In recent years, the modernization of the armed forces has been taking place against the background of the shock growth rates of the economy in the PRC. Over the past ten years, the military budget of China in dollar terms has doubled and amounted to 2014 billion, according to the Stockholm Institute for Peace Studies in the 216 year. For comparison: US defense spending was $ 610 billion, and Russia $ 84,5 billion.
Together with strategic nuclear forces, ground forces and aviation the navy is also actively developing. Since the 90s, the navy of the People's Liberation Army of China has been actively replenished by the purchase of warships in Russia. But in the past few years, this practice is a thing of the past. In China annually transmitted the fleet several large warships of their own construction, including diesel and nuclear submarines, frigates and guided missile destroyers weapons.
Taking into account foreign experience, developed and mass-produced in Chinese enterprises: rocket boats, frigates, destroyers and large landing ships. At the same time, China believes that “all means are good” in strengthening the country's defense capability. When designing warships, the Chinese do not disdain ideas and technical solutions obtained through the use of “technical espionage”. Modern destroyers, corvettes and large amphibious ships, recently built in the People's Republic of China, are a bizarre mix of Soviet and Western technologies with national Chinese flavor.
At present, China is moving away from the past practice of purchasing warships abroad, preferring to spend financial resources and create jobs within the country, providing orders for its own shipyards. In recent years, in China, the Chinese are not buying fully warships, but only some units, equipment and weapons. These are mainly modern anti-ship and air defense systems. At the same time, China is actively developing its own analogues. Unlike in previous years, now these are not “China-made” copies, and often original designs created by numerous Chinese research institutes.
In the Pacific direction, only warships of the Japan Self-Defense Forces can compete with the PLA Navy from the fleets of regional powers. But it is difficult to imagine that the leadership of Japan will decide to aggravate relations with China without the support and approval of the United States. Thus, the main potential adversary is still the 7 th operational fleet of the US Navy. The headquarters of the commander 7 of the US fleet is located in the naval base of Yokosuka (Japan).
As part of the 7 fleet on an ongoing basis there are at least one nuclear aircraft carrier of the Nimitz type and ten cruisers and destroyers of URO of the Tikonderoga and Arly Burk types. The carrier strike group also usually includes several multi-purpose nuclear submarines. American missile cruisers, destroyers and nuclear submarines, in addition to other weapons, carry the BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles with a launch range in a modification of Tomahawk Block IV to 1600 km. On board the Nimitz type aircraft carrier there are F / A-48 Hornet and Super Hornet 18 fighter-bomber aircraft.
Over the past 20 years, the Chinese Navy has evolved from a coastal voyage, whose main task was to defend the coast, into a full-fledged ocean fleet. The current goal of the PLA Navy is to build a near defensive perimeter, which China is building along its seacoast. In China, it is called the "first island chain." It includes the South China, East China and Yellow Sea. The distant perimeter of the defense extends into the open ocean, over a distance of 1500 nautical miles from the coast. The main purpose of the presence of the Chinese military fleet in this zone is to counter foreign warships carrying cruise missiles, as well as to the aircraft carriers on which the strike carrier-based aircraft is based.
Mainly, the Chinese fleet is faced with the task of protecting the coast of the People's Republic of China, along which most of the population lives in favorable climatic conditions and is located around 70% of industrial enterprises. This can be clearly seen from the way administrative-industrial and defense facilities are covered with air defense systems in the territory of the PRC.
The location of the radar and the air defense system in the territory of the PRC (blue diamonds - radar, color figures - the air defense system)
In addition, recently the naval component of the Chinese 094-type SSNS, which carry 12 ballistic missiles JL-2 with 8 range 000 km, began to conduct combat patrols in areas controlled by Chinese surface forces and aircraft.
Chinese naval forces consist of 3 operational fleets: North, East and South. As of the beginning of the 2015, the PLA Navy had 972 ships, including: one aircraft carrier, 25 destroyer squadrons, 48 frigates and 9 atomic and 59 diesel submarines, 228 landing ships, 322 patrol ships, 38. and 52 auxiliary vessels.
