for the speed of bringing ideas to implementation, we should not forget that the entire potential of the country was used by the army, and only then the construction of the social sphere smoothly passed.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 2 December 2015 07: 26 New
    +5
    To the sources to which the author refers, I would add "The Purpose of Life" by A.S. Yakovleva: Thank you ..
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 2 December 2015 10: 09 New
    +2
    Not long ago they let me read a book on the history of jet aircraft in the world. In my English edition of 1960, all the first jet planes in the world were described there. The most important thing is that the Americans, like the Russians, could not create the first jet engines. Domestic jet engine construction began with copying German engines, and England actively helped the Americans in the development of jet aircraft. At least the first American planes flew licensed English engines. And so the article is informative, there is something interesting. At least for the first time I read that the Yak-15 was going to the factory in Tbilisi. For some reason, I believed that the Yak-15 was made in Saratov.
    1. qwert
      qwert 2 December 2015 11: 12 New
      +3
      Quote: Amurets
      Not long ago they let me read a book on the history of world jet aircraft. In my opinion, the English edition of 1960 of the year

      A. Green "Jet Planes of the World", the book was published in 1957. In England came out in 1954 and the last plane there F-101 Chic book. Only about the Soviet technology everywhere it is written "presumably", "most likely", "most likely". They knew how to keep secrets in the USSR
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 2 December 2015 11: 58 New
        +1
        Quote: qwert
        Gorgeous book. Only about the Soviet technology everywhere it is written "presumably", "most likely", "most likely". They knew how to keep secrets in the USSR

        Thank you for the hint and clarification. And we knew how to keep secrets. Other books by foreign authors about our weapons also fell, and everywhere presumably.
        Quote: SSI
        Only two countries in the world in the 40s (or earlier) were engaged in jet engines - Germany and Great Britain ... The Americans used the achievements of von Braun, ours bought English engines and copied trophy ones ...

        Well, Campini was also engaged in jet engines in Italy. But besides mentioning it, A.S. Yakovlev, in his books, I didn’t come across more about the work of this company.
    2. FID
      FID 2 December 2015 11: 28 New
      +1
      Only two countries in the world in the 40s (or earlier) were engaged in jet engines - Germany and Great Britain ... The Americans used the achievements of von Braun, ours bought English engines and copied trophy ones ...
    3. avdkrd
      avdkrd 3 December 2015 13: 23 New
      +1
      Quote: Amurets
      The most important thing is that the Americans, like the Russians, could not create the first jet engines

      It's not that they couldn't, Lyulka developed the RTD-1 project in 1938, and in August 1941 a prototype with a 500kg thrust was ready. In April 1941, Lyulka proposed a project for a two-circuit turbojet engine. On the one hand, the war prevented the creation of their own jet aircraft and then had to start from scratch, on the other hand, jet aircraft did not play a significant role in World War II, although the Germans only riveted ME-262 1433 pieces. Strangely, jet aircraft, like all Wundewafele projects, played a rather negative role in scattering Germany's resources. By the way, domestic engine building began with copying English, not German Rolls-Royce engines that England supplied us before the Iron Curtain. It was he who was installed on the MiG-15, the first truly serial Soviet jet aircraft. We couldn't copy German engines anyway - there was too much difference in the available materials. In fact, they were creatively reworked, often getting much higher characteristics. It would be a sin not to take advantage of the experience of a defeated country.
  4. kvs207
    kvs207 2 December 2015 10: 30 New
    +2
    Quote: Amurets
    Not long ago they let me read a book on the history of jet aircraft in the world. In my English edition of 1960, all the first jet planes in the world were described there. The most important thing is that the Americans, like the Russians, could not create the first jet engines. Domestic jet engine construction began with copying German engines, and England actively helped the Americans in the development of jet aircraft. At least the first American planes flew licensed English engines.

    The USSR, during the war, naturally, had no time for jet engines. By the way, according to Yakovlev's book "The Purpose of Life" mentioned above, the second generation of Soviet jet aircraft also used English engines.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 3 December 2015 00: 56 New
      +1
      Quote: kvs207
      The USSR, during the war, of course, was not up to jet engines.

      I do not agree with you. Professor Uvarov has been working on aviation steam turbines since 1937 and he, however, did not immediately appreciate the work of Lyulka on gas turbines. For some reason, work on the liquid propellant rocket engine was carried out, and materials and finished assemblies and parts buried in Leningrad . You can write off a lot of war, but for some reason, nobody needed the data of military-technical intelligence, except for the atomic bomb.
  5. bistrov.
    bistrov. 2 December 2015 11: 02 New
    +2
    As a young man, I read Yakovlev's autobiographical book "The Purpose of Life". There is a good description of the history of the creation of the Yak-15 aircraft. The photos of the aircraft were especially remembered because of its unusual shape of the fuselage.
  6. Predator-74
    Predator-74 2 December 2015 11: 37 New
    +1
    Thanks for the article, interesting. I thought that the Yak-15 was made from the Yak-9, but the author is right (of the three blinded the Yak-15). I hope that the author does not stop and slowly reaches the Yak-130. wink
    1. FID
      FID 2 December 2015 13: 49 New
      0
      Quote: Predator-74
      and slowly reach Yak-130

      What about MS-21? Will it come or not?
  7. fa2998
    fa2998 2 December 2015 11: 38 New
    +2
    Yes, the plane is cute. So to say, "a test of the pen". It was created precisely to gain EXPERIENCE. The Yak-15 could not be combat-the first jet engines were low-power and voracious. The Me-262 and Meteor were twin-engine and had a solid take-off weight. on a light aircraft, either guns or fuel. hi
  8. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 2 December 2015 12: 15 New
    +5
    I am waiting for an article about the Yak-23, an extremely successful aircraft. Although it had no innovations, the MiG-15 and La-15, but was also considered extremely easy to pilot and very maneuverable. Then, when switching to a single plane of the Soviet Air Force, the Yaki-23 was transferred to Poland, where the pilots loved it so much that they did completely unthinkable things. And the disasters were due to the Ukharsky attitude of the Poles to piloting. As I read somewhere, one pilot crashed into a haystack on it. wassat
    1. evil partisan
      evil partisan 2 December 2015 14: 12 New
      +2
      Quote: kugelblitz
      I am waiting for an article about the Yak-23, an extremely successful aircraft.

      With the Yak-23, by the way, there is one truly detective story. He lit up in the States at a test site. They wrote that the Americans stole it from Yugoslavia from the train, transported it to itself, collected it, tested it, and then returned it quietly. But most likely the Yugoslavs themselves provided the aircraft to the Americans for testing. While the USSR had strained relations with Yugoslavia ...
    2. 52
      52 2 December 2015 15: 34 New
      0
      kugelblitz SU Today, 12:15 PM New

      I’m waiting for an article about the Yak-23, an extremely successful aircraft. -On the contrary, he didn’t imagine anything special against the background of the MiG-15 and La-15, and his chances in a duel with the F-80 or F-84 are more than illusory . There was a version that was created as a safety net option.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 2 December 2015 17: 16 New
        +3
        It's not like that at all. According to the results of tests of the car in the USA, it was established that on the Yak-23 the designer "squeezed" everything possible out of the redanny scheme. The fighter turned out to be easy to pilot and maintain and was effective in battle in a range of altitudes from 1500 to 5500 meters. The Yak was superior in speed and rate of climb in turn and vertical battles to the American piston fighter Mustang, Thunderbolt, Corsair and the English Firefly, as well as the jet Shuting Star, Thunderjet and Meteor. American test pilots said: "He has two good 20 mm guns and we would have had a pretty hard time."
        Another thing is that a plane with a straight truncated trapezoidal wing no longer had the potential for modernization. The era of arrow-shaped machines and supersonic speeds was approaching.
  9. bionik
    bionik 2 December 2015 12: 26 New
    +2
    In 1947, Lieutenant Colonel P. S. Akulenko was appointed head of the training center for retraining in new jet technology. More than 200 pilots from various parts of the country's air force were trained at this center, mastering the MiG-9 and Yak-15. At that time, only turns and flips through the wing were allowed on the Yak-15 airplane. Loops, barrels, immelman and other aerobatics were officially banned. But despite this ban, Prokopiy Semenovich Akulenko, one of the first in the Air Force, performed (initially unofficially) on this machine the entire aerobatics complex.