As already mentioned, in the 21st century, the Chinese navy from the coastal fleet became oceanic. In 2002, the PLA Navy squadron performed the first stories Chinese Navy circumnavigation of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic. In 2012, the PLA Navy received the first aircraft carrier, which marked a new stage of development. All this demonstrates the increasing role of the fleet in ensuring the security of the country. In addition, the Chinese fleet is increasingly becoming an instrument of political influence and a weighty argument in numerous territorial disputes with its neighbors.
Surface fleet. Destroyers, frigates and corvettes
In 70-90, the construction of destroyers of the LYUD type 051 ave. Was carried out in the People's Republic of China. These were the Soviet 41 ave. Processed in the People's Republic of China. Unlike the USSR, where only one ship was built for this not very successful project, the PRC shipyards handed over the destroyers 17 to the Chinese fleet. The last of the ships, completed under the project 051G, entered the Southern Fleet in 1993 year. If you believe the directories, then most of the Chinese destroyers of this project are still formally part of the fleet.
EM pr 051
The main attack weapon of EM Ave 051 was the anti-ship complex HY-2 (C-201) with a launch range in a modernized version up to 100 km. The HY-2 rocket was created on the basis of the Soviet anti-ship missile missile system P-15 and is now considered obsolete due to the need for refueling with liquid fuel and an aggressive oxidizer, subsonic flight speed and low noise immunity.
Starting RCC HY-2
Apparently, the CRP of this type will be dismissed along with the carriers that have not been upgraded by the EM 051 pr over the next few years.
Start RCC YJ-83
By the beginning of the 2000-x part of the ships of this project have been upgraded by the project 051G. Previously installed 2x3 PU HG-2 RCC were replaced with more modern - 4x4 PU RCC YJ-83 (C-803) with a launch range of 160 km. This is a fairly modern rocket with an active radar homing and turbojet engine accelerates at the final stage of flight to supersonic speed.
In the 1994 and 1996 years, two destroyers of the 052 Ave (Lühu type) entered the Chinese fleet. Compared to the EM Ave 051, they were larger, better armed and had a greater cruising range and seaworthiness. The ships were intended for striking anti-ship missiles at enemy surface ships, anti-submarine defense, as well as for fire support of the landing force and the shelling of coastal targets. For self-defense, they have a HQ-7 near-field air defense missile system, created on the basis of the French anti-aircraft system Crotale. The main means of combating surface targets is the anti-ship complex YJ-83 with sixteen anti-ship missiles.
EM Ave 052
The design of these destroyers was conducted in the early to mid-80-x, in times of improving relations between China and Western countries. When creating destroyers, the Chinese relied on American, British and French technical assistance. However, after the events on Tiananmen Square and the ensuing Western embargo on the supply of weapons and dual-use technologies had to rely on themselves. This significantly increased the time of construction of ships and limited the series.
The first surface combat ships in the Chinese fleet, capable of delivering truly effective strikes on the AUG at a considerable distance from its shore, were the destroyers of 956E avenue, delivered from Russia, armed with the Mosquito supersonic anti-ship missiles. The first “Hangzhou” ship was handed over to China at the end of 270 of the year, and the second “Fuzhou” at the end of 1999 of the year. In 2000-2005, two more destroyers, Taizhou and Ningbo, built according to the improved design of 2006EM avenue, added to the PLA Navy combat composition. In total, these four destroyers capable of operating in the ocean zone carry the 956 RCC with a launch range of up to 32 km and a maximum speed of about 120M.