    At the May Day air parade of 1947, Lieutenant Colonel P. S. Akulenko flew the top five leading, in fact directing the entire aircraft structure. (For the parade, the government approved a system of 2 columns of 50 MiG-9 and Yak-15 aircraft. Columns were built of fives The speed was set so that the flight of a large group ensured complete safety and the ability to maintain the formation. As a result of the calculations, the depth of combat order when flying at an altitude of 500 meters was about 15 kilometers, and the flight took about 3 minutes.

    On May 1, all 100 jet fighters took off in fives from 2 airfields, gathered in 2 columns of 10 fives each, followed a given route and flew in clear formation over Red Square. At the same time, the entire flight of the MiGs took 40 minutes, and the Yakovs - 23 minutes.) On May 16, 1947, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, 163 aviators were awarded orders of the Soviet Union. Five people were awarded the Order of Lenin - P. Akulenko, E. Zyryanov, I. Koshel, A. Kuzminsky and N. Sbytov, the Order of the Red Banner - 5, the Order of the Red Star - 93.
  10. python2a
    python2a 2 December 2015 15: 30 New
    0
    From the point of view of physics, the flight process of any aircraft is carried out due to the action of reactive force created by the propulsion device. The mover can be screw, fan or jet. A power plant driving it can be in the form of an internal combustion engine, a gas turbine, an electric motor, or a direct-flow system.
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 2 December 2015 16: 13 New
      +1
      What are you doing?
    2. moskowit
      moskowit 2 December 2015 16: 45 New
      +1
      Is it true? Amazing! Amazing! Fantastic !!!
  11. iouris
    iouris 2 December 2015 16: 52 New
    +1
    If you highlight the main thing - the German engine, morally obsolete, then a strong practical effect from the MiG-9 and Yak-15 was not observed. Only the next generation MiG-15 and IL-28 really mark the transition from piston to jet aircraft. It is only a pity that the development of aircraft piston engines (ICE) in the USSR has virtually stopped. This negatively affected the development of small aviation and automotive industry in our country.
    1. Alf
      Alf 2 December 2015 22: 17 New
      0
      Quote: iouris
      If you highlight the main thing - the German engine, morally obsolete, then a strong practical effect from the MiG-9 and Yak-15 was not observed.

      I won’t say anything for MIG-9. But by operating the Yak-15, both the Air Force and the aviation industry gained extensive practical experience. The former gained experience of flying on a REACTIVE airplane and the experience of its servicing, and the latter received a different culture of production and technology.
  12. moskowit
    moskowit 2 December 2015 16: 54 New
    0
    How much strength and aspiration our fathers and grandfathers had! We won the hardest war, raised the country from ruins, restored industry, developed and introduced new technologies, launched the "Atomic Project", in 1951 they shot down American planes in Korea on SERIAL jet planes, and on October 4, 1957 they flew into space! And this is 12 years after the end of the war !!!
  13. rubin6286
    rubin6286 2 December 2015 17: 18 New
    +5
    My father fought in Korea on the MiG-15bis, and before that he mastered La-9.
    On jet Yaks he had a chance to fly very little. According to his stories, the Yak-15 was still a rather "crude" machine, and not a full fighter. There were very few of them in the troops and, indeed, there were great restrictions on piloting. A little more common Yak-17. He already had a nose landing gear, one 23 mm cannon and hanging tanks under the consoles of the planes. Thanks to these hanging tanks it was possible to stay in the air for about 40 minutes. The engine “ate” fuel and landing was especially difficult after a group departure. While the former sat down, the latter happened to fall. The double Yak-19 was the first jet training aircraft, but it was not widespread and usually they switched to jet engines from the Yak-11. With each machine, however, the jet Yak with the propulsion system of the redanny type was getting better. Father said that the Yak-23 was very good for small and medium heights, lightweight, quick-climb, easy to operate. It would have to be taken into service in addition to the MiG-15, but taking into account the capabilities of the industry and the results of air battles in Korea, it was decided to transfer the Yak-23 to the Warsaw Treaty countries.
  14. samoletil18
    samoletil18 3 December 2015 21: 41 New
    +1
    I had a patient about fifteen years ago - a war veteran. Pilot. He participated in the war with five sorties on Koenigsberg on IL-2. After the war he served on the Yak-15. Retraining the stormtrooper was not difficult.
    He said that the most was outstanding, as the plane rumbled with a metal rear wheel along the runway, the rumble stood throughout the district. What can you do? redanny. scheme. And the metal lining.