Chinese destroyers pr. 956E and 956EM
The incident 956 erected from Russia by the destroyers pr. 1 was connected to 2001 on April 100 in 3 km from the Chinese island of Hainan. EP-8E Airis II, an electronic reconnaissance aircraft that monitored these ships, collided with J-3II, a Chinese interceptor fighter, while attempting to drive them out of the exercise area. As a result of the collision, the Chinese plane fell into the sea, and its pilot was killed. The American "electronic spy" under the threat of weapons was planted at the Lingshui airfield on the Chinese island of Hainan. Subsequently, the American side apologized for the incident and paid monetary compensation to the widow of the deceased Chinese pilot. The Chinese were able to get acquainted in detail with the American intelligence and encryption equipment installed on EP-2001E Airyz II. Only in July, the X-NUMX of the year, EP-3E, in fact, in the form of scrap metal, was returned to the United States aboard the An-124-100 Russian Ruslan of the Polet airline.
In the Soviet and Russian fleets, the destroyers of the 956 Ave had the dubious fame of ships with very capricious, high literacy requirements for operation and maintenance, the main power plant. However, the experience of the use of these destroyers in the PLA Navy demonstrates that, with proper performance discipline, regular maintenance and repair, these are quite reliable and capable warships.
The further development of the Chinese fleet destroyers project 051В (like "Lühai"). Chinese shipbuilders while maintaining the functionality of the ship, by increasing the geometric dimensions of the hull tried to significantly increase the cruising range and autonomy.
Destroyer "Shenzhen" project 051В
The experience was not very successful, only one ship was built - the “Shenzhen”, transferred to the PLA Navy in the 1999 year. However, this destroyer was actively involved in a number of long hikes. In 2000, he visited a number of ports in Africa, and in 2001, he visited ports in the UK, Germany, Italy and France. His main strike weapons, as well as on EM Ave 051G, are YN-16 83 PKR on 4x4 PU.
In the 2007 year, two destroyers of the 051S Ave: "Shenyang" and "Shijiazhuang" set foot on the Chinese Navy. While preserving the architectural and structural features of the 051 project, the main emphasis in the creation of these ships was placed on strengthening their anti-aircraft systems. The main purpose of destroyers pr. 051С is to provide air defense of operational connections of surface ships.
Destroyer Ave 051C
A special feature of the destroyers pr. 051С is the presence of launchers ZRS C-300F ("Rif-M") of Russian production. There are a total of six launchers with 48 ready to launch missiles with a range of 90 kilometers and altitudes of 30 km.
The 052 project served as the basis for a number of ships that were more advanced in terms of equipment, armament and seaworthy qualities. Destroyers of projects 052В and 052С became much larger than their “ancestor”. The main difference between the 052В and others. 052С was the functional purpose of the ships that have much in common in terms of hull and power base.
The destroyers of 052B ave. (Of the “Guangzhou” type) carry 16 anti-ship missiles YJ-83, the ship’s air defense system is provided with two Shtil anti-aircraft missile systems with a range of aerial targets down to 50 km. The lead ship "Guangzhou" and, followed by the "Wuhan", entered service in 2004 year.
EM pr 052C
The destroyers of the 052S Ave. are ships designed to provide group air defense for a squadron of surface ships. Under this project, two destroyers were built, which entered service in 2004-2005. They are armed with a Chinese-made HQ-9 air defense system, which is based on the Russian C-300F. The number of PU YCR-YN-62 (C-602) on board was reduced to eight. However, the YJ-62 has a significantly larger hit area (83 versus 400) compared to the anti-ship missile defense, but the YJ-160 has a subsonic flight speed, which significantly increases its vulnerability to air defenses.
Start RCC YJ-62
The rocket entered service with the PLA Navy in 2004. During its creation, technical solutions of the Soviet KR X-55 were used, rocket samples and technical documentation were obtained from Ukraine.
The top of the evolution of Chinese destroyers today is the Ijis-like Ave 052D, it has a new multi-function radar with an active phased antenna array, as well as a modern integrated weapons control system.
EM pr 052D
Due to the increase in length and width, the 64 module of the vertical start PU module (two UVN by 32 cells) with the HQ-9А missile defense system, increased range firing range missiles and CR for hitting targets on land are placed on board. Thus, as part of the Chinese fleet in the near future there will be universal ships capable of performing a wide range of tasks, including striking cruise missiles at coastal targets.
Frigates are the most numerous class of large warships in the PLA Navy. Along with destroyers, they are capable of solving the tasks of anti-submarine defense, fighting surface ships, destroying airborne targets in the near-air defense zone of ship groups, and protecting the economic zone of the PRC. The share of frigates of the Chinese fleet accounts for about 18% of the total number of anti-ship missiles deployed on combat ships of the Chinese Navy.
In the period from 1986 to 1993, frigates of the 50 Avex (like "Jianghu") were built on the basis of the Soviet TFR of the 053 Ave. Their main purpose was the fight against surface ships in the coastal zone of China. To do this, the frigates had two twin PU KKR HY-2.
Between themselves, the frigates of various series of the 053 Ave. differed in the composition of the onboard equipment, communications and navigation equipment, as well as in various variants of artillery weapons. Part of the frigates in the first half of the 2000-x was re-equipped with anti-ship missiles YJ-83 4х2 PU.
Frigate Ave 053
The frigates of the first modifications of the 53 Ave. are now considered obsolete, they are rightly criticized for the ineffective anti-ship missiles, the lack of air defense missile systems and the site for the helicopter. Partially, these shortcomings are eliminated in the modernized URO frigate of the project 053Н2 (Jianghu-3). The structural and architectural view of the ship was modified and outwardly it began to resemble the next generation frigates. Under this project, seven frigates were built.
Frigate pr. 053H2G
In the 1990-1994 a series of four frigates of the 053H2G Ave. was built. The armament of ships of this type includes the 3x2 PU CK YJ-82 (C-802) and the air defense system of the near zone HQ-61, in the rear part there is a platform for an anti-submarine helicopter.
Frigate pr. 053H3
From 1995 to 2005, the 10 frigates of the 053H3 Ave. (Jiangwei-2 type) were built. These ships are armed with a HQ-7 air defense system with 8 missiles and 2 PU on 4 anti-ship missiles YJ-83.
Since 2002, the shipyards of the China State Shipbuilding Corporation have been building frigates of the URO Ave. 054. This project is designed to replace obsolete frigates of the 053H Ave. A number of technical solutions, typical for modern ships of this class, have been introduced in the 054 avenue ships. They have used technologies to reduce radar and thermal conspicuity, and vertical launchers have been installed.
Launch of the HQ-16 SAM from the Chinese frigate 054A
As of the middle of 2013, the shipbuilding enterprises located in the cities of Shanghai and Guangzhou transferred the 2 frigate 054 Ave. and 15 frigate 054A Ave to the Chinese fleet. On frigates built according to the improved 054A project, the outdated HQ-7 SAMs were replaced by the HQ-16 SAMs (32 SAM, 2х16 VPU), which is an analogue of the Russian Shtil-1 complex. The frigate has a helipad and a hangar. The main anti-ship weapon are the 8 YK-83 anti-ship missiles in two four PU launchers.
In February, the first 2013 corvette, the 056 Ave, entered service. The project of this ship was developed on the basis of the Pattani-type export corvette for the Thai Navy. The need for a coastal sailing patrol ship with powerful strike weapons and good crew living conditions, with a displacement within 1300-1500 tons, was already ripe in the 80s.
Corvette Ave 056
The corvette hull is made using elements that provide reduced radar visibility. The ships of the 056 Ave. are the first modular warships developed in the PRC. This allows, if necessary, it is quite easy to change the composition of equipment and weapons, without making changes to the main design of the corvette. Selection of modules allows you to create different options on the basis of one case. The following versions of the corvette were developed and offered to potential buyers: patrol, anti-submarine, strike, with enhanced air defense systems, staff and multi-purpose.
In addition to the torpedo and artillery weapons, the typical composition of the multi-purpose weaponry includes a new Chinese HQQ-10 near-field air defense system with a launch range of 9000 and 2х2 YU-83 PU. For the next decade in the People's Republic of China, to protect the coast and protect the economic zone, more than 50 “stealth corvettes” of the 056 ave in various configurations are planned.
PLA Navy submarine forces are among the largest in the world (the first in the number of diesel-electric submarines) and are third after the United States and Russia. Currently, the Chinese Navy has about 70 submarines in service. Chinese submarines carry about 15% of the NKF PKR Navy, approximately 80% of torpedoes and 31% of mine weapons.
Initially, 60-x, despite the deterioration in relations in the PRC, began, the documentation of the diesel-electric submarines of the project 633 was transferred. The construction of these boats on pr. 033 was conducted in the PRC until the 1983 year. A total of 84 boats of this type were built, some of them were exported. Currently the boats of the 633 Ave are outdated. During the construction and operation of diesel-electric submarines, the 033 Ave was repeatedly upgraded. They installed high-capacity batteries, French sonar systems and modern electronic equipment. But the composition of the main equipment and weapons has not changed much. Almost all the submarines of this type are withdrawn from the operational composition of the PLA Navy, a number of them can be used for training purposes.
DEPL pr 035
On the basis of the diesel-electric submarines of the 033 Ave. From the previous project, "Min" differs in another design of the hull and power plant. A total of 035 to 1975 years was built 2000 DEPL Ave 25. Currently, the number of boats of this project as part of the Chinese fleet is estimated at 035 units. The upgraded boats were referred to as pr. 20G and 035В. They are equipped with French passive gas and an improved fire control system. Against modern warships, boats of the 035 Ave. are limited in operation in coastal areas; they can also be involved in secretive mine settings. Part of the boat is used as a training and experimental for testing new weapons.
The latest achievement of the Chinese engineers in the field of diesel-electric submarines became the diesel-electric submarines of 039 ave. (Of the “Sung” type). This boat was created taking into account its own and partly Soviet experience, elements of the architecture of the French submarine of the Agosta type were also used.
DEPL pr 039
When creating this Chinese project, particular attention was paid to reducing the level of acoustic signature and improving the impact characteristics. The hull of the Chinese diesel-electric submarines is covered with a special anti-acoustic tiled coating, like on Russian boats of the 877 avenue.
The creation and fine-tuning of the boat went hard. Due to serious errors in the calculations and the novelty of many technical solutions, the noise and some other characteristics of the first boat did not match the planned ones. Great complaints were caused by the work of the BIUS and GAS equipment.
The first boat of the 039 Ave., launched in May 1994 of the year, was tested, refined and corrected for 5 years. The PRC leadership decided not to build boats of this type until the head submarine reaches a satisfactory level of combat and operational characteristics. Only after the completion of the project, which received the designation Ave. 039G, was a series of 15 boats, the last of which was commissioned in the 2007 year.
In general, the diesel-electric submarines of the 039G pr. Correspond to the level of the French and German boats of the mid 80-s. In addition to different types of torpedoes from standard 533 mm torpedo tubes, it is possible to launch underwater anti-ship missiles YJ-82 with a range of 120 km. This Chinese RCC is similar in its characteristics to Harpoon's UGM-84 Harpoon early modifications.
The commencement of serial construction and the adoption by the People’s Republic of China of the “Sun” type boats forced the American admirals to reconsider their views on the capabilities of the shipbuilding industry of the People’s Republic of China to create modern submarines and on the degree of “Chinese underwater threat”. The incident that happened on 26 in October on 2006 of the year confirmed that Americans ’concerns about the increased capabilities of the PRC submarine fleet are well founded. Then the Chinese submarine, 039G Ave., unnoticed, managed to approach the torpedo volley at a distance from the American aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk, which was at that moment in the international waters of the South China Sea. After that, the boat pointedly surfaced near the American squadron. The Chinese submarine was not detected by the AUG anti-submarine forces until its ascent.
The moral and physical obsolescence of the 033 and 035 boats, as well as the uncertainty with the new boat of its own design, forced the Chinese leadership to begin purchasing diesel-electric submarines in Russia. The first two boats of the ave. 877 EKM arrived in 1995 year. In the 1996 and 1999 years, two more boats of the 636 Ave. The difference between diesel-electric submarines of the 636 project and 877 EKM project is the application of new noise reduction technologies and modern on-board equipment.
Loading torpedoes 53-65КE on diesel-electric submarines pr.NUMXEKM Navy PLA
At the beginning of 2000-x, another eight boats of the 636М avenue were announced in Russia, which were “sharpened” under the 3M54Е1 Club-S anti-ship missiles, launched submerged from the depth of 30-40 m. Club-S missile with a range to 300 km represent the export version of the Russian missile complex "Caliber-PL". The missile is equipped with an active, interference-free radar GPS, which seizes a target at a distance of about 60 km. Most of its way to the goal, it passes at an altitude of 15-20 m at cruising subsonic speed. At a distance of about 20 km from the target, the rocket starts accelerating to a speed of about 3M, while it performs a zigzag anti-yen maneuver. In the event of an attack of large surface targets, a salvo launch of several anti-ship missiles is possible, which will attack the target from different directions.
In 2004, China began testing submarine pr 041 (type "Yuan"). "Chinese comrades" tried to embody the best qualities of the Russian 636M project in this project, taking into account their own capabilities. Initially it was planned to equip the boat with an auxiliary air-independent power plant. The composition of the ammunition "Yuan" includes anti-ship missiles YJ-82 or CX-1, launched through torpedo tubes.
DEPL pr 041
Apparently, it was not possible to surpass the Russian boats of the 636 Ave. Chinese submarine Ave 041. Anyway, so far nothing has been heard about the massive construction of these boats for the PLA Navy. At the same time, the pr. 041 is actively offered for export.
In 1967, the first Chinese torpedo submarine of the 091 avenue (Han type) was laid in the People's Republic of China, and it was formally put into operation in the 1974 year. But the elimination of numerous defects, including in the nuclear power plant, took another 6 years, and the boat began to perform combat service only in the 1980 year.
APL Ave 091
Just before 1991, the Chinese fleet received five submarines of this type. Despite the modernization of a number of units, on-board equipment and weapons, boats of this type by the beginning of the XXI century are hopelessly outdated. The introduction of the most recent atomic-powered anti-ship missiles YJ-8Q into the armament did not greatly enhance their ability to fight enemy surface ships. Since the launch of missiles is possible only in the surface position, and in terms of the noise level of the submarines of the 091, the 2,5-2,8 are inferior times in foreign boats of a similar class. Several Han-type submarines are still in the Navy, but their time has gone and these first boats with nuclear reactors, which have become a “classroom” for several generations of Chinese submariners, will soon be a thing of the past.
At the beginning of 2007, the main multi-purpose submarine of the 093 avenue (Shan type) entered into service. It was designed to replace the obsolete NPS Ave 091. According to its main characteristics, this Chinese boat roughly corresponds to the Soviet multi-purpose nuclear-powered ships of the project 671РТМ. As of the beginning of 2014, the PRC Navy had two submarines of the 093 Ave., the arrival of two more built on an improved project is expected in the near future.
APL Ave 093
Submarines Ave 093 have the ability to run through the torpedo tubes anti-ship cruise missiles YJ-82, while in a submerged position. There is also information that these submarines use new YJ-85 (C-705) with a launch range of up to 140 km. On the YJ-85 RCC, depending on the modification, active radar or infrared seers are used. Correction of the course on the cruise flight occurs on the signals of the satellite positioning system.
According to the ten-year program, it is expected that in the coming 10 years more 6 Shan-type boats will be built. In addition, in China, the design of new-generation submarines is underway, which, by their characteristics, should come close to the Russian and American nuclear submarines